United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice

United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice

Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA 2015,971 (Iain Frame ed., 2014). • Phil Clark & Zachary D. Kaufman, Rwanda: Recent History, in AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA 2014, 980 (Iain Frame ed., ...

Author: Zachary D. Kaufman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190668419

Category: Law

Page: 384

View: 975

In United States Law and Policy on Transitional Justice: Principles, Politics, and Pragmatics, Zachary D. Kaufman explores the U.S. government's support for, or opposition to, certain transitional justice institutions. By first presenting an overview of possible responses to atrocities (such as war crimes tribunals) and then analyzing six historical case studies, Kaufman evaluates why and how the United States has pursued particular transitional justice options since World War II. This book challenges the "legalist" paradigm, which postulates that liberal states pursue war crimes tribunals because their decision-makers hold a principled commitment to the rule of law. Kaufman develops an alternative theory-"prudentialism"-which contends that any state (liberal or illiberal) may support bona fide war crimes tribunals. More generally, prudentialism proposes that states pursue transitional justice options, not out of strict adherence to certain principles, but as a result of a case-specific balancing of politics, pragmatics, and normative beliefs. Kaufman tests these two competing theories through the U.S. experience in six contexts: Germany and Japan after World War II, the 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103, the 1990-1991 Iraqi offenses against Kuwaitis, the atrocities in the former Yugoslavia in the 1990s, and the 1994 Rwandan genocide. Kaufman demonstrates that political and pragmatic factors featured as or more prominently in U.S. transitional justice policy than did U.S. government officials' normative beliefs. Kaufman thus concludes that, at least for the United States, prudentialism is superior to legalism as an explanatory theory in transitional justice policymaking.
Categories: Law

Patterns of change in Malawi s economy under sector focused investment strategies Results of scenarios run through 2030 using an economy wide model for Malawi

Patterns of change in Malawi   s economy under sector focused investment strategies  Results of scenarios run through 2030 using an economy wide model for Malawi

Looking only at labor productivity by sector, Table 2 shows Malawi's performance relative to 43 other countries in Africa south of the Sahara over the four-year period from 2014 to 2017. For labor productivity in the agriculture and ...

Author: Benson, Todd

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 16

View: 587

Malawi’s economic future is dependent upon a transformation of the economy that will involve increased economic productivity overall and considerable movement of labor and capital out of agriculture and into manufacturing and services. A dynamic Computable General Equilibrium model of the economy of Malawi was used to better understand the development gains that would be realized by 2030 through significantly increasing separately the productivity of each of the three sectors of the Malawian economy – agriculture, industry, and services. The scenarios run in the model involved increasing by 20 percent from current levels the annual growth rate in total factor productivity for each of the three sectors. The results show important trade-offs in the choice of which sector should receive emphasis in any economic development strategy. A services-led strategy would result in higher economic growth overall and broadly rising incomes, contributing the most to a structural transformation of the Malawi economy. However, the principal beneficiaries of increased investment to improve productivity in the services sector will be better-off households. In contrast, an agriculture-focused strategy would better meet the needs of the poor and their access to food, but would result in continued lagging growth for Malawi’s economy and many poorer households continuing to be unable to obtain sufficient income to exit their poverty and realize much better lives for themselves and their children. The industrial sector currently is much smaller than either the agriculture or services sectors, particularly in terms of employment, so significant increases in productivity growth in industry results in smaller benefits overall than comparable increases in agriculture or services.
Categories: Political Science

Grid locked African Economic Sovereignty

Grid locked African Economic Sovereignty

However, the low agricultural productivity in Africa South of the Sahara which equates to less than US$1 per day, ... Bourne & Joel (2014) concur with Moseley et al(2015: 1) who noted that Africa is often referred to as the “last ...

Author: Warikandwa, Tapiwa Victor

Publisher: Langaa RPCIG

ISBN: 9789956550302

Category: Political Science

Page: 654

View: 810

The emergent so-called “Fourth Industrial Revolution” is regarded by some as a panacea for bringing about development to Africans. This book dismisses this flawed reasoning. Surfacing how “investors” are actually looting and plundering Africa; how the industrial internet of things, the gig economies, digital economies and cryptocurrencies breach African political and economic sovereignty, the book pioneers what can be called anticipatory economics – which anticipate the future of economies. It is argued that the future of Africans does not necessarily require degrowth, postgrowth, postdevelopment, postcapitalism or sharing/solidarity economies: it requires attention to age-old questions about African ownership and control of their resources. Investors have to invest in ensuring that Africans own and control their resources. Further, it is pointed out that the historical imperial structural creation of forced labour is increasingly morphing into what we call the structural creation of forced leisure which is no less lethal for Africans. Because both the structural creation of forced labour and the structural creation of forced leisure are undergirded by transnational neo-imperial plunder, theft, robbery, looting and dispossession of Africans, this book goes beyond the simplistic arguments that Euro-America developed due to the industrial revolutions.
Categories: Political Science

Africa agriculture trade monitor 2018

Africa agriculture trade monitor 2018

Number of days and documents needed to clear exports, 2006–2014 ... Trends of tariff rates imposed on Africa south of the Sahara, least developed countries, and world exports, 2005–2015.

Author: Badiane, O. (ed)

Publisher: CTA

ISBN: 9780896293496

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 174

View: 748

Boosting intra-African trade and deepening regional integration offer an effective vehicle to speed up Africa’s economic transformation. Increasing the volumes of intra-African trade in agricultural products and the elimination of non-tariff barriers have the potential to boost industrialization and enhance competitiveness, at country and industry levels, through higher investments in connectivity and infrastructure, both physical and digital.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

As a husband I will love lead and provide

 As a husband I will love  lead  and provide

During the past decades, many African countries south of the Sahara have committed to affect land use directly through the installment of new land laws and land reforms (Deininger, Hilhorst, and Songwe 2014; Joireman 2008).

Author: Lambrecht, Isabel

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Social Science

Page: 32

View: 142

Improving women’s access to land is high on the agricultural policy agenda of both governmental and non-governmental agencies. Yet, the determinants and rationale of gendered access to land are not well understood. This paper argues that gender relations are more than the outcomes of negotiations within households. It explains the importance of social norms, perceptions, and formal and informal rules shaping access to land for male and female farmers at four levels: (1) the household/family, (2) the community, (3) the state, and (4) the market. The framework is applied to Ghana. Norms on household and family organization and on men’s and women’s responsibilities and capabilities play a key role in gendered allocation of resources. However, these norms and perceptions are dynamic and evolve jointly with the development of markets and changes in values of inputs such as labor and land. Theoretical models that represent the gendered distribution of assets as the result of intrahousehold bargaining should be revised, and extrahousehold factors should be included. From a policy perspective, laws that ensure gender equality in terms of inheritance and a more gender-equitable distribution of property upon divorce can play a key role in improving women’s property rights. Yet, their impact may be limited where customary rights dominate and social norms and rules continue to discriminate according to gender.
Categories: Social Science

Africa s Natural Resources and Underdevelopment

Africa   s Natural Resources and Underdevelopment

Callaghy, Thomas M. “Africa and the World Political Economy: Still Caught Between a Rock and a Hard Place.” In John W. Harbeson and ... Tema, Ghana: Woeli Publishing Services, 2014. Europa Publications. Africa South of the Sahara 2015.

Author: Kwamina Panford

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137540720

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 249

View: 653

This book explores how African countries can convert their natural resources, particularly oil and gas, into sustainable development assets. Using Ghana, one of the continent’s newest oil-producing countries, as a lens, it examines the "resource curse" faced by other producers - such as Nigeria, Angola, and Equatorial Guinea - and demonstrates how mismanagement in those countries can provide valuable lessons for new oil producers in Africa and elsewhere. Relying on a broad range of fieldwork and policymaking experience, Panford suggests practical measures for resource-rich developing countries to transform natural resources into valuable assets that can help create jobs, boost human resources, and improve living and working conditions in Ghana in particular. He suggests fiscal, legal, and environmental antidotes to resource mismanagement, which he identifies as the major obstacle to socioeconomic development in countries that have historically relied on natural resources.
Categories: Business & Economics

2017 Global Food Policy Report

2017 Global Food Policy Report

While developed country spending declined continuously from 1980 to 2014, spending in developing countries recovered after ... For example, South Asia and Africa south of the Sahara, which have the lowest level of resources and overall ...

Author: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 9780896292529

Category: Political Science

Page: 148

View: 609

IFPRI’s flagship report reviews the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2016, and highlights challenges and opportunities for 2017 at the global and regional levels. This year’s report looks at the impact of rapid urban growth on food security and nutrition, and considers how food systems can be reshaped to benefit both urban and rural populations.
Categories: Political Science

Women s Social and Legal Issues in African Current Affairs

Women s Social and Legal Issues in African Current Affairs

Retrieved 5/29/2014. International Food Policy Research Institute. (IFPRI) (2013). What's really causing water scarcity in Africa South of the Sahara? http://www.ifpri.org/blog/what-s-really-causing-water-scarcity-africa-south-sahara.

Author: Victoria M. Time

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9781498538794

Category: Social Science

Page: 242

View: 365

This book discusses the causes of women's marginalization in Africa, addressing issues such as time poverty, lack of education, poor governance, human trafficking, and cultural practices such as early marriages and bride price. It provides recommendations on policies and initiatives that would elevate women’s livelihood and societal standing in African countries.
Categories: Social Science

Smallholder irrigation technology diffusion in Ghana Insights from stakeholder mapping

Smallholder irrigation technology diffusion in Ghana  Insights from stakeholder mapping

In addition, it also supports employment, incomes and nutrition security (Mendes et al. 2014). Compared to other regions in the world, irrigation development has been slow in Africa south of the Sahara, which accounted for only 2.6 ...

Author: Atuobi-Yeboah, Afua

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN:

Category: Political Science

Page: 40

View: 727

Irrigated agriculture can support food and nutrition security, increase rural employment and incomes and can act as a buffer against growing climate variability and change. However, irrigation development has been slow in Africa south of the Sahara and Ghana is no exception. Out of a total potential irrigated area of close to 2 million ha, less than 20,000 ha large-scale irrigation and less than 200,000 ha of small-scale irrigation have been developed; but the latter is only an estimate. To identify entry points for accelerating small-scale irrigation development in Ghana, a national and a regional stakeholder Net-Map workshop were held in Accra and Tamale, respectively. The workshops suggest that a wide variety of actors from government, the private sector, international organizations and funders, research organizations and NGOs are involved in the diffusion of small-scale irrigation technologies. However, there are important differences between actors perceived to be key at the national and at the regional levels in northern Ghana. At the national level, diffusion of small-scale irrigation technologies is considered to be largely influenced by the Ghana Irrigation Development Authority together with a series of private sector actors focused on importation, distribution and financing of technologies. Farmers are considered to have no influence over the diffusion of small-scale irrigation, suggesting that small-scale irrigation is largely considered a supply-driven process. In northern Ghana, on the other hand, farmers are considered to be key influencers, although participants noted that much of this was potential influence, together with a larger and more diversified set of government stakeholders that are seen as regulators and possibly gatekeepers. For irrigation diffusion to successfully move from importation to distribution to benefiting smallholder farmers, all of these actors have to come together to better understand farmers’ needs and challenges. A multi-stakeholder platform could help to increase communication between farmers as the ultimate beneficiaries of small-scale irrigation technologies and the many other actors interested in supporting this process.
Categories: Political Science

Climate Change and Multi Dimensional Sustainability in African Agriculture

Climate Change and Multi Dimensional Sustainability in African Agriculture

Agriculture for Impact (2014) No ordinary matter: conserving, restoring and enhancing Africa's soils. ... Hilux Hotel, Morogoro, Tanzania, June 3–5 Little ZD, McPeak JG (2014) Resilience and Pastoralism in Africa South of the Sahara, ...

Author: Rattan Lal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319412382

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 717

View: 537

This 35-chapter book is based on several oral and poster presentations including both invited and contributory chapters. The book is thematically based on four pillars of sustainability, with focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Environment, Economic, Social and Institutional. The environmental sustainability, which determines economic and social/institutional sustainability, refers to the rate of use of natural resources (soil, water, landscape, vegetation) which can be continued indefinitely without degrading their quality, productivity and ecosystem services for different ecoregions of SSA. This book will help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of the U.N. in SSA. Therefore, the book is of interest to agriculturalists, economists, social scientists, policy makers, extension agents, and development/bilateral organizations. Basic principles explained in the book can be pertinent to all development organizations.
Categories: Technology & Engineering