American Arms Supermarket

American Arms Supermarket

Whereas U.S. military sales rarely exceeded$1 billionper year in the1950s and 1960s, they averaged $12billionper yearin thelate1970s and reached $21 billionin 1982. Alltold,the United States sold$97.6 billion worth of armsunder the ...

Author: Michael T. Klare

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 9780292768956

Category: Political Science

Page: 326

View: 382

U.S. arms sales to Third World countries rapidly escalated from $250 million per year in the 1950s and 1960s to $10 billion and above in the 1970s and 1980s. But were these military sales, so critical in their impact on Third World nations and on America’s perception of its global role, achieving the ends and benefits attributed to them by U.S. policymakers? In American Arms Supermarket, Michael T. Klare responds to this troubling, still-timely question with a resounding no, showing how a steady growth in arms sales places global security and stability in jeopardy. Tracing U.S. policies, practices, and experiences in military sales to the Third World from the 1950s to the 1980s, Klare explains how the formation of U.S. foreign policy did not keep pace with its escalating arms sales—how, instead, U.S. arms exports proved to be an unreliable instrument of policy, often producing results that diminished rather than enhanced fundamental American interests. Klare carefully considers the whole spectrum of contemporary American arms policy, focusing on the political economy of military sales, the evolution of U.S. arms export policy from John F. Kennedy to Ronald Reagan, and the institutional framework for arms export decision making. Actual case studies of U.S. arms sales to Latin America, Iran, and the Middle East provide useful data in assessing the effectiveness of arms transfer programs in meeting U.S. foreign policy objectives. The author also rigorously examines trouble spots in arms policy: the transfer of arms-making technology to Third World arms producers, the relationship between arms transfers and human rights, and the enforcement of arms embargoes on South Africa, Chile, and other “pariah” regimes. Klare also compares the U.S. record on arms transfers to the experiences of other major arms suppliers: the Soviet Union and the “big four” European nations—France, Britain, the former West Germany, and Italy. Concluding with a reasoned, carefully drawn proposal for an alternative arms export policy, Klare vividly demonstrates the need for cautious, restrained, and sensitive policy.
Categories: Political Science

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Yet much of the book suggests that U.S. internal negotiating difficulties are almost as vexing as those encountered at ... The American Arms Supermarket by Michael T. Klare University of Texas Press, 1984 312 pages; $24.50; $10.95 paper ...





Page: 64

View: 306


US Arms Policies Towards the Shah s Iran

US Arms Policies Towards the Shah s Iran

... 1988); Mark J. Gasiorowski, US Foreign Policy and the Shah: Building a Client State in Iran (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1991); Michael T. Klare, American Arms Supermarket (Austin: University of Texas Press, ...

Author: Stephen McGlinchey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317697091

Category: Political Science

Page: 194

View: 650

This book reconstructs and explains the arms relationship that successive U.S. administrations developed with the Shah of Iran between 1950 and 1979. This relationship has generally been neglected in the extant literature leading to a series of omissions and distortions in the historical record. By detailing how and why Iran transitioned from a primitive military aid recipient in the 1950s to America’s primary military credit customer in the late 1960s and 1970s, this book provides a detailed and original contribution to the understanding of a key Cold War episode in U.S. foreign policy. By drawing on extensive declassified documents from more than 10 archives, the investigation demonstrates not only the importance of the arms relationship but also how it reflected, and contributed to, the wider evolution of U.S.-Iranian relations from a position of Iranian client state dependency to a situation where the U.S. became heavily leveraged to the Shah for protection of the Gulf and beyond – until the policy met its disastrous end in 1979 as an antithetical regime took power in Iran. This book will be of interest to students and scholars of Middle East studies, US Foreign Policy and Security studies and for those seeking better foundations for which to gain an understanding of U.S. foreign policy in the final decade of the Cold War, and beyond.
Categories: Political Science

American Alliance Policy in the Middle East 1945 1992

American Alliance Policy in the Middle East  1945 1992

41. Klare , American Arms Supermarket , 108-9 . 42. U.S. Department of State , Iran . February 28 , 1978 ( Washington , D.C .: National Security Archive , 1989 ) , 116-17 . 43. Shahram Chubin , Security in the Persian Gulf , 67 . 44.

Author: John P. Miglietta

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739103040

Category: Iran

Page: 384

View: 701

Taking the friendly relations, at various times, between the United States and Iran, Israel, and Saudi Arabia as case studies, Miglietta (political science, Tennessee State U.) examines and critiques the development of U.S. alliance strategy during the Cold War and beyond. American alliance policy was forged in the crucible of the rivalry with the Soviet Union and it is suggested that the collection of alliances was considered a zero- sum game with the communist enemy. Too often, appeasing the needs of the ally was viewed as crucial for maintaining American credibility, argues Miglietta. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.
Categories: Iran

United States Military Assistance

United States Military Assistance

Robert A. Pastor , Congress and the Politics of U.S. Foreign Economic Policy , 1929– 1976 ( Berkeley : University of California Press , 1980 ) , 278 . 113. Klare , American Arms Supermarket , 189 . 114. See the respective policy ...

Author: William H. Mott

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 0313317046

Category: Military assistance, American

Page: 386

View: 129

This interdisciplinary study examines the relationships between the provision of military assistance and success in achieving donor aims in history and theory, based upon an initial proposition that the relationship between donor and recipient is a critical determinant of success or failure. Mott builds upon his previous research of general historical and Soviet case studies which focuses on four initial features of the wartime donor-recipient relationship: convergence of aims; donor control, commitment of donor military forces, and coherence of donor policies and strategies. To this foundation, he adds additional variables, recipient success, and regional efforts. The study presents a pattern for policy development and theoretical analysis in which military assistance is a viable, robust policy option and bilateral relationship with clear set of requirements, features, processes, and predictable results. Mott's primary methodology is the search for uniformities across historical observations through low-level, ordinary, multivariate regressions. He examines a set of 25 discrete and significant U.S. donor-recipient relationships, and analyzes the features of wartime and Soviet relationships in each. Each chapter focuses on U.S. military assistance in a region and refines the relevant features of the observed relationships into a common profile for comparison with other regions. Mott's conclusions about the donor-recipient relationship narrow the gap between economics, political science, and military strategy; link history and theory to policy; and offer new insights into a complex feature of international relationships and foreign policy.
Categories: Military assistance, American

Arms Diffusion

Arms Diffusion

A classic example of this strongly normative case study approach to the analysis of U.S. arms export policy is Klare's American Arms Supermarket (1984). Written just after the Reagan reversal of U.S. President Carter's “policy of ...

Author: THomas W. Zarzecki

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317794301

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 880

Weapons proliferation is one of the most pressing global concerns following the end of the Cold War. Despite the absence of an overarching superpower conflict, armaments and related technologies have continued to spread throughout the international system. This has been particularly true in areas like East Asia and the Middle East, where the traditional two party arms races are not readily apparent. This text addresses these concerns and shortcomings using data on fourteen specific military technological innovations that diffused throughout the international system from 1960 to 1997.
Categories: Political Science

American Foreign Policy

American Foreign Policy

Edward Kolodiej, “Arms Transfers and International Politics: The Interdependence of Independence,” in Neuman and Harkavy (eds.), Arms Transfers in the Modern World, 3. Klare, American Arms Supermarket, 43–44. Richard Grimmett and Paul ...

Author: Glenn P. Hastedt

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781442270060

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 665

Glenn Hastedt’s clear and succinct introduction to the field prepares students to think about America’s changing role in the world and to develop the critical thinking skills needed to participate in the debate about the conduct and content of American foreign policy. He begins by asking “What do we mean by foreign policy and what is the national interest?” Next, Hastedt looks to the past and examines the defining experiences that have helped to shape American foreign policy today. Third, he looks at how American foreign policy is made in the current hyperpartisan political climate. Here Hastedt examines the various institutions and how they come together to make policy, as well as the policy instruments available to decision makers. And finally, he encourages students to wonder, “What’s next?” The eleventh edition reflects the latest headlines, including more extensive discussions of hybrid warfare, cyber wars, drones, and an assessment of Obama’s foreign policy. There are new case studies on ISIS, authorization of force resolutions, women in combat, the climate agreement, the Iran nuclear agreement, Obama’s opening to Cuba, and the future of COIN. And new Historical Lessons boxes feature the War Powers Act, the integration of the military, the Kyoto Agreement, NAFTA, and Afghanistan. This book is accompanied by a learning package designed to enhance the experience of both instructors and students: Test Bank. The Test Bank includes a variety of test questions and is available in either Word, PDF or Respondus formats. For every chapter in the text, the Test Bank includes a complete test with a variety of question types, including multiple choice, true false, and essay formats. Our Test Bank is most flexibly used in Respondus, test authoring software which is available in two forms. Check with your university to see if you have a site license to the full program, Respondus 4.0, which offers the option to upload your tests to any of the most popular course management systems such as Blackboard. If you don’t have a Respondus license or do not care about having your tests in a course management system, you can use our test bank file in Respondus LE. The LE program is free and can be used to automate the process of creating tests in print format. • Visit the Respondus Test Bank Network to download the test bank for either Respondus 4.0 or Respondus LE. • If you prefer to use our Test Bank in Word or PDF, please Sign-In if you are a registered user, or Register then email us at [email protected] Companion Website. Accompanying the text is an open-access Companion Website designed to reinforce the main topics. For each chapter, flash cards and self-study quizzes help students master the information they learn in the classroom. Students can access the Companion Website from their computer or mobile device at
Categories: Political Science

Trappings of Power

Trappings of Power

32. Klare , American Arms Supermarket , pp . 172-73 . 33. See , for instance , Gene D. Tracey , " U.S. Military Coproduction Programmes : A Case of Skewing the Americans ? " Asian Defense Journal ( August 1989 ) , p . 51 . 34.

Author: Janne E. Nolan

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815720386

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 743

Since the beginning of the crisis precipitated by Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, the threat posed by Iraq's arsenal of ballistic missiles has been the focus of international attention. In the opening days of the U.S.-led military counteroffensive beginning on January 16, 1992, Iraq launched ballistic missiles against population centers in Israel and military bases in Saudi Arabia. The attacks intensified the terror of the war and prompted renewed efforts by the multinational force to destroy Saddam Hussein's military machine. The countries aligned against Iraq were prepared for attacks by chemically armed missiles, but Iraq's missile force proved to be of little military consequence. The missiles that survived the opening hours of Operation Desert Storm were conventionally armed, inaccurate and unreliable. Most of those that were actually launched either were intercepted by American antimissile defenses or failed to hit vital targets. But the political impact of the missiles was inestimable. The strikes symbolized Iraq's determination to prosecute the war no matter what the cost. By threatening to involve Israel, they created severe tensions and posed the risk that multinational military coalition would be dissolved, and they underscored the potential vulnerability of all the states in the region to Iraqi aggression. In this book, Janne E. Nolan argues that the use of missiles is a harbinger of the altered international security environment confronting the Untied States and its allies in the late twentieth century. Long believed to be a distant prospect, the adoption of technological resources to missile development is already occurring in over a dozen developing countries, many of them long-standing regional antagonists. These capabilities present complicated challenges to American interests and foreign policy, challenges that have only begun to be explored as a result of the Iraqi crisis. The author examines the evolution of the international technology market, surveys third world missile programs, and analyzes the military significance of ballistic missiles in potential third world combat. She also discusses the way in which domestic and international policy decisions are made to promote or restrain the export of military technology, and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of current policy. Finally, she emphasizes the need for institutional reforms to balance the requirements of protecting the technological edge on which the United States relies for its own security against the growing pressures of international miniaturization.
Categories: Political Science

Sociology of War and Peace

Sociology of War and Peace

US Department of Defense, Report to the Congress on the Strategic Defense Initiative: 1985, Washington, DC, July 1985. ... Michael T. Klare, American Arms Supermarket (Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press, 1985), pp.

Author: Colin Creighton

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781349186402

Category: Social Science

Page: 245

View: 995

Categories: Social Science

Law and the Arms Trade

Law and the Arms Trade

At: applaud-saudi-arms-sale-vote-despite-failure. Klare, MT, American Arms Supermarket (Austin, University of Texas Press, 1984). Lillis, M, 'Pelosi: Congress Will Block Trump Arms ...

Author: Laurence Lustgarten

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781509922314

Category: Law

Page: 504

View: 700

This ground-breaking book offers an extensive legal analysis-grounded in public, EU, and international law-of arms trade regulation, integrated with insights drawn from international relations. The sale of weapons and related technologies is, globally, one of the most politically controversial and ethically contentious forms of commerce. Intimately connected with sustaining repressive governments and violations of international human rights and humanitarian law, arms exports are also a central element in the economic and strategic policies of the governments of all large industrial states. They have also been the source of abundant corruption, and of serious challenges to the norms and effectiveness of constitutional accountability in democratic states. On paper, the arms trade is heavily regulated: national legislation and international treaties are in place which purport to prohibit certain transactions and limit others. Yet despite its importance, legal and international relations scholarship on the subject has been surprisingly limited. This book fills this gap in the literature by examining and comparing the export control regimes of eight leading nations - USA, Russia, the UK, France, Germany, Sweden, China, and India - with chapters contributed by leading experts in the field of law and international relations.
Categories: Law