This beautifully illustrated book is the result of an English Heritage project to survey the archaeology of surviving town commons to get a picture of their historic importance and to promote their conservation.
Author: Mark Bowden
Publisher: Historic England Press
Category: Social Science
Commons are an urban as well as rural phenomenon, designed to provide grazing for the draft animals of tradesmen ("a green precursor to the carpark") as well as to serve as a civic amenity. This beautifully illustrated book is the result of an English Heritage project to survey the archaeology of surviving town commons to get a picture of their historic importance and to promote their conservation. The book presents the findings, tracing the origins of the commons and how they relate to the urban landscape, as well as examining the many uses of commons, primarily agricultural, but also including industrial functions such as quarrying, serving as military training grounds, and as open spaces for entertainment and public meetings. A gazetteer lists the known historical town commons, together with their current state of survival as recorded by the project.
An archaeology of town commons in England. “A very fair field indeed”, Swindon
2009, 83–90. My estimates are based on Parliamentary returns from 1835 and
1870, plus evidence of towns with commons enclosed prior to that date. 3 Elinor ...
Author: Erich Landsteiner
THE RESILIENCE AND DECLINE OF URBAN AGRICULTURE IN EUROPEAN HISTORY Urban agriculture is a highly diversified and multi-layered phenomenon, and its roots are both very old and very recent. Throughout European history, it has appeared in different forms and guises. In some periods and regions, urban agriculture seemes to have declined at an early stage, whereas in others urban economies and societies remained firmly based on more or less specialized and commercialized agrarian production until the recent past. At the beginning of the 21st century, in an urban world characterized by globalizing food markets, social polarization, but also increasing food insecurity, it is again rapidly gaining importance. Citizens practice urban agriculture in a combined effort to diversify their food supplies, shorten the food chain and strengthen community life. In order to understand the organization, the resilience and failure of urban agriculture in different contexts, this volume aims to develop a comparative and long-term approach, with a particular focus on the actors involved in urban agriculture, their income strategies, and the social and economic configurations in which they operate. RESILIENZ UND NIEDERGANG DER STÄDTISCHEN LANDWIRTSCHAFT IN DER EUROPÄISCHEN GESCHICHTE Die urbane Landwirtschaft ist ein vielschichtiges Phänomen, dessen Wurzeln unterschiedlich weit in der europäischen Geschichte zurückreichen. In einigen Regionen schien die städtische Landwirtschaft in einem frühen Stadium nachzulassen, in anderen beruhte die städtische Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft bis in die jüngste Vergangenheit fest auf einer mehr oder weniger spezialisierten und kommerzialisierten Agrarproduktion. Zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts gewinnt sie in einer von globalisierten Lebensmittelmärkten, sozialer Polarisierung, aber auch zunehmender Ernährungsunsicherheit geprägten urbanen Welt wieder rasant an Bedeutung: StädterInnen betreiben Landwirtschaft in einem gemeinsamen Bemühen, ihre Lebensmittelversorgung zu diversifizieren, die Produktionsketten zu verkürzen und das Gemeinschaftsleben zu stärken. Um die Organisation, die Resilienz und das Scheitern der städtischen Landwirtschaft in verschiedenen Kontexten zu verstehen, zielt dieser Band darauf ab, einen vergleichenden und langfristigen Ansatz zu entwickeln. Dabei stehen die Akteure der städtischen Landwirtschaft, ihre Einkommensstrategien und die sozialen und ökonomischen Bedingungen, in denen sie arbeiten, im Mittelpunkt.
An Archaeology of Town Commons in England : ' A very fair field indeed By Mark
Bowden , Graham Brown , and Nicky ... fair field indeed is the first attempt to
survey and understand the English town common as a valuable historic
fair. field. indeed...': the. archaeology. of. town. commons. These joined the more
traditional fairs and celebrations which ... rural milieu but it is worth remembering
that historically towns and cities in England were provided with common lands, ...
Author: Ian D. Rotherham
Category: Endangered ecosystems
"The threats from global cultural change and abandonment of traditional landscape management increased in the last half of the twentieth century and ten years into the twenty-first century show no signs of slowing down. Their impacts on global biodiversity and on people disconnected from their traditional landscapes pose real and serious economic and social problems which need to be addressed now. The End of Tradition conference held in Sheffield, UK, was organised by Professor Ian D. Rotherham and colleagues. It addressed the fundamental issues of whether we can conserve the biodiversity of wonderful and iconic landscapes and reconnect people to their natural environment. And, if we can, how can we do so and make them relevant for the twenty-first century."--
York, Council for British Archaeology: 120–125. Bowden, M., Brown, G. and
Smith, N. 2009. An Archaeology of Town Commons in England. Swindon,
English Heritage. Bracton De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae (Bracton on
The Laws ...
Author: Susan Oosthuizen
Publisher: A&C Black
Most people believe that traditional landscapes did not survive the collapse of Roman Britain, and that medieval open fields and commons originated in Anglo-Saxon innovations unsullied by the past. The argument presented here tests that belief by contrasting the form and management of early medieval fields and pastures with those of the prehistoric and Roman landscapes they are supposed to have superseded. The comparison reveals unexpected continuities in the layout and management of arable and pasture from the fourth millennium BC to the Norman Conquest. The results suggest a new paradigm: the collective organisation of agricultural resources originated many centuries, perhaps millennia, before Germanic migrants reached Britain. In many places, medieval open fields and common rights over pasture preserved long-standing traditions for organising community assets. In central, southern England, a negotiated compromise between early medieval lords eager to introduce new managerial structures and communities as keen to retain their customary traditions of landscape organisation underpinned the emergence of nucleated settlements and distinctive, highly-regulated open fields.
An Archaeology of Town Commons in England ' A very fair field indeed '
NORMAN CHURCHES IN THE Mark Bowden Gran Brown and North
CANTERBURY DIOCESE 101 THINGS TO DO WITH A STONE CIRCLE Mary
Berg and Howard ...
There was also piecemeal enclosure of the town's common lands, and the
Corporation appropriated lands over the bridge ... of an earthen enceinte
modelled on Dutch lines introduced into England during the Civil War by Bernard
From Market Town to Chartered Borough 1608-1888 Chelmsford , 1994 . ...
Houlbrooke , R. , 1986 , ' Women's Social Life and Common Action in England
from the Fifteenth Century to the Eve of the Civil War ' , Continuity and Change , 1
Archaeology in historic towns — Constraint or opportunity. Lincoln. ELLISON. A.
1976. ... London: Ancient Monuments Board for England Committee for Rescue Archaeology. FRIELL, G. 1991. ... English Heritage. House of Commons. 1987.
The Normans founded large numbers of towns ( some 230 from 1066 to 1350 ,
out of 256 mediaeval new towns ) . The Conquest ... A grid , often associated with
mediaeval towns , is not so common in England as in France . Most English ...
... Parliamentary Archives , FCP / 2 / 327 : Andrews , Dury and Herbert's map of
Kent , 1769 : ' Eltham Common , Shooter's Hill ' , WASP , vol . 12 , 1907 , pp.35-40
: ODNB : Mark Bowden et al . , An Archaeology of Town Commons in England ...
Author: Dorset Natural History and Archaeological SocietyPublish On: 2000
What is of singular significance is the fact that the abbey was following a common
practice used by other major land - owners to ... 44 Nevertheless , in addition to
being one of Dorset ' s best medieval planned towns , Charmouth has important
... made to the British Archaeological Association , ii ( 1871 ) , 145 - 59 ; Royal
Commission on Historical Monuments ( England ) , Dorset , i ( 1952 ) , 240 – 46 .
Author: Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society
Author: PH D April M Beisaw, PhDPublish On: 2009-03-22
A town typically rented or bought a house and hired a resident keeper who , with
his ... Although the records lack overt statements about local beliefs concerning
poverty , the town adopted common English practices that implied certain ...
Author: PH D April M Beisaw, PhD
Publisher: University Alabama Press
Category: Social Science
A landmark work that will instigate vigorous and wide-ranging discussions on institutions in Western life, and the power of material culture to both enforce and negate cultural norms Institutions pervade social life. They express community goals and values by defining the limits of socially acceptable behavior. Institutions are often vested with the resources, authority, and power to enforce the orthodoxy of their time. But institutions are also arenas in which both orthodoxies and authority can be contested. Between power and opposition lies the individual experience of the institutionalized. Whether in a boarding school, hospital, prison, almshouse, commune, or asylum, their experiences can reflect the positive impact of an institution or its greatest failings. This interplay of orthodoxy, authority, opposition, and individual experience are all expressed in the materiality of institutions and are eminently subject to archaeological investigation. A few archaeological and historical publications, in widely scattered venues, have examined individual institutional sites. Each work focused on the development of a specific establishment within its narrowly defined historical context; e.g., a fort and its role in a particular war, a schoolhouse viewed in terms of the educational history of its region, an asylum or prison seen as an expression of the prevailing attitudes toward the mentally ill and sociopaths. In contrast, this volume brings together twelve contributors whose research on a broad range of social institutions taken in tandem now illuminates the experience of these institutions. Rather than a culmination of research on institutions, it is a landmark work that will instigate vigorous and wide-ranging discussions on institutions in Western life, and the power of material culture to both enforce and negate cultural norms.
[ Au ( adp ) ] 3/1224 ( E.43.0014 ) TOWN HALL , STAINES Archaeological Work
at the Town Hall , Staines Jones , P Kingston ... COMMONS The National Trust Archaeological Survey , Hindhead Commons , Surrey Dyer , S The National Trust
"Information about the nature and extent of archaeological investigations carried out in England," compiled and abstracted from journals, reviews, annual reports, grant reports, and archaeologists' summaries of current work, many otherwise unpublished or intended for limited circulation.
... common to many close boroughs , of ' exclusion ' : that is , of excluding townsmen on political or religious grounds from membership . I ' The Best
Corporation in England Until December 1835 the governing body of Doncaster's
Category: Excavations (Archaeology)
A review of history, antiquities and topography in the county.
Unfortunately , small towns are as neglected by historians and archaeologists as
they are by historical geographers or urban morphologists . ... Hertfordshire does
have the benefit of an archaeological ' Extensive Urban Survey ' funded by English Heritage ... colonisation of common land , and the characteristics and
dimensions of plot patterns in the development processes of a sample of these towns .
as natural , a divide represented in England by the tripartite bureaucracy of the
Countryside Commission , English ... but while an archaeological search is now
commonly built into numerous professional processes such as Town and ... In
such a situation , now common , the manager of the past is very much bound up
with the needs of the present , yet constrained by the long - term needs of the
Author: John Hunter
Publisher: Sutton Pub Limited
Category: Social Science
This introduction to the structure and context of archaeology in Britain reviews the vital issues facing archaeologists during a period in which the discipline has become increasingly complicated and diverse. The authors offer an analysis of the crucial questions of principle and practice that have arisen. In particular, they examine the implications for the archaeological profession of heritage management and legislation, stricter planning controls, changing land use, and the pressure of public interest and concern.
The use of open - spaces in association with centers of political settlements had
of course been the case in New England " town commons " , and there is as well
ample evidence of the transferal of such a form from Europe to America at the ...