This provided an exposed stance , relieved by an opportune break in the clouds and a glimpse of the impressive cliffs towards the Kaakil . ... Somewhat unorthodox but nothing ventured ... a rock 152 BENEATH THE CLOUD FORESTS.
Author: Lawrence S. HamiltonPublish On: 2012-12-06
A scaler was employed to convert water capture by the vertical silhouette of the louvered screen to the orifice area equivalent for the standard rain gauge. Forest throughfall was measured using multiple trough gauges beneath the ...
Author: Lawrence S. Hamilton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Until relatively recently the valuable tropical montane cloud forests (hereaf ter usually referred to as TMCFs) of the world had scarcely come under the assaults experienced by the downslope montane and lowland forests. TMCFs are not hospitable environments for human occupation, and their remoteness (except in places near Andean high mountain settlements and in the Ethiopian Highlands) and difficult terrain have given them de facto protection. The ad jacent upper montane rain forests have indeed been under assault for timber, fuelwood, and for conversion to grazing and agriculture for many decades, even centuries in the Andes, but true cloud forest has only come under ex ploitation as these lower elevational resources have disappeared. They have also been "nibbled" at from above where there have been alpine grasslands under grazing pressure. Increasingly now, however, these cloud forest eco systems are being fragmented, reduced, and disturbed at an alarming rate. It is now becoming recognized that steps must be taken rapidly to increase our understanding of TMCF and to achieve their conservation, because: their water-capture function is extremely important to society; • their species endemism is high; they serve as refugia for endangered species being marginalized in these environments by increasingly transformed lower elevation ecosystems; they are relatively little studied; yet, their value to science is extremely high; they have low resilience to disturbance; vii viii Preface and many other reasons, which will be discussed subsequently in this publi cation.
Cloud forests may increase the water yield of high altitude catchments through canopy interception and ... (i) lower montane rainforest beneath the cloud belt; (ii) tall lower montane cloud forest; (iii) upper montane cloud forest of ...
Author: Derek Eamus
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Understanding ecosystem structure and function requires familiarity with the techniques, knowledge and concepts of the three disciplines of plant physiology, remote sensing and modelling. This is the first textbook to provide the fundamentals of these three domains in a single volume. It then applies cross-disciplinary insights to multiple case studies in vegetation and landscape science. A key feature of these case studies is an examination of relationships among climate, vegetation structure and vegetation function, to address fundamental research questions. This book is for advanced students and researchers who need to understand and apply knowledge from the disciplines of plant physiology, remote sensing and modelling. It allows readers to integrate and synthesise knowledge to produce a holistic understanding of the structure, function and behaviour of forests, woodlands and grasslands.
Here, the (upper) montane (cloud) belt and sometimes also the lower alpine belt are humid tropical areas. ... The forests beneath the cloud zone are referred to as oreo-tropical (laurophyllous) evergreen broad-leaved forests, ...
Author: Jörg S. Pfadenhauer
Publisher: Springer Nature
This up-to-date textbook of global vegetation ecology, which comprises the current state of knowledge, is long overdue and much-needed. It is a translation of the textbook “Vegetation der Erde” (Springer-Spektrum, Heidelberg). A short introductory chapter deals with the fundamentals of vegetation ecology that are of importance for the delimitation and characterization of the global vegetation presented in this book (chorology, evolution of plants, physiognomic and structural characteristics, phytodiversity and the human impact on it as well as general terminology concerning both plant growth forms and on vegetation structure types). In the following chapters the zonal and azonal vegetation from the tropics to the polar regions including high mountains is described and discussed. The main focus is on the characterization of interactions between the spatial location of plants and plant communities on the one hand and site conditions, historic and genetic processes, spatial and temporal patterns, ecophysiology and anthropogenic influences on the other hand. Additional information on specific topics is provided in 51 boxes.
... in mountainous zones , is an important ecological factor affecting the different types of cloud forests . ... for the measurement of horizontal precipitation : a ) collect total precipitation beneath the canopy by means of troughs ...
The Cloud Forest brings to vivid life a South American journey that took him from the Sargasso Sea to the jungles of Amazonia, from the Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the Andes to the bleak rocks of Tierra del Fuego and the winds and ...
Author: Peter Matthiessen
Publisher: Random House
Peter Mattiessen has long been known for his travels to some of the remotest lands on earth, most notably recorded in The Snow Leopard. The Cloud Forest brings to vivid life a South American journey that took him from the Sargasso Sea to the jungles of Amazonia, from the Inca city of Machu Picchu high in the Andes to the bleak rocks of Tierra del Fuego and the winds and vast skies of Patagonia. The result is an incisive and marvellously well-observed journal by a born writer and naturalist, a voyage of exploration among the people, places and fading wildlife of this most exotic and mysterious of continents.
Cruz ( 1981 ) men- tane rain forest should approximate 1200 m elevation tioned seed dispersal of several cloud forest species ... part of the lower montane belt lies of myrmecophilous taxa at higher elevations . beneath the cloud forest ...
Author: Steven P. Churchill
Publisher: New York Botanical Garden PressDept
"Uneven collection of 60 papers; most concern Andean mountain flora, forests, and habitats. Several papers focus on human modifications"--Handbook of Latin American Studies, v. 57.
Beneath lie cloud forests of giant fungi, balloon groves, coral gardens, stands of ferns and fronds. The south cap of the Big Dumb Object is the tallest mountain in the solar system. It has already been named Mt Improbable.
Author: Ian McDonald
Publisher: Jabberwocky Literary Agency, Inc.
The end of the universe happened at around ten o’clock at night on 22 December, 2032. It’s just that humanity hasn’t realized it yet. And the Chaga, the strange flora deposited from the stars, is still busy terraforming the tropics into someone else’s terra. Gaby McAslan was once a hungry news reporter who compromised her relationship with UNECTA researcher Dr. Shepard for the sake of her story... but Gaby is no longer a journalist and she doesn’t want to be a full-time mother, even though her child Serena is her last link with Shepard. Gaby’s fire has gone out; she’s gone soft. But the massive political and military upheavals rocking the world are about to drag her back into the action. REVIEWS "This is a huge and ambitious novel, the work of a supremely talented writer approaching the top of his game." – SFX "So outstanding a writer that he deserves reading beyond the science-fantasy market ... He has such marvellous talent, so vivid an imagination. His prose sings and zings – simultaneously." – The Times
Among the cotinga family is the spectacular Andean cock - of - the - rock ( Rupicola peruviana ) , which you might be lucky enough to see in the upper reaches of the cloud forest , beneath Machu Picchu or along the road to Manu .
Author: Barry Walker
Publisher: Bradt Travel Guides
Fancy seeing a majestic Andean condor gliding on the thermals, finding a timid vischacha scampering among rocks or encountering the elusive puma? This lively guide covers the range of Peruvian Andes habitats - from the humid cloud forests and windblown Puna grasslands to the elevated Polylepis woodlands - and the region's most interesting species of flora and fauna. Written by tour leaders for visitors, trekkers and natural-history enthusiasts alike, this compact and beautifully illustrated guide shows you what to find and where to find it. It makes a fantastic souvenir to boot !
For this reason, tropical montane forests, known colloquially as cloud forests, harbor the highest diversity and density of orchids in the world. ... so different from the deep shade found beneath a tall rainforest. Cloud forest trees ...
Author: Joe E. Meisel
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Orchids of Tropical America is an entertaining, informative, and splendidly illustrated introduction to the orchid family for enthusiasts and newcomers seeking to learn about more than 120 widespread orchid genera. Joe E. Meisel, Ronald S. Kaufmann, and Franco Pupulin bring alive the riot of colors, extraordinary shapes, and varied biology and ecology of the principal orchid genera ranging from Mexico and the Caribbean to Bolivia and Brazil. Orchids, likely the most diverse family of plants on earth, reach their peak diversity in the tropical countries of the Western Hemisphere, including, for example, more than 2,500 species in Brazil and 4,000 in Ecuador. The book also highlights reserves in the American tropics where travelers can enjoy orchids in the wild. Whether you journey abroad to see these unique plants, raise them in your home, or admire them from afar, this book offers fascinating insights into the diversity and natural history of orchids. Beyond the plant and flower descriptions, Orchids of Tropical America is packed with informative stories about the ecology and history of each genus. Pollination ecology is given in detail, with an emphasis on how floral features distinctive to the genus are linked to interaction with pollinators. This book also features information on medicinal and commercial uses, notes on the discoverers, and relevant historical data. The easy-to-use identification system permits quick recognition of the most common orchid groups in Central and South America. Genus descriptions are given in plain language designed for a nonscientific audience but will prove highly useful to advanced botanists as well. Descriptions focus on external morphology, and great care has been taken to ensure the guide is useful in the field without reliance on microscopes or dissections. Equally valuable as a field guide, a desktop reference, or a gift, Orchids of Tropical America will make an excellent addition to any orchid lover’s library. Visit the website for this book at www.orchidsoftropicalamerica.com.