A Companion to Public History

A Companion to Public History

An authoritative overview of the developing field of public history reflecting theory and practice around the globe This unique reference guides readers through this relatively new field of historical inquiry, exploring the varieties and ...

Author: David M. Dean

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118508947

Category: History

Page: 576

View: 976

An authoritative overview of the developing field of public history reflecting theory and practice around the globe This unique reference guides readers through this relatively new field of historical inquiry, exploring the varieties and forms of public history, its relationship with popular history, and the ways in which the field has evolved internationally over the past thirty years. Comprised of thirty-four essays written by a group of leading international scholars and public history practitioners, the work not only introduces readers to the latest scholarly academic research, but also to the practice and pedagogy of public history. It pays equal attention to the emergence of public history as a distinct field of historical inquiry in North America, the importance of popular history and ‘history from below’ in Europe and European colonial-settler states, and forms of historical consciousness in non-Western countries and peoples. It also provides a timely guide to the state of the discipline, and offers an innovative and unprecedented engagement with methodological and theoretical problems associated with public history. Generously illustrated throughout, The Companion to Public History’s chapters are written from a variety of perspectives by contributors from all continents and from a wide variety of backgrounds, disciplines, and experiences. It is an excellent source for getting readers to think about history in the public realm, and how present day concerns shape the ways in which we engage with and represent the past. Cutting-edge companion volume for a developing area of study Comprises 36 essays by leading authorities on all aspects of public history around the world Reflects different national/regional interpretations of public history Offers some essays in teachable forms: an interview, a roundtable discussion, a document analysis, a photo essay. Covers a full range of public history practice, including museums, archives, memorial sites as well as historical fiction, theatre, re-enactment societies and digital gaming Discusses the continuing challenges presented by history within our broad, collective memory, including museum controversies, repatriation issues, ‘textbook’ wars, and commissions for Truth and Reconciliation The Companion is intended for senior undergraduate students and graduate students in the rapidly growing field of public history and will appeal to those teaching public history or who wish to introduce a public history dimension to their courses.
Categories: History

Public History

Public History

The Power of Place: Urban Landscapes as PublicHistory, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1995. Heffern, Sarah. “A Who's Who of Preservation Organizations.

Author: Thomas Cauvin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317512431

Category: History

Page: 282

View: 209

Public History: A Textbook of Practice is a guide to the many challenges historians face while teaching, learning, and practicing public history. Historians can play a dynamic and essential role in contributing to public understanding of the past, and those who work in historic preservation, in museums and archives, in government agencies, as consultants, as oral historians, or who manage crowdsourcing projects need very specific skills. This book links theory and practice and provides students and practitioners with the tools to do public history in a wide range of settings. The text engages throughout with key issues such as public participation, digital tools and media, and the internationalization of public history. Part One focuses on public history sources, and offers an overview of the creation, collection, management, and preservation of public history materials (archives, material culture, oral materials, or digital sources). Chapters cover sites and institutions such as archival repositories and museums, historic buildings and structures, and different practices such as collection management, preservation (archives, objects, sounds, moving images, buildings, sites, and landscape), oral history, and genealogy. Part Two deals with the different ways in which public historians can produce historical narratives through different media (including exhibitions, film, writing, and digital tools). The last part explores the challenges and ethical issues that public historians will encounter when working with different communities and institutions. Either in public history methods courses or as a resource for practicing public historians, this book lays the groundwork for making meaningful connections between historical sources and popular audiences.
Categories: History

A Companion to World History

A Companion to World History

How could I rethink a meeting between public history and world history that would not replicate this problem? This chapter is an attempt to set up such a ...

Author: Douglas Northrop

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118977514

Category: History

Page: 640

View: 668

A Companion to World History presents over 30 essays from an international group of historians that both identify continuing areas of contention, disagreement, and divergence in world and global history, and point to directions for further debate. Features a diverse cast of contributors that include established world historians and emerging scholars Explores a wide range of topics and themes, including and the practice of world history, key ideas of world historians, the teaching of world history and how it has drawn upon and challenged "traditional" teaching approaches, and global approaches to writing world history Places an emphasis on non-Anglophone approaches to the topic Considers issues of both scholarship and pedagogy on a transnational, interregional, and world/global scale
Categories: History

Writing History

Writing History

Broad in scope, Writing History! also addresses historians' traditional support of policy makers and their activity in fields of public history, such as museums, the media, and the leisure sector, and offers support for developing the ...

Author: Jeannette Kamp

Publisher: Amsterdam University Press

ISBN: 9789048537624

Category: Education

Page: 184

View: 136

Historians not only have knowledge of history, but by writing about it and engaging with other historians from the past and present, they make history themselves. This companion offers young historians clear guidelines for the different phases of historical research; how do you get a good historical question? How do you engage with the literature? How do you work with sources from the past, from archives to imagery and objects, art, or landscapes? What is the influence of digitalisation of the historical craft? Broad in scope, Writing History! also addresses historians' traditional support of policy makers and their activity in fields of public history, such as museums, the media, and the leisure sector, and offers support for developing the necessary skills for this wide range of professions.
Categories: Education

Art and Public History

Art and Public History

In Challenging History in the Museum: International Perspectives, edited by Jenny ... In Routledge Companion to Museum Ethics: Redefining Ethics for the ...

Author: Rebecca Bush

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442268456

Category: Art

Page: 240

View: 277

Art and Public History: Approaches, Opportunities, and Challenges provides public history practitioners and academics with useful guidance on how art can be integrated into public history initiatives, through critical discussion of tools, strategies, and technologies that contribute to collaboration and engagement across a variety of platforms.
Categories: Art

A Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945

A Companion to Contemporary Art Since 1945

This ambitious reference work charts the major works and movements, the most important theoretical developments, and the historical, social, political, and aesthetic issues in contemporary art since 1945, primarily in the Euro-American ...

Author: Amelia Jones

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405152354

Category: Art

Page: 648

View: 388

A Companion to Contemporary Art is a major survey covering the major works and movements, the most important theoretical developments, and the historical, social, political, and aesthetic issues in contemporary art since 1945, primarily in the Euro-American context. Collects 27 original essays by expert scholars describing the current state of scholarship in art history and visual studies, and pointing to future directions in the field. Contains dual chronological and thematic coverage of the major themes in the art of our time: politics, culture wars, public space, diaspora, the artist, identity politics, the body, and visual culture. Offers synthetic analysis, as well as new approaches to, debates central to the visual arts since 1945 such as those addressing formalism, the avant-garde, the role of the artist, technology and art, and the society of the spectacle.
Categories: Art

A Companion to American Women s History

A Companion to American Women s History

The most important collection of essays on American Women's History This collection incorporates the most influential and groundbreaking scholarship in the area of American women's history, featuring twenty-three original essays on critical ...

Author: Nancy A. Hewitt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119522638

Category: History

Page: 432

View: 575

The most important collection of essays on American Women’s History This collection incorporates the most influential and groundbreaking scholarship in the area of American women’s history, featuring twenty-three original essays on critical themes and topics. It assesses the past thirty years of scholarship, capturing the ways that women's historians confront issues of race, class, gender, and sexuality. This second edition updates essays related to Indigenous women, slavery, the American Revolution, Civil War, the West, activism, labor, popular culture, civil rights, and feminism. It also includes a discussion of laws, capitalism, gender identity and transgender experience, welfare, reproductive politics, oral history, as well as an exploration of the perspectives of free Blacks and migrants and refugees. Spanning from the 15th through the 21st centuries, chapters show how historians of women, gender, and sexuality have challenged established chronologies and advanced new understandings of America’s political, economic, intellectual and social history. This edition also features a new essay on the history of women’s suffrage to coincide with the 100th anniversary of passage of the 19th Amendment, as well as a new article that carries issues of women, gender and sexuality into the 21st century. Includes twenty-three original essays by leading scholars in American women's, gender and sexuality history Highlights the most recent scholarship on the key debates and future directions of this popular and contemporary field Substantially updates the first edition with new authors and topics that represent the expanding fields of women, gender, and sexuality Engages issues of race, ethnicity, region, and class as they shape and are shaped by women’s and gender history Covers the breadth of American Women's history, including Native women, colonial law and religion, slavery and freedom, women’s activism, work and welfare, culture and capitalism, the state, feminism, digital and oral history, and more A Companion to American Women’s History, Second Edition is an ideal book for advanced undergraduates and graduate students studying American/U.S. women’s history, history of gender and sexuality, and African American women’s history. It will also appeal to scholars of these areas at all levels, as well as public historians working in museums, archives, and historic sites.
Categories: History

A Companion to Mediterranean History

A Companion to Mediterranean History

In summarising the latest scholarship and reappraising key concepts, contributors to this volume enable fruitful interdisciplinary dialogue on subjects ranging from climate and cartography to material culture and heritage politics.

Author: Peregrine Horden

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470659017

Category: History

Page: 498

View: 380

A Companion to Mediterranean History presents a wide–ranging overview of this vibrant field of historical research, drawing together scholars from a range of disciplines to discuss the development of the region from Neolithic times to the present. Provides a valuable introduction to current debates on Mediterranean history and helps define the field for a new generation Covers developments in the Mediterranean world from Neolithic times to the modern era Enables fruitful dialogue among a wide range of disciplines, including history, archaeology, art, literature, and anthropology
Categories: History

The Oxford Handbook of Public History

The Oxford Handbook of Public History

A total of 65.5 percent in public history compared to 12.3 percent ... Graeme Davison, “Public History,” in Oxford Companion to Australian History, ed.

Author: James B. Gardner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190673789

Category: History

Page: 640

View: 669

The Oxford Handbook of Public History introduces the major debates within public history; the methods and sources that comprise a public historian's tool kit; and exemplary examples of practice. It views public history as a dynamic process combining historical research and a wide range of work with and for the public, informed by a conceptual context. The editors acknowledge the imprecision bedeviling attempts to define public history, and use this book as an opportunity to shape the field by taking a deliberately broad view. They include professional historians who work outside the academy in a range of institutions and sites, and those who are politically committed to communicating history to the wide range of audiences. This volume provides the information and inspiration needed by a practitioner to succeed in the wide range of workplaces that characterizes public history today, for university teachers of public history to assist their students, and for working public historians to keep up to date with recent research. This handbook locates public history as a professional practice within an intellectual framework that is increasingly transnational, technological, and democratic. While the nation state remains the primary means of identification, increased mobility and the digital revolution have occasioned a much broader outlook and awareness of the world beyond national borders. It addresses squarely the tech-savvy, media-literate citizens of the world, the"digital natives" of the twenty-first century, in a way that recognizes the revolution in shared authority that has swept museum work, oral history, and much of public history practice. This volume also provides both currently practicing historians and those entering the field a map for understanding the historical landscape of the future: not just to the historiographical debates of the academy but also the boom in commemoration and history outside the academy evident in many countries since the 1990s, which now constitutes the historical culture in each country. Public historians need to understand both contexts, and to negotiate their implications for questions of historical authority and the public historian's work. The boom in popular history is characterized by a significant increase in both making and consuming history in a range of historical activities such as genealogy, family history, and popular collecting; cultural tourism, historic sites, and memorial museums; increased memorialization, both formal and informal, from roadside memorials to state funded shrines and memorial Internet sites; increased publication of historical novels, biographies, and movies and TV series set in the past. Much of this, as well as a vast array of new community cultural projects, has been facilitated by the digital technologies that have increased the accessibility of historical information, the democratization of practice, and the demand for sharing authority.
Categories: History

A Companion to Public Art

A Companion to Public Art

Authoritative and indispensible, this guide is essential reading for anyone involved in the teaching, creating, commissioning, and contemplating of public art.

Author: Cher Krause Knight

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118475355

Category: Art

Page: 512

View: 246

A Companion to Public Art is the only scholarly volume to examine the main issues, theories, and practices of public art on a comprehensive scale. Edited by two distinguished scholars with contributions from art historians, critics, curators, and art administrators, as well as artists themselves Includes 19 essays in four sections: tradition, site, audience, and critical frameworks Covers important topics in the field, including valorizing victims, public art in urban landscapes and on university campuses, the role of digital technologies, jury selection committees, and the intersection of public art and mass media Contains “artist’s philosophy” essays, which address larger questions about an artist’s body of work and the field of public art, by Julian Bonder, eteam (Hajoe Moderegger and Franziska Lamprecht), John Craig Freeman, Antony Gormley, Suzanne Lacy, Caleb Neelon, Tatzu Nishi, Greg Sholette, and Alan Sonfist.
Categories: Art

The Routledge Companion to Animal Human History

The Routledge Companion to Animal Human History

The Routledge Companion to Animal-Human History provides an up-to-date guide for the historian working within the growing field of animal-human history.

Author: Hilda Kean

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429889240

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 356

The Routledge Companion to Animal-Human History provides an up-to-date guide for the historian working within the growing field of animal-human history. Giving a sense of the diversity and interdisciplinary nature of the field, cutting-edge contributions explore the practices of and challenges posed by historical studies of animals and animal-human relationships. Divided into three parts, the Companion takes both a theoretical and practical approach to a field that is emerging as a prominent area of study. Animals and the Practice of History considers established practices of history, such as political history, public history and cultural memory, and how animal-human history can contribute to them. Problems and Paradigms identifies key historiographical issues to the field with contributors considering the challenges posed by topics such as agency, literature, art and emotional attachment. The final section, Themes and Provocations, looks at larger themes within the history of animal-human relationships in more depth, with contributions covering topics that include breeding, war, hunting and eating. As it is increasingly recognised that nonhuman actors have contributed to the making of history, The Routledge Companion to Animal-Human History provides a timely and important contribution to the scholarship on animal-human history and surrounding debates.
Categories: History

A Companion to American Women s History

A Companion to American Women s History

The history of woman suffrage, for example, now extends from the start of the ... through digital projects, public history efforts, and historic sites.

Author: Anne M. Valk

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119522621

Category: History

Page: 544

View: 109

The most important collection of essays on American Women's History This collection incorporates the most influential and groundbreaking scholarship in the area of American women's history, featuring twenty-three original essays on critical themes and topics. It assesses the past thirty years of scholarship, capturing the ways that women's historians confront issues of race, class, gender, and sexuality. This second edition updates essays related to Indigenous women, slavery, the American Revolution, Civil War, the West, activism, labor, popular culture, civil rights, and feminism. It also includes a discussion of laws, capitalism, gender identity and transgender experience, welfare, reproductive politics, oral history, as well as an exploration of the perspectives of free Blacks and migrants and refugees. Spanning from the 15th through the 21st centuries, chapters show how historians of women, gender, and sexuality have challenged established chronologies and advanced new understandings of America's political, economic, intellectual and social history. This edition also features a new essay on the history of women's suffrage to coincide with the 100th anniversary of passage of the 19th Amendment, as well as a new article that carries issues of women, gender and sexuality into the 21st century. Includes twenty-three original essays by leading scholars in American women's, gender and sexuality history Highlights the most recent scholarship on the key debates and future directions of this popular and contemporary field Substantially updates the first edition with new authors and topics that represent the expanding fields of women, gender, and sexuality Engages issues of race, ethnicity, region, and class as they shape and are shaped by women's and gender history Covers the breadth of American Women's history, including Native women, colonial law and religion, slavery and freedom, women's activism, work and welfare, culture and capitalism, the state, feminism, digital and oral history, and more A Companion to American Women's History, Second Edition is an ideal book for advanced undergraduates and graduate students studying American/U.S. women's history, history of gender and sexuality, and African American women's history. It will also appeal to scholars of these areas at all levels, as well as public historians working in museums, archives, and historic sites.
Categories: History

Public History Readings

Public History Readings

This book of readings constitutes the application of the ideas set forth in a companion volume entitled Public and Academic History : A Philosophy and ...

Author: Phyllis K. Leffler

Publisher: Krieger Publishing Company

ISBN: UOM:39015029290114

Category: History

Page: 535

View: 703

The purpose of this title is to show how the model and method discussed in Public and Academic History may be put into practice. Through an anthology of readings with explanatory headnotes, the authors illustrate how a trained awareness of history as a discipline and a practiced focus on the processes of history provide the means for understanding the necessary and reciprocal relationships between "academic" and "public" history. Following each group of readings are applications or suggestions for projects which embody the sense of the readings.
Categories: History

A Companion to Global Historical Thought

A Companion to Global Historical Thought

Complementing A Companion to Western Historical Thought, this book places non-Western perspectives on historiography at the center of discussion, helping scholars and students alike make sense of the discipline at the start of the twenty ...

Author: Prasenjit Duara

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470658994

Category: History

Page: 536

View: 419

A COMPANION TO GLOBAL HISTORICAL THOUGHT A Companion to Global Historical Thought Edited by Prasenjit Duara, Viren Murthy, and Andrew Sartori A Companion to Global Historical Thought provides an overview of the development of historical thinking from the earliest times to the present, directly addressing issues of historiography in a globalized context. Questions concerning the global dissemination of historical writing and the relationship between historiography and other ways of representing the past have become important not only in the academic study of history, but also in public arenas in many countries. With contributions from leading international scholars, the book considers the problem of “the global” — in the multiplicity of traditions of narrating the past; in the global dissemination of modern historical writing; and of “the global” as a concept animating historical imaginations. It explores the different intellectual approaches that have shaped the discipline of history, and the challenges posed by modernity and globalization, while illustrating the shifts in thinking about time and the emergence of historical thought. Complementing A Companion to Western Historical Thought, this book places non-Western perspectives on historiography at the center of discussion, helping scholars and students alike make sense of the discipline at the start of the twenty-first century.
Categories: History

A Companion to Dwight D Eisenhower

A Companion to Dwight D  Eisenhower

... Birth of Public History in the Army,” The Public Historian 15:26–46. Porch, D. (2004). The Path to Victory: The Mediterranean Theater in World War II.

Author: Chester J. Pach

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119027676

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 969

A Companion to Dwight D. Eisenhower brings new depth to the historiography of this significant and complex figure, providing a comprehensive and up-to-date depiction of both the man and era. Thoughtfully incorporates new and significant literature on Dwight D. Eisenhower Thoroughly examines both the Eisenhower era and the man himself, broadening the historical scope by which Eisenhower is understood and interpreted Presents a complete picture of Eisenhower’s many roles in historical context: the individual, general, president, politician, and citizen This Companion is the ideal starting point for anyone researching America during the Eisenhower years and an invaluable guide for graduate students and advanced undergraduates in history, political science, and policy studies Meticulously edited by a leading authority on the Eisenhower presidency with chapters by international experts on political, international, social, and cultural history
Categories: History

A Companion to American Agricultural History

A Companion to American Agricultural History

The contributors to this book constitute a gathering of younger and established scholars who have written accessible, state-of-the-field essays on a multiplicity of topics to provide readers with an introduction to their subject.

Author: R. Douglas Hurt

Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

ISBN: 1119632226

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 289

The contributors to this book constitute a gathering of younger and established scholars who have written accessible, state-of-the-field essays on a multiplicity of topics to provide readers with an introduction to their subject. Each essay offers readers a place to begin their own pursuit of American agricultural history whether in general or regarding the subject under consideration. This collection of thirty-one original essays and an extensive bibliography will enable readers to gain an understanding of American agricultural history across region and time as well as focus on specific subjects, themes, and issues. The contents of these essays begin at 8,000 BCE and range to the third decade of the twenty-first century. Specifically, they provide a narrative summary and a critical examination of the historical works upon which the authors have based their assessments. The essays offer a comprehensive overview of critical areas in American agricultural history. As such, they will prove useful for introductory students, experienced scholars, and general readers as well as teachers, journalists, public officials, and policy makers who want a brief survey of specific topics in field-defining essays in American agricultural history. This book will provide a succinct and solid foundation for understanding American agricultural history and offer new insights and fresh, innovative directions and ideas for further research. It is a superb reference for the topics discussed. Moreover, this collection provides an assessment of nearly a century of scholarship written by historians, political scientists, economists, geographers, anthropologists, sociologists, and environmentalists, among others to constitute a book of essays that is foundational to the study of American agricultural history. This book will enable all readers to understand the integral importance of our agricultural past to the American experience.
Categories: History

A Companion to Popular Culture

A Companion to Popular Culture

Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 2009. [Orig. New York: The New P, 2006]. Hoskins, Janet.

Author: Gary Burns

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118883358

Category: Social Science

Page: 608

View: 943

A Companion to Popular Culture is a landmark survey of contemporary research in popular culture studies that offers a comprehensive and engaging introduction to the field. Includes over two dozen essays covering the spectrum of popular culture studies from food to folklore and from TV to technology Features contributions from established and up-and-coming scholars from a range of disciplines Offers a detailed history of the study of popular culture Balances new perspectives on the politics of culture with in-depth analysis of topics at the forefront of popular culture studies
Categories: Social Science

A Companion to Hong Kong Cinema

A Companion to Hong Kong Cinema

If Ordinary Heroes (1999) still betrays a nostalgic and theatrical orientation in her interrogation of public history and private memory, The Way We Are ...

Author: Esther M. K. Cheung

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118883518

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 640

View: 326

A Companion to Hong Kong Cinema provides the firstcomprehensive scholarly exploration of this unique global cinema.By embracing the interdisciplinary approach of contemporary filmand cultural studies, this collection navigates theoretical debateswhile charting a new course for future research in Hong Kongfilm. Examines Hong Kong cinema within an interdisciplinary context,drawing connections between media, gender, and Asian studies,Asian regional studies, Chinese language and cultural studies,global studies, and critical theory Highlights the often contentious debates that shape currentthinking about film as a medium and its possible future Investigates how changing research on gender, the body, andsexual orientation alter the ways in which we analyze sexualdifference in Hong Kong cinema Charts how developments in theories of colonialism,postcolonialism, globalization, neoliberalism, Orientalism,and nationalism transform our understanding of the economics andpolitics of the Hong Kong film industry Explores how the concepts of diaspora, nostalgia, exile, andtrauma offer opportunities to rethink accepted ways ofunderstanding Hong Kong’s popular cinematic genres andstars
Categories: Performing Arts

A Companion to Dada and Surrealism

A Companion to Dada and Surrealism

The final section deals with the critical and cultural aftermath of Dada and Surrealism in the later twentieth century. Re-defining the research field, this text provides an invaluable companion for both scholars and students.

Author: David Hopkins

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118476222

Category: Art

Page: 496

View: 106

This excellent overview of new research on Dada and Surrealism blends expert synthesis of the latest scholarship with completely new research, offering historical coverage as well as in-depth discussion of thematic areas ranging from criminality to gender. This book provides an excellent overview of new research on Dada and Surrealism from some of the finest established and up-and-coming scholars in the field Offers historical coverage as well as in–depth discussion of thematic areas ranging from criminality to gender One of the first studies to produce global coverage of the two movements, it also includes a section dealing with the critical and cultural aftermath of Dada and Surrealism in the later twentieth century Dada and Surrealism are arguably the most popular areas of modern art, both in the academic and public spheres
Categories: Art

The Routledge Companion to Public private Partnerships

The Routledge Companion to Public private Partnerships

This Companion title explores the highly controversial subject of Public-Private Partnerships; providing a comprehensive volume of information for those responsible for understanding, critiquing and advancing this model.

Author: Piet de Vries

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780415781992

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 496

View: 426

A public-private partnership (PPP) is a contractual arrangement with appropriate risk sharing between public and private partners for the delivery of public infrastructure or services, which is intended to create value-for-money to the taxpayer. The Routledge Companion to Public-Private Partnerships provides a cutting-edge survey of the field. PPPs remain a highly controversial subject matter globally and this comprehensive and authoritative volume provides a terrific compendium of information for students and scholars charged with understanding, critiquing and advancing this model. With sections devoted to legal aspects, institutional economics perspectives, finance and accountability - the editors draw together an impressive range of contributors from around the world.
Categories: Business & Economics