Chemical Exposures

Chemical Exposures

Very Good,No Highlights or Markup,all pages are intact.

Author: Nicholas Askounes Ashford

Publisher: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company

ISBN: UOM:39076001368559

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 214

View: 151

Very Good,No Highlights or Markup,all pages are intact.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Environmental Chemical Exposures and Immune System Integrity

Environmental Chemical Exposures and Immune System Integrity

Proceedings of the Workshop on the Relationship Between Environmental Chemical Exposures and the Integrity of the Immune System, September 16, ...

Author: Robert G. Tardiff

Publisher: Princeton Scientific Pub

ISBN: 0911131140

Category: Medical

Page: 259

View: 608

Categories: Medical

Assessment of Chemical Exposures

Assessment of Chemical Exposures

With the clear explanations presented in this text, even a novice will be able to practice the art of exposure assessment.

Author: Jack E. Daugherty

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 156670216X

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 146

Traditionally, industrial hygienists and environmental engineers have been responsible for conducting chemical exposure assessments, however, this task is now becoming a team effort taken on by scientists, businessmen, and policymakers. Assessment of Chemical Exposures: Calculation Methods for Environmental Professionals addresses the expanding scope of exposure assessments in both the workplace and environment. It discusses the basics of gathering data and assessing exposure, including how to estimate exposure to chemicals using fundamental chemical engineering concepts. The book opens with a brief discussion on the history of exposure assessments and provides terms and nomenclature needed for communications between various disciplines involved in exposure assessments. The potential impact of chemical exposures on humans, the environment, and communities is discussed in detail The book also addresses modeling source generation, pathway transport, and receptor impact. With the clear explanations presented in this text, even a novice will be able to practice the art of exposure assessment.
Categories: Science

Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures Measures Modeling and Risk Assessment

Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures Measures  Modeling  and Risk Assessment

This book offers a state-of-the-science assessment of how we characterize and quantify human variability and how that information might influence current thinking about risk assessment, examining risk assessment practices in the context of ...

Author: David A. Eckerman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0367447762

Category:

Page: 272

View: 341

and for those interested in toxic effects of chemicals on humans, Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures: Measures, Modeling, and Risk Assessment recognizes and addresses the increasing awareness that individual biological differences be reflected when assessing human health risks associated with exposure to chemicals. Eight original manuscripts, commissioned by the ILSI Risk Science Institute, address the evidence for variability in human response to chemicals associated with reproductive and developmental effects, effects on the nervous system and lungs, and cancer. Their reports convey both the current state of scientific understanding of response variability and the genetic basis for such observations. This book recognizes that understanding of variability in response is critical in accounting for interindividual variability in susceptibility and, hence, risk, if the regulatory community and others are expected to characterize human health risks associated with exposure to chemicals. Models for incorporating measures of response variability in the risk assessment process are critically reviewed and illustrated with published data. This authoritative work indicates that, in the case of certain chemicals and in the context of certain specific toxic effects, we have considerable ability to predictively and quantitatively characterize human variability, but, in the majority of cases, our ability to do so is limited. If we improve both quantity and quality of information available on response variability and increase our understanding of target tissue dosimetry, we should be better able to account for variability in human susceptibility to the toxic effects of chemicals.
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Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures Measures Modeling and Risk Assessment

Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures Measures  Modeling  and Risk Assessment

The RfD / RfC is “ an estimate of a daily exposure ( with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude ) to the human population ( including sensitive ...

Author: David A. Eckerman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439805938

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 109

and for those interested in toxic effects of chemicals on humans, Human Variability in Response to Chemical Exposures: Measures, Modeling, and Risk Assessment recognizes and addresses the increasing awareness that individual biological differences be reflected when assessing human health risks associated with exposure to chemicals. Eight original manuscripts, commissioned by the ILSI Risk Science Institute, address the evidence for variability in human response to chemicals associated with reproductive and developmental effects, effects on the nervous system and lungs, and cancer. Their reports convey both the current state of scientific understanding of response variability and the genetic basis for such observations. This book recognizes that understanding of variability in response is critical in accounting for interindividual variability in susceptibility and, hence, risk, if the regulatory community and others are expected to characterize human health risks associated with exposure to chemicals. Models for incorporating measures of response variability in the risk assessment process are critically reviewed and illustrated with published data. This authoritative work indicates that, in the case of certain chemicals and in the context of certain specific toxic effects, we have considerable ability to predictively and quantitatively characterize human variability, but, in the majority of cases, our ability to do so is limited. If we improve both quantity and quality of information available on response variability and increase our understanding of target tissue dosimetry, we should be better able to account for variability in human susceptibility to the toxic effects of chemicals.
Categories: Medical

Environmental Neuroscience

Environmental Neuroscience

On June 25, 2020, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a workshop to lay the foundation for future advances in environmental neuroscience.

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309683098

Category: Medical

Page: 86

View: 297

Humans are potentially exposed to more than 80,000 toxic chemicals in the environment, yet their impacts on brain health and disease are not well understood. The sheer number of these chemicals has overwhelmed the ability to determine their individual toxicity, much less potential interactive effects. Early life exposures to chemicals can have permanent consequences for neurodevelopment and for neurodegeneration in later life. Toxic effects resulting from chemical exposure can interact with other risk factors such as prenatal stress, and persistence of some chemicals in the brain over time may result in cumulative toxicity. Because neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders - such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease - cannot be fully explained by genetic risk factors alone, understanding the role of individual environmental chemical exposures is critical. On June 25, 2020, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a workshop to lay the foundation for future advances in environmental neuroscience. The workshop was designed to explore new opportunities to bridge the gap between what is known about the genetic contribution to brain disorders and what is known, and not known, about the contribution of environmental influences, as well as to discuss what is known about how genetic and environmental factors interact. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.
Categories: Medical

Computational Toxicology

Computational Toxicology

Humans are exposed to chemicals through voluntary and involuntary actions; to natural and synthetic chemicals all day, every day.

Author: John C. Lipscomb

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 9780128060445

Category: Medical

Page: 274

View: 827

Humans are exposed to chemicals through voluntary and involuntary actions; to natural and synthetic chemicals all day, every day. Single chemical risk assessments are complex in and of themselves, and the assessment of chemical mixtures exponentially increases the complexity for toxicologists, regulators, and the public. Chemicals produce effects in biological systems which may or may not be related to their toxicity; some effects may be adaptive or may not be a direct part of their mode or mechanism of toxic action. These terms are commonly used and may be distinguished based on the level of detail implied. Mode of action usually describes the effect of a toxicant at the cellular or organ level, while mechanism of action implies an understanding of the interaction of the toxicant at the molecular level. Chemicals can have the same mode of action, but act via different mechanisms. Components in a chemical mixture are characterized by mode and/or mechanism for the purpose of grouping, described later.
Categories: Medical

Environmental Neuroscience

Environmental Neuroscience

On June 25, 2020, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a workshop to lay the foundation for future advances in environmental neuroscience.

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309683128

Category: Medical

Page: 86

View: 828

Humans are potentially exposed to more than 80,000 toxic chemicals in the environment, yet their impacts on brain health and disease are not well understood. The sheer number of these chemicals has overwhelmed the ability to determine their individual toxicity, much less potential interactive effects. Early life exposures to chemicals can have permanent consequences for neurodevelopment and for neurodegeneration in later life. Toxic effects resulting from chemical exposure can interact with other risk factors such as prenatal stress, and persistence of some chemicals in the brain over time may result in cumulative toxicity. Because neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders - such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson's disease - cannot be fully explained by genetic risk factors alone, understanding the role of individual environmental chemical exposures is critical. On June 25, 2020, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a workshop to lay the foundation for future advances in environmental neuroscience. The workshop was designed to explore new opportunities to bridge the gap between what is known about the genetic contribution to brain disorders and what is known, and not known, about the contribution of environmental influences, as well as to discuss what is known about how genetic and environmental factors interact. This publication summarizes the presentation and discussion of the workshop.
Categories: Medical

The Interplay Between Environmental Chemical Exposures and Obesity

The Interplay Between Environmental Chemical Exposures and Obesity

FRAMING THE PROBLEM 13 Do these chemicals in the environment make it into the human body, and is there enough exposure to these chemicals that some effects ...

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309389273

Category: Science

Page: 172

View: 634

In March 2015, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop to explore the role that chemical exposures may play in the development of obesity. The obesity epidemic that has gripped the United States and much of the developed world for the past several decades has proved remarkably resistant to the various approaches tried by clinicians and public health officials to fight it. This raises the possibility that, in addition to the continued exploration of consumer understanding and behavior, new approaches that go beyond the standard focus on energy intake and expenditure may also be needed to combat the multifactorial problem of obesity. The speakers at the workshop discussed evidence from both studies with animal models and human epidemiological studies that exposure to environmental chemicals is linked both to weight gain and to glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. In addition to conventional environmental chemical exposures, this workshop also included one panel to discuss the potential role of other exposures, including sugar, artificial sweeteners, and antibiotics, in aiding or causing obesity. The participants also examined possible biological pathways and mechanisms underlying the potential linkages. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
Categories: Science

The Interplay Between Environmental Chemical Exposures and Obesity

The Interplay Between Environmental Chemical Exposures and Obesity

The participants also examined possible biological pathways and mechanisms underlying the potential linkages. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309389242

Category: Science

Page: 172

View: 623

In March 2015, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop to explore the role that chemical exposures may play in the development of obesity. The obesity epidemic that has gripped the United States and much of the developed world for the past several decades has proved remarkably resistant to the various approaches tried by clinicians and public health officials to fight it. This raises the possibility that, in addition to the continued exploration of consumer understanding and behavior, new approaches that go beyond the standard focus on energy intake and expenditure may also be needed to combat the multifactorial problem of obesity. The speakers at the workshop discussed evidence from both studies with animal models and human epidemiological studies that exposure to environmental chemicals is linked both to weight gain and to glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. In addition to conventional environmental chemical exposures, this workshop also included one panel to discuss the potential role of other exposures, including sugar, artificial sweeteners, and antibiotics, in aiding or causing obesity. The participants also examined possible biological pathways and mechanisms underlying the potential linkages. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.
Categories: Science

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

Human Toxicology of Chemical Mixtures

In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water ...

Author: Harold Zeliger

Publisher: William Andrew

ISBN: 1437734642

Category: Medical

Page: 574

View: 995

In this important reference work, Zeliger catalogs the known effects of chemical mixtures on the human body and also proposes a framework for understanding and predicting their actions in terms of lipophile (fat soluble) / hydrophile (water soluble) interactions. The author’s focus is on illnesses that ensue following exposures to mixtures of chemicals that cannot be attributed to any one component of the mixture. In the first part the mechanisms of chemical absorption at a molecular and macromolecular level are explained, as well as the body’s methods of defending itself against xenobiotic intrusion. Part II examines the sources of the chemicals discusssed, looking at air and water pollution, food additives, pharmaceuticals, etc. Part III, which includes numerous case studies, examines specific effects of particular mixtures on particular body systems and organs and presents a theoretical framework for predicting what the effects of uncharacterized mixtures might be. Part IV covers regulatory requirements and the need to adjust recommended exposure levels for products containing mixtures. It also contains recommendations on how to limit exposure to mixtures in the products we use and on how to limit release of mixtures into the environment. Providing brief summaries of each mixture and its effects, Zeliger provides a comprehensive reference, a jumping off point for professionals (with extensive chapter bibliographies) and an introduction to the topic for those studying traditional toxicology. Addressing many inadequately understood illnesses and conditions such as asthma, infertility and cancer, it will also be of interest to health professionals, environmental scientists and lawyers. Presents a theoretical framework for predicting the effects of chemical mixtures for which no specific data exists (this predictive aspect is important due to the vast number of different potential chemical combinations - far too many to comprehensively catalog) A quick and convenient source of hard to come by data on the rapidly developing field of chemical mixtures, for groups including chemists and engineers, toxicologists, health professionals and environmental scientists New and updated material comprises over 30% of this timely new edition, which includes the latest research data alongside an expanded introduction to the science and art of predicting the toxicological properties of chemical mixtures
Categories: Medical

Chemical Exposure and Human Health

Chemical Exposure and Human Health

Guide to hazardous chemicals listing symptoms and diseases caused by them, sources of chemical exposures, a chemical directory, and organizations.

Author: Cynthia Wilson

Publisher: McFarland Publishing

ISBN: UVA:X002528036

Category: Medical

Page: 339

View: 462

Guide to hazardous chemicals listing symptoms and diseases caused by them, sources of chemical exposures, a chemical directory, and organizations.
Categories: Medical

Economic Analysis of Costs Incurred from Chemical Exposures in the Workplace Resulting in Non Carcinogenic Responses as Additional Justification for Pollution Prevention Projects

Economic Analysis of Costs Incurred from Chemical Exposures in the Workplace Resulting in Non Carcinogenic Responses as Additional Justification for Pollution Prevention Projects

Specifically, this thesis looks at costs incurred due to noncarcinogenic effects caused by chemical exposures. Average costs are determined through researching applicable statistical cost data.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:227799732

Category:

Page: 109

View: 666

This research determines the applicability of using costs associated with chemical exposures in the workplace for financial justification of pollution prevention projects. Specifically, this thesis looks at costs incurred due to noncarcinogenic effects caused by chemical exposures. Average costs are determined through researching applicable statistical cost data. Acute effects are analyzed using an analysis of available statistical accident data from multiple sources. Expected values are then calculated based upon the projected cost of an accident and the probability of having an accident. Chronic effects are analyzed using an empirical analysis. A risk assessment is used to determine the likelihood of developing a chronic response to workplace exposures measured in terms of a hazard quotient. A probability of developing a response and the cost is then multiplied by the hazard quotient to predict the cost associated with chronic effects due to workplace exposures. This research shows that for the purposes of financially justifying pollution prevention projects, costs due to acute effects of chemical exposure are insignificant. Further, the cost due to chronic effects cannot be used at this time for pollution prevention justification because necessary workplace exposure data does not exist.
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Public Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Chemicals

Public Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Chemicals

This book provides a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the many facets relating to human health risk assessments in relation to chemical exposure problems.

Author: Kofi Asante-Duah

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789402410396

Category: Medical

Page: 600

View: 221

This book provides a concise, yet comprehensive overview of the many facets relating to human health risk assessments in relation to chemical exposure problems. It presents some very important tools and methodologies that can be used to address chemical exposure and public health risk management problems in a consistent, efficient, and cost-effective manner. On the whole, the book represents a collection and synthesis of the principal elements of the risk assessment process that may be used to more effectively address issues pertaining to human exposures to chemicals found in modern societies. This also includes an elaboration of pertinent risk assessment concepts and techniques/methodologies for performing human health risk assessments. Written for both the novice and the experienced, the subject matter of this book is an attempt at offering a simplified and systematic presentation of public health risk assessment methods and application tools – all these facilitated by a layout that will carefully navigate the user through the major processes involved. A number of illustrative example problems are interspersed throughout the book, in order to help present the book in an easy-to-follow, pragmatic manner.
Categories: Medical

Chemical Mixtures and Combined Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors

Chemical Mixtures and Combined Chemical and Nonchemical Stressors

In this book, both basic and advanced concepts are discussed for considering mixtures from initial exposure characterization through evaluation of risk associated with combined exposures.

Author: Cynthia V. Rider

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319562346

Category: Medical

Page: 556

View: 967

In this book, both basic and advanced concepts are discussed for considering mixtures from initial exposure characterization through evaluation of risk associated with combined exposures. This book will provide an introduction to key issues and multiple options for evaluating both the toxicity of mixtures as well as the risk associated with exposure to mixtures. Additionally, promising tools adapted from other disciplines will be discussed in the context of mixtures toxicology and risk assessment. Finally, the discussion will move beyond chemical mixtures to address incorporating non-chemical stressors into toxicity studies and cumulative risk assessments. Although exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors is the rule, not the exception, consideration of mixtures in toxicology and risk assessment continues to be a significant challenge. This book will be an essential resource for researchers and professionals in the fields of toxicology, epidemiology, exposure science, risk assessment, and statistics.
Categories: Medical

Proctor and Hughes Chemical Hazards of the Workplace

Proctor and Hughes  Chemical Hazards of the Workplace

The indispensable resource for health professionals on potentially unsafe chemicals--now fully updated Proctor and Hughes' Chemical Hazards of the Workplace, Fifth Edition provides a comprehensive reference text for health professionals who ...

Author: Gloria J. Hathaway

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471268836

Category: Medical

Page: 800

View: 322

The indispensable resource for health professionals on potentially unsafe chemicals--now fully updated Proctor and Hughes' Chemical Hazards of the Workplace, Fifth Edition provides a comprehensive reference text for health professionals who need toxicology data on chemicals that may be encountered in various work settings. Building on the success of the Fourth Edition-already a standard text-this new edition updates and revises the more than 600 entries of that text, and also adds monographs on new compounds. Introductory chapters cover toxicological concepts, clinical manifestations of exposure, the diagnosis of occupational disease, and industrial hygiene aspects of chemical exposures. The rest of the text consists of more than 625 alphabetically arranged entries on individual compounds, each of which includes: * Chemical formula * CAS number * 2003 ACGIH (American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists) threshold limit value * Synonyms * Physical properties * Sources of exposure * Routes of exposure * Toxicological data The toxicological data includes both acute and chronic effects, especially as related to any known exposure levels. The data emphasizes human studies and cases over animal data whenever sufficient information is available, and addresses any known carcinogenic, mutagenic, fetotoxic, or other reproductive effects. Clinical information is presented in a succinct narrative form to aid in understanding. Easy to use, in-depth, and comprehensive, Proctor and Hughes' Chemical Hazards of the Workplace, Fifth Edition offers occupational health physicians, nurses, industrial hygienists, and other safety professionals an invaluable and up-to-date resource.
Categories: Medical

Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents

Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents

Designed for emergency dept. physicians.

Author: Jonathan Borak

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 0788132563

Category:

Page: 495

View: 555

Designed for emergency dept. physicians. Contains emergency directions for the care of persons exposed to 27 chemical-specific protocols. Each chemical protocol is divided into five sections: description (color, odor, and physical state of the chemical at room temp.), health effects (common symptoms, sytemic effects and mechanism of action), pre-hospital mgmt. (potential for secondary contamination, patient care), emergency dep't. mgmt. (health effects, patient care), and patient info. sheet (follow-up instructions). Poison control centers list. Glossary.
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