War for prestige corresponds with an absence of recognition that tends to be caused by a leader's hubristic self-images. War by antipathy is fuelled by 'anomie' traits characterised by a complete absence of shared identity.
Author: Thomas Lindemann
Publisher: ECPR Press
Category: Political Science
Theories on the origins of war are often based on the premise that the rational actor is in pursuit of material satisfaction, such as the quest for power or for wealth. These perspectives disregard the need for homo symbolicus – meaning the preservation of a positive self-image for both emotional and instrumental reasons. A good reputation ensures authority and material resources. Non-recognition can be as much as an explanation of war as that of other explicative 'variables'. Two empirical studies examining the role of non-recognition in great power conflicts and in international crises will demonstrate the value of this symbolic approach.
Geoffrey Blainey, The Causes of War, New York: The Free Press, 1973, and Stephen van Evera, Causes of War: Power and the Roots of Conflict, Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 1999, are concerned with various conditions that affect the likelihood ...
Author: Azar Gat
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Azar Gat sets out to resolve one of the age-old questions of human existence: why people fight and can they stop. Spanning warfare from prehistory to the 21st century, the book shows that, neither an irresistible drive nor a cultural invention, deadly violence and warfare have figured prominently in our behavioural toolkit since the dawn of our species. People have always alternated between cooperation, peaceful competition, and violence to attain evolution-shaped human desires. A marked shift in the balance between these options has occurred since the onset of the industrial age. Rather than modern war becoming more costly (it hasn't), it is peace that has become more rewarding. Scrutinizing existing theories concerning the decline of war - such as the 'democratic peace' and 'capitalist peace' - Gat shows that they in fact partake of a broader Modernization Peace that has been growing since 1815. By now, war has disappeared within the world's most developed areas. Finally, Gat explains why the Modernization Peace has been disrupted in the past, as during the two World Wars, and how challenges to it may still arise. They include claimants to alternative modernity - such as China and Russia - anti-modernists, and failed modernizers that may spawn terrorism, potentially unconventional. While the world has become more peaceful than ever before, there is still much to worry about in terms of security and no place for complacency.
Finally, religion remained a constant cause for war, both in terms of fighting other faiths and of inter-faith warfare. The main difference was in Asia, where the Mongols, and the Song and Ming dynasties, managed to relegate religious ...
Author: Alexander Gillespie
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
This is the fourth volume of a projected six-volume series charting the causes of war from 3000 BCE to the present day, written by a leading international lawyer, and using as its principal materials the documentary history of international law, largely in the form of treaties and the negotiations which led up to them. These volumes seek to show why millions of people, over thousands of years, slew each other. In departing from the various theories put forward by historians, anthropologists and psychologists, the author offers a different taxonomy of the causes of war, focusing on the broader settings of politics, religion, migrations and empire-building. These four contexts were dominant and often overlapping justifications during the first four thousand years of human civilisation, for which written records exist.
The start of a war is - almost by the definition of warfare - marked by conflicting expectations of what that war will be like. ... Whatever causes that contradictory optimism in nations must be classified as a cause of war itself.
—Stephen Colbert THE CAUSES OF WAR: SOME BASICS I hope that in the preceding pages the reader has become acquainted with some of the complexities involved in discovering the causes of war. It is easy to be overwhelmed by the sheer ...
Author: Greg Cashman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Category: Political Science
Now in a thoroughly revised and updated edition, this classic text presents a comprehensive survey of the many alternative theories that attempt to explain the causes of interstate war. For each theory, Greg Cashman examines the arguments and counterarguments, considers the empirical evidence and counterevidence generated by social-science research, looks at historical applications of the theory, and discusses the theory’s implications for restraining international violence. Among the questions he explores are: Are humans aggressive by nature? Do individual differences among leaders matter? How might poor decision making procedures lead to war? Why do leaders engage in seemingly risky and irrational policies that end in war? Why do states with internal conflicts seem to become entangled in wars with their neighbors? What roles do nationalism and ethnicity play in international conflict? What kinds of countries are most likely to become involved in war? Why have certain pairs of countries been particularly war-prone over the centuries? Can strong states deter war? Can we find any patterns in the way that war breaks out? How do balances of power or changes in balances of power make war more likely? Do social scientists currently have an answer to the question of what causes war? Cashman examines theories of war at the individual, substate, nation-state, dyadic, and international systems level of analysis. Written in a clear and accessible style, this interdisciplinary text will be essential reading for all students of international relations.
In this book, Stephen Van Evera frames five conditions that increase the risk of interstate war: false optimism about the likely outcome of a war, a first-strike advantage, fluctuation in the relative power of states, circumstances that ...
Author: Stephen Van Evera
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Political Science
What causes war? How can military conflicts best be prevented? In this book, Stephen Van Evera frames five conditions that increase the risk of interstate war: false optimism about the likely outcome of a war, a first-strike advantage, fluctuation in the relative power of states, circumstances that allow nations to parlay one conquest into another, and circumstances that make conquest easy. According to Van Evera, all but one of these conditions-false optimism-rarely occur today, but policymakers often erroneously believe in their existence. He argues that these misperceptions are responsible for many modern wars, and explores both World Wars, the Korean War, and the 1967 Mideast War as test cases. Finally, he assesses the possibility of nuclear war by applying all five hypotheses to its potential onset. Van Evera's book demonstrates that ideas from the Realist paradigm can offer strong explanations for international conflict and valuable prescriptions for its control.
Thus nations are deluded into war ; and war , when once begun , is generally continued , till the want of men or money ... of peace or war , in arbitrary governments , has sometimes binged on very trifling or insignificant causes .
ASSASSINATION AT SARAJEVO T he events that triggered the First World War began with an unlucky mistake . Archduke Franz Ferdinand was heir to the throne of the mighty Austro - Hungarian Empire . In the summer of 1914 he and his wife ...
Author: Stewart Ross
Publisher: Evans Brothers
Category: World War, 1914-1918
Examines the backdrop of rivalry among world powers, the events that immediately preceded the first World War, the effects of the war itself, and its long term consequences. Suggested level: secondary.