Author: Abu Hamid Muhammad GhazaliPublish On: 2015-02-28
Here, Ghazali focuses on the different stations of steadfastness in religion (murabaha), vigilance and self-examination being its cornerstones.
Author: Abu Hamid Muhammad Ghazali
Category: Conscience, Examination of
The 38th chapter of the Revival of the Religious Sciences, this treatise follows on from Al-Ghazali on Intention, Sincerity & Truthfulness. Here, Ghazali focuses on the different stations of steadfastness in religion (murabaha), vigilance and self-examination being its cornerstones. As in all his writings, Ghazali bases his arguments on the Qur'an, the example of the Prophet, and the sayings of numerous scholars and Sufis. As relevant today as it was in the 11th century, this discourse will be of interest to anyone concerned with ethics and moral philosophy.
“Mindfulness (al-murāʿāh) brings about vigilance,” Ibrāhīm al-Khawwāṣ (903 CE) is made to say in the Risālah, ... 9 Abū Ḥamīd Ghazālī, Al-Ghazālī on Vigilance and Self-Examination, translated by Anthony F. Shaker (Cambridge, UK: ITS, ...
Author: Anthony F. Shaker
Publisher: Vernon Press
The modern concept and study of civilization have their roots, not in western Europe, but in the spirit of scientific investigation associated with a self-conscious Islamicate civilization. What we call modernity cannot be fathomed without this historical connection. We owe every major branch of science known today to the broad tradition of systematic inquiry that belongs to a “region of being”—as Heidegger would say—whose theoretical, practical and institutional dimensions the philosophy of that civilization played an unprecedented role in creating. This book focuses primarily on the philosophical underpinnings of questions relating to civilization, personhood and identity. Contemporary society and thinking in western Europe introduced new elements to these questions that have altered how collective and personal identities are conceived and experienced. In the age of “globalization,” expressions of identity (individual, social and cultural) survive precariously outside their former boundaries, just when humanity faces perhaps its greatest challenges—environmental degradation, policy inertia, interstate bellicosity, and a growing culture of tribalism. Yet, the world has been globalized for at least a millennium, a fact dimmed by the threadbare but still widespread belief that modernity is a product of something called the West. One is thus justified in asking, as many people do today, if humanity has not lost its initiative. This is more a philosophical than an empirical question. There can be no initiative without the human agency that flows from identity and personhood—i.e., the way we, the acting subject, live and deliberate about our affairs. Given the heavy scrutiny under which the modern concept of identity has come, Dr. Shaker has dug deeper, bringing to bear a wealth of original sources from both German thought and Ḥikmah (Islamicate philosophy), the latter based on material previously unavailable to scholars. Posing the age-old question of identity anew in the light of these two traditions, whose special historical roles are assured, may help clear the confusion surrounding modernity and, hopefully, our place in human civilization. Proximity to Scholasticism, and therefore Islamicate philosophy, lent German thought up to Heidegger a unique ability to dialogue with other thought traditions. Two fecund elements common to Heidegger, Qūnawī and Mullā Ṣadrā are of special importance: Logos (utterance, speech) as the structural embodiment at once of the primary meaning (essential reality) of a thing and of divine manifestation; and the idea of unity-in-difference, which Ṣadrā finally formulated as the substantial movement of existence. But behind this complexity is the abiding question of who Man is, which cannot be answered by theory alone. Heidegger, who occupies a good portion of this study, questioned the modern ontology at a time of social collapse and deep spiritual crisis not unlike ours. Yet, that period also saw the greatest breakthroughs in modern physics and social science. The concluding chapters take up, more specifically, identity renewal in Western literature and Muslim “reformism.” The renewal theme reflects a point of convergence between the Eurocentric worldview, in which modernism has its secular aesthetics roots, and a current originating in Ibn Taymiyyah’s reductionist epistemology and skeptical fundamentalism. It expresses a hopeless longing for origin in a historically pristine “golden age,” an obvious deformation of philosophy’s millennial concern with the commanding, creative oneness of the Being of beings.
1 On the reality of muraqabah, al-Ghazali writes, know that the reality of vigilance is to be aware of the One watching (raqib) and to turn ... 2 Al-Ghazali on Vigilance and Self-Examination, translated by Anthony F. Shaker, pg.17.
Author: Masroor Faraz
Publisher: Masroor Faraz
The theme of this book is to highlight the twenty insightful and powerful factors that, in one way, strengthen one’s religion and faith and, in another way, weaken one’s resolve to perpetrate sins. The reader should not be misled by the harms and ill consequences of sins in this world and the Hereafter, with ‘factors that assist in distancing from sins’; the former deals with the aftermath of sins, to which Ibn al-Qayyim dedicated the whole book entitled ‘Al-Da’a wa al-Dawa’, wherein he aptly deals with the subject, while the latter deals with the factors that assist in distancing from sins prior to committing them.
Author: Mohamed Ahmed SherifPublish On: 1975-01-01
Ghazali quotes at length an account of the manner in which unnamed earlier learned men ( al - qawm ) used to reproach and rebuke their selves . 2 It is significant that in his treatment of vigilance and selfexamination , Ghazali follows ...
Author: Mohamed Ahmed Sherif
Publisher: SUNY Press
A study of Ghazali's ethical thought as shown in his extensive treatment of the virtues and their relation to the ends of life and to each other.
37), and On Vigilance & SelfExamination (vol. 38). 28 These are from Eric Ormsby's translation of al-Ghazali's structure of human life, with some slight modifications to fit our modern context. Eric Ormsby, Ghazali: The Revival of Islam ...
Author: A. Z. Obiedat
Publisher: Springer Nature
This is the first study to compare the philosophical systems of secular scientific philosopher Mario Bunge (1919-2020), and Moroccan Islamic philosopher Taha Abd al-Rahman (b.1945). In their efforts to establish the philosophical underpinnings of an ideal modernity these two great thinkers speak to the same elements of the human condition, despite their opposing secular and religious worldviews. While the differences between Bunge’s critical-realist epistemology and materialist ontology on the one hand, and Taha’s spiritualist ontology and revelational-mystical epistemology on the other, are fundamental, there is remarkable common ground between their scientific and Islamic versions of humanism. Both call for an ethics of prosperity combined with social justice, and both criticize postmodernism and religious conservatism. The aspiration of this book is to serve as a model for future dialogue between holders of Western and Islamic worldviews, in mutual pursuit of modernity’s best-case scenario.
And he has no preoccupation but vigilance and self - examination and spiritual combat and conserving breaths and glances and reprehending the soul for the suggestions and footsteps 4 and 3 words ( sc . of Satan ) .
Nor can one mistake al-Ghazālī's reinterpreting the Sufi programme of selfexamination and self-improvement in light of ... 47 and his many paeans to constant self-examination and vigilance tend to cash out as precisely the kind of ...
Author: Jari Kaukua
This book is a collection of studies on topics related to subjectivity and selfhood in medieval and early modern philosophy. The individual contributions approach the theme from a number of angles varying from cognitive and moral psychology to metaphysics and epistemology. Instead of a complete overview on the historical period, the book provides detailed glimpses into some of the most important figures of the period, such as Augustine, Avicenna, Aquinas, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz and Hume. The questions addressed include the ethical problems of the location of one's true self and the proper distribution of labour between desire, passion and reason, and the psychological tasks of accounting for subjective experience and self-knowledge and determining different types of self-awareness.
But here , in the virtues of vigilance and selfexamination , the problem of subduing the carnal soul is discussed in all its aspects . Al - Ghazali believes that although the carnal soul is rebellious in nature and is hostile to all ...
In al-Ghazālī's account of love, by contrast, we see this chasm sealed, with virtue allowed the peculiar splendour of ... This is the subject of another book of the Revival, dedicated to the practice of vigilance and selfexamination, ...
Author: Sophia Vasalou
Al-Ghazālī and the Idea of Moral Beauty rethinks the relationship between the good and the beautiful by considering the work of eleventh-century Muslim theologian Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī (d. 1111). A giant of Islamic intellectual history, al-Ghazālī is celebrated for his achievements in a wide range of disciplines. One of his greatest intellectual contributions lies in the sphere of ethics, where he presided over an ambitious attempt to integrate philosophical and scriptural ideas into a seamless ethical vision. The connection between ethics and aesthetics turns out to be a signature feature of this account. Virtue is one of the forms of beauty, and human beings are naturally disposed to respond to it with love. The universal human response to beauty in turn provides the central paradigm for thinking about the love commanded by God. While al-Ghazālī’s account of divine love has received ample attention, his special way of drawing the good into relation with the beautiful has oddly escaped remark. In this book Sophia Vasalou addresses this gap by offering a philosophical and contextual study of this aspect of al-Ghazālī’s ethics and of the conception of moral beauty that emerges from it. This book will be of interest to scholars and students in Islamic ethics, Islamic intellectual history, and the history of ethics.
23 Al-Ghazali gives here examples of different tribes and groups in the realm of Islam. ... And he has no preoccupation but vigilance and self-examination and spiritual combat and conserving breaths and glances and reprehending the soul ...
Author: Richard N. Bosley
Publisher: Broadview Press
In this important collection, the editors argue that medieval philosophy is best studied as an interactive discussion between thinkers working on very much the same problems despite being often widely separated in time or place. Each section opens with at least one selection from a classical philosopher, and there are many points at which the readings chosen refer to other works that the reader will also find in this collection. There is a considerable amount of material from central figures such as Augustine, Abelard, Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham, as well as extensive texts from thinkers in the medieval Islamic world. Each selection is prefaced by a brief introduction by the editors, providing a philosophical and religious background to help make the material more accessible to the reader. This edition, updated throughout, contains a substantial new chapter on medieval psychology and philosophy of mind, with texts from authors not previously represented such as John Buridan and Peter John Olivi.