A KINETIC THEORY OF GASES AND LIQUIDS by RICHARD D. KLEEMAN. Originally published in 1920. PREFACE: THE object of writing this book is to formulate a Kinetic Theory of certain properties of matter, which shall apply equally well to matter in any state. The desirability of such a development need not be emphasized. The difficulty hitherto experienced in applying the results obtained in the case of the Kinetic Theory of Gases in the well-known form to liquids and intermediary states of matter has been pri marily due to the difficulty of properly interpretating molec ular interaction. In the case of gases this difficulty is in most part overcome by the introduction of the assumption that a molecule consists of a perfectly elastic sphere not surrounded by any field of force. But since such a state of affairs does not exist, the results obtained in the case of gases hold only in a general way, and the numerical constants involved are therefore of an indefinite nature, while in the case of dense gases and liquids this procedure does not lead to anything that is of use in explaining the facts. Instead of an atom, or molecule, consisting of a per fectly elastic sphere, it is more likely that each may be regarded simply as a center of forces of attraction and repulsion. If the exact nature of the field of force sur rounding atoms and molecules were known, it would be a definite mathematical problem to determine the resulting properties of matter. But our knowledge in this connection is at present not sufficiently extensive to permit a develop ment of the subject along these lines. But in whatever way the subject is developed fundamental progress will have been made only if molecular interaction is not, as is usually the case, represented by the collision of elastic spheres. It will be shown in this book that the subject may be developed to a considerable extent along sound mathe matical lines yielding important results without knowing the exact nature and immediate result of molecular interaction. Thus it will be found, for example, that the definition of the free path of a molecule in connection with viscosity, con duction of heat, diffusion, etc., may be given a form in each case not involving the exact nature of molecular interaction, which is mathematically quite definite, and which therefore applies equally well to the liquid and gaseous states. Since in the gaseous state each kind of path is proportional to the volume of the gas, its interest is then mainly associated with the characteristic factor of the volume which makes the product numerically equal to the path. A direct physical meaning may be given to this factor. In constructing a general Kinetic Theory the problem that presents itself first for investigation is the dependence of the velocity of translation of a molecule in a substance on its density and temperature. It is often assumed that this velocity is the same in the liquid as in the gaseous state at the same temperature. It can be shown, however, that this holds only for each molecule at the instant it passes through a point in the substance at which the forces of the surrounding molecules neutralize each other. The total average velocity corresponding to the whole path of a mole cule is usually much greater than the foregoing velocity in a liquid and dense gas on account of the effect of the molecular forces of attraction and repulsion...
Author: Anatoly I. BurshteinPublish On: 2008-07-11
Readable and accessible throughout, this book provides both thermodynamic and statistical points of view, covering thermodynamic potentials, such as entropy and free energy, whenever relevant.
Author: Anatoly I. Burshtein
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Imparts the similarities and differences between ratified and condensed matter, classical and quantum systems as well as real and ideal gases. Presents the quasi-thermodynamic theory of gas-liquid interface and its application for density profile calculation within the van der Waals theory of surface tension. Uses inductive logic to lead readers from observation and facts to personal interpretation and from specific conclusions to general ones.
But, how the kinetic theories have been developed during years? Which are the new kinetic theories and updates in recent years? This question and many others can be answered with this book.
Author: George Kyzas
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
The world is governed by motions. The term kinetics partially originated from the Greek word "kinisis," which means motion. How important is motion in our life is easily understood. But, how the kinetic theories have been developed during years? Which are the new kinetic theories and updates in recent years? This question and many others can be answered with this book. Some important areas discussed in this book are the kinetic theory of gases, kinetic theory of liquids and vapors, thermodynamic aspects, transportation phenomena, adsorption-kinetic theories, linear and nonlinear kinetic equations, quantum kinetic theory, kinetic theory of nucleation, plasma kinetic theory, and relativistic kinetic theory.
The text surveys the application of quantum theory to the problem of specific heats and the contributions of kinetic theory to knowledge of electrical and magnetic properties of molecules, concluding with applications of the kinetic theory ...
Author: Leonard B. Loeb
Publisher: Courier Corporation
A pioneering text in its field, this comprehensive study is one of the most valuable texts and references available. The author explores the classical kinetic theory in the first four chapters, with discussions of the mechanical picture of a perfect gas, the mean free path, and the distribution of molecular velocities. Tbhe fifth chapter deals with the more accurate equations of state, or Van der Waals' equation, and later chapters examine viscosity, heat conduction, surface phenomena, and Browninan movements. The text surveys the application of quantum theory to the problem of specific heats and the contributions of kinetic theory to knowledge of electrical and magnetic properties of molecules, concluding with applications of the kinetic theory to the conduction of electricity in gases. 1934 edition.
This monograph and text was designed for first-year students of physical chemistry who require further details of kinetic theory.
Author: Walter Kauzmann
Publisher: Courier Corporation
This monograph and text was designed for first-year students of physical chemistry who require further details of kinetic theory. The treatment focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. Includes numerous exercises, many partially worked out, and end-of-chapter problems. 1966 edition.
The final two chapters examine diffusion in gases and liquids, with emphasis on the methods used for estimating the coefficients of diffusion. This book will be of interest to chemists and students and research workers in chemistry.
Author: S. Bretsznajder
Prediction of Transport and Other Physical Properties of Fluids reviews general methods for predicting the transport and other physical properties of fluids such as gases and liquids. Topics covered range from the theory of corresponding states and methods for estimating the surface tension of liquids to some basic concepts of the kinetic theory of gases. Methods of estimating liquid viscosity based on the principle of additivity are also described. This volume is comprised of eight chapters and opens by presenting basic information on gases and liquids as well as intermolecular forces and constitutive and additive properties of chemical compounds. The reader is then introduced to practical methods for computing the values of physico-chemical quantities necessary for designing technological processe. Subsequent chapters focus on the surface tension of liquids and its dependence on molecular properties; the phenomenon of internal friction (viscosity) in fluids; graphical interpolation and extrapolation of liquid viscosity data; and the thermal conductivity of gases and liquids. The final two chapters examine diffusion in gases and liquids, with emphasis on the methods used for estimating the coefficients of diffusion. This book will be of interest to chemists and students and research workers in chemistry.
Present results supported the transition state theory for the condensation
coefficient of polyatomic gases . References [ 1 ] ... [ 8 ] Soga , T . , " A kinetic theory analysis of evaporation and condensation of diatomic gas ” , Phys . Fluids
28 , pp .
Author: Alfred E. Beylich
Category: Kinetic theory of gases
This book describes the most recent international research in the field of rarefied gas dynamics (RGD). Unique in the depth and scope of its presentation, it considers progress made in the treatment of non-equilibrium phenomena in such fields as aerospace, vacuum technology, isotope separation and gas dynamic lasers. Due to the broad range of RGD applications, the volume will appeal to readers from numerous fields (e.g. physics, engineering, mathematics, chemistry).
Explore a Kinetic Approach to the Description of Nucleation - An Alternative to the Classical Nucleation TheoryKinetic Theory of Nucleation presents an alternative to the classical theory of nucleation in gases and liquids-the kinetic ...
Author: Eli Ruckenstein
Publisher: CRC Press
Explore a Kinetic Approach to the Description of Nucleation – An Alternative to the Classical Nucleation Theory Kinetic Theory of Nucleation presents an alternative to the classical theory of nucleation in gases and liquids—the kinetic nucleation theory of Ruckenstein–Narsimhan–Nowakowski (RNNT). RNNT uses the kinetic theory of fluids to calculate the rate of evaporation of molecules from clusters, and unlike the classical nucleation theory (CNT), does not require macroscopic thermodynamics or the detailed balance principle. The book compares the rates of evaporation of molecules from—and condensation on—the surface of a nucleus of a new phase, and explains how this alternate approach can provide much higher nucleation rates than the CNT. It applies RNNT to various case studies that include the liquid-to-solid and vapor-to-liquid phase transitions, binary nucleation, heterogeneous nucleation, nucleation on soluble particles and protein folding. It also describes the system, introduces the basic equations of the kinetic theory, and defines a new model for the nucleation mechanism of protein folding. Adaptable to coursework as well as self-study, this insightful book: Uses a kinetic approach to calculate the rate of growth and decay of a cluster Includes description of vapor-to-liquid and liquid-to-solid nucleation Outlines the application of density-functional theory (DFT) methods to nucleation Proposes the combination of the new kinetic theory of nucleation with the DFT methods Illustrates the new theory with numerical calculations Describes the model for the nucleation mechanism of protein folding, and more A comprehensive guide dedicated to the kinetic theory of nucleation and cluster growth, Kinetic Theory of Nucleation emphasizes the basic concepts of the kinetic nucleation theory, incorporates findings developed from years of research and experience, and is written by highly-regarded experts.
If the compressed gas from the evaporating liquid is allowed to expand through a
valve , carbon dioxide “ snow ” is obtained . ( Most gases cool ... 4 , and the gas
laws and the kinetic theory of gases were defined in Chapter 5 . Here we want to
( Contains contributions by Grad , H . , Principles of the Kinetic Theory of Gases ,
and Waldmann , L . , Transport Properties of Gases at Medium Pressures . ) 5 .
Hamann , S . D . , Physico - Chemical Effects of Pressure . Academic Press , New
These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non ...
Author: Byung Chan Eu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In this monograph, the density ?uctuation theory of transport coe?cients of simple and complex liquids is described together with the kinetic theory of liquids, the generic van der Waals equation of state, and the modi?ed free volume theory. The latter two theories are integral parts of the density ?- tuation theory, which enables us to calculate the density and temperature dependence of transport coe?cients of liquids from intermolecular forces. The terms nanoscience and bioscience are the catch phrases currently in fashion in science. It seems that much of the fundamentals remaining unsolved or poorly understood in the science of condensed matter has been overshadowed by the frenzy over the more glamorous disciplines of the former, shunned by novices, and are on the verge of being forgotten. The transport coe?cients of liquids and gases and related thermophysical properties of matter appear to be one such area in the science of macroscopic properties of molecular systems and statisticalmechanicsofcondensedmatter. Evennano-andbiomaterials,h- ever, cannot be fully and appropriately understood without ?rm grounding and foundations in the macroscopic and molecular theories of transport pr- ertiesandrelatedthermophysicalpropertiesofmatterinthecondensedphase. Oneisstilldealingwithsystemsmadeupofnotafewparticlesbutamultitude of them, often too many to count, to call them few-body problems that can be understoodwithoutthehelpofstatisticalmechanicsandmacroscopicphysics. In the density ?uctuation theory of transport coe?cients, the basic approach taken is quite di?erent from the approaches taken in the conventional kinetic theories of gases and liquids.
A masterpiece of theoretical physics, this classic work contains a comprehensive exposition of the kinetic theory of gases.
Author: Ludwig Boltzmann
Publisher: Courier Corporation
A masterpiece of theoretical physics, this classic work contains a comprehensive exposition of the kinetic theory of gases. Still relevant a century after its initial publication, it combines rigorous mathematic analysis with a pragmatic treatment of physical and chemical applications, covering the theory of gases with monatomic and compound particles.
00 Kinetic and transport theory of fluids ; physical properties of gases the novel
types of waves depend on the frequency and intensity of the laser radiation and
properties of the excited gas and may readily be as high as several millimeters
This book should be of interest to graduate students and others undertaking research in kinetic theory.
Author: S. G. Brush
Kinetic Theory, Volume 3: The Chapman-Enskog Solution of the Transport Equation for Moderately Dense Gases describes the Chapman-Enskog solution of the transport equation for moderately dense gases. Topics covered range from the propagation of sound in monatomic gases to the kinetic theory of simple and composite monatomic gases and generalizations of the theory to higher densities. The application of kinetic theory to the determination of intermolecular forces is also discussed. This volume is divided into two sections and begins with an introduction to the work of Hilbert, Chapman, and Enskog that led to the formulation of the Chapman-Enskog theory. The Chapman-Enskog results are then compared with those of earlier theories with respect to viscosity, heat conduction, diffusion, and thermal diffusion. Subsequent chapters focus on alternatives to the Chapman-Enskog method and some mathematical problems; foundations of the kinetic theory of gases; and kinetic theory of processes in dilute gases and of heat conduction, viscosity, and self-diffusion in compressed gases and liquids. This book should be of interest to graduate students and others undertaking research in kinetic theory.
This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick.
Author: Byung Chan Eu
This book presents the fundamentals of irreversible thermodynamics for nonlinear transport processes in gases and liquids, as well as for generalized hydrodynamics extending the classical hydrodynamics of Navier, Stokes, Fourier, and Fick. Together with its companion volume on nonrelativistic contexts, it provides a comprehensive picture of the relativistic covariant kinetic theory of gases and relativistic hydrodynamics of gases.Relativistic theories of macroscopic irreversible processes must strictly conform to the thermodynamic laws at every step and in all approximations that enter their derivation from the mechanical principles. Upholding this as the inviolable tenet, the author develops theories of irreversible transport processes in fluids (gases or liquids). They apply regardless of whether the processes are near to or far removed from equilibrium, or whether they are linear or nonlinear with respect to macroscopic fluxes or thermodynamic forces. The irreversible covariant Boltzmann as well as the covariant form of the Boltzmann-Nordheim-Uehling-Uhlenbeck equation is used for deriving theories of irreversible transport equations and generalized hydrodynamic equations for either classical gases or quantum gases. They all conform rigorously to the tenet. All macroscopic observables described by the so-formulated theories therefore are likewise expected to strictly obey the tenet.
Results indicate that MET captures the temperature and density of the bulk
viscosity quite well for dense gases and liquids , excluding anomalous behavior
in the critical region . Rice and Allnat 48,49 developed a kinetic theory for dense fluids ...