This volume is a compilation of articles arising from the authors' seven years of personal experiences, study, research and analysis of EFL teaching in China between 2002 and 2008.
Author: Martin Wolff
Publisher: Nova Science Pub Incorporated
This book is a compilation of articles arising from the authors' seven years of personal experiences, study, research and analysis of EFL teaching in China between 2002 and 2008. It is an attempt to document deficiencies and suggest improvements for EFL teaching in China.. The authors began with the assumption that identifying the existing problems, analysing them and suggesting corrective action, would be beneficial to bringing about much needed curriculum reform. In the past twenty years English language has reached fever pitch in some economic free zones of China and has spread across the vast continent of China impacting on primary schools, middle schools, universities and colleges of higher education. Everyone in China is being exposed to the English language in one form or another. At any given moment at least 600 million Chinese citizens are studying English, which is more than twice the number of people living in the United States of America. China produces college graduates who have learned English for 16 years and are able to pass the national English knowledge examinations, but are unable to produce comprehensible oral or written English. They have memorised thousands of English words and set phrases. But when it comes to speaking or writing comprehensible English, they are like the parrot who can "talk" by saying "Poly want a cracker". China has invested heavily in its English language teaching programs that feature English learning to the exclusion of English acquisition. Famous Chinese professors write text books in conjunction with recognised foreign scholars. The State owned publishing houses, who have an exclusive monopoly on publishing in China, invest heavily in publishing these English learning texts to the exclusion of English acquisition texts. Chinese schools are not allowed to purchase texts on line or from western sources. There has been a quantum of second language acquisition knowledge discovered over the past twenty years by researchers in Europe and America. However, the resulting new teaching methodology and pedagogy currently dominating Western countries is facing resistance from the mainstream Chinese educational system. Whether this resistance is a forerunner to a 'clash of cultures' is yet to be realised. It may be as simple as a case of economic protectionism by those with vested interests in the current EFL learning teaching methodology. This book includes an English acquisition program (Holistic English) which the authors developed, tested and proved successful at various levels within the Chinese higher education system. The Holistic English Program produces a higher pass rate on the national English knowledge exams and it produces speakers and writers of comprehensible English. Yet, this language acquisition program is met with apathy, indifference, incompetence, opposition and outright hostility. This compilation of articles makes a compelling case for the need for EFL curriculum reform.
The book argues that teachers, when returning to pre-INSET teaching, are influenced by their prior deeply-rooted beliefs largely considered more powerful than newly-learnt theories.
Author: Ming Li
This pivot considers the impact of INSET courses on EFL teachers practicing under the national curriculum reform in China. Providing context-specific findings on the policy and implementation of INSET as well as its impact on teacher education initiatives in both China and similar contexts, it explores the limitations of one off training events such as INSET and the inconsistency between teacher learning results and their classroom practices. The book argues that teachers, when returning to pre-INSET teaching, are influenced by their prior deeply-rooted beliefs largely considered more powerful than newly-learnt theories. Addressing the rarely discussed fact that the complex and dynamic characteristics of teacher learning change over time and support the construct of teacher learning as a social event rather than a one-off event, the book also offers practical solutions on how to improve teacher education and enhance the long-term INSET impact on teacher development, with the ambition of promoting education reform for both teachers and students alike.
This book examines teacher agency in implementing English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum reform in the Chinese university context.
Author: Hongzhi Yang
This book examines teacher agency in implementing English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum reform in the Chinese university context. It theorizes the concept of teacher agency from a sociocultural theory perspective and draws on a study conducted in a conservative and less developed area in China. The book uses Engeström's activity theory and Vygotsky's concept of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) to understand the nature and extent of teacher agency in adapting one’s teaching with respect to beliefs, knowledge and instructional practices. The study concludes that curriculum reform in China needs to shift from reliance on 'top-down' policies to 'bottom-up' implementation that mobilizes local understandings and practices. One of the implications of this study is that transformative teacher education programs aimed at developing teacher pedagogical agency require that teachers have ongoing opportunities to design, develop and evaluate curriculum-based mediational means.
This is the first study to present complexity theory in a narrative context of education, exploring the non-linear and unpredictable features of the relationship between the teachers’ beliefs and practices.
Author: Hongying Zheng
The volume is a practical introduction to the ways in which the teachers deal with classroom events in the context of change for researchers, teachers, administrators who wish to implement curriculum reform to EFL in schools. The author provides insights into the beliefs of Chinese teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL), and their pedagogical choices in the context of the National English Curriculum Reform. The complex nature of EFL teachers’ beliefs about EFL teaching and learning are exposed, how their beliefs interact with mental and actionable processes triggered by classroom practice, and how their beliefs co-adapt with contexts to maintain the stability of the teachers’ belief systems. This is the first study to present complexity theory in a narrative context of education, exploring the non-linear and unpredictable features of the relationship between the teachers’ beliefs and practices. Integrating complexity theory with interpretivist, ecological and sociocultural perspectives, this book contributes to the research agenda by providing a systematic framework for examining teacher beliefs as a whole, and examining the extent to which western theory may be applied to Chinese educational contexts.
The book covers a wide range of topics, including: • Market economy and curriculum reform• Teaching under China’s market economy• Changes in higher education• Transitions from education to work • Market economy and social ...
Author: Shibao Guo
Fuelled by forces of globalization, China has gradually shifted from a centrally planned economy to a socialist market economy. Under the market economy China has experienced a massive and protracted economic boom. It is not clear however whether recent economic changes have brought the same miracle to education in China. Spotlight on China brings together established and emerging scholars from China and internationally in a dialogue about the profound social and economic transformation that has resulted from the market economy and its concomitant impact on education in China. The book covers a wide range of topics, including: • Market economy and curriculum reform• Teaching under China’s market economy• Changes in higher education• Transitions from education to work • Market economy and social inequality With its broad scope and fresh critical perspectives, this collection offers a most contemporary and comprehensive analysis of possibly the largest education system in the world. Lessons learned from the China experiment will inform researchers and educators about social and educational reforms in other countries which are undergoing similar fundamental changes. Spotlight on China provides a state of the art picture: dynamic, partial, full of contradictions and tensions, and, as we speak, in movement and local reconfiguration.” – Allan Luke, Queensland University of Technology. “The book moves social science research on China’s education another step forward by refining the balance between the viability of mainstream western concepts and the analytical possibilities of creating a new scholarship based on a deeper understanding of the historically grounded realities of contemporary Chinese education.” – Gerard A. Postiglione, The University of Hong Kong"
“China EFL: The Unqualified, Teaching (sic) the Unmotivated, in a Hostile
Environment. ... “China EFL: Why Chinese Universities do not Provide an English
Speaking Environment. ... CHINA EFL: Curriculum Reform, edited by M. Wolff.
Author: Niu Qiang
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Category: Foreign Language Study
“Obviously, you are not chanting the exultations of China which many of my country people are used to listening to.” A Chinese scholar recognizes that this book is not a further attempt to curry favor with China by tickling its leaders’ ears. This book examines what is right and the truth about what is wrong with English language education in Chinese colleges and universities. As our Chinese colleague further states, “Most Chinese are learning English like one learning swimming ashore.” We have been writing about these shortcomings for ten years. It arises because administrators posted to their positions due to party affiliation and good standing, are basically ignorant of administration and educational matters. “The VIPs of EEC believe that they know, while they don’t, what are under their supervision; the professionals of EEC believe that what they are doing academically is helpful while it’s not. The two types are making the common non-professional people believe that they are knowingly reliable while they are not. . . . The educated, as well as the illiterate, do not know what to do and what not to do, what is correct and what is wrong, what is worthy and what is not, etc. The weakness, from the historical perspective, is also a consequence of modern Chinese history whose knowledge most Chinese people are poor at but reluctant to admit.” This book could not be published within China due to its truthfulness.
Subsequently, a nationwide EFL curriculum reform in secondary schools in China was carried out in 2001, accompanied by a new EFL curriculum including
English Curriculum Standards (ECS). ECS aims to enhance students'
Author: Ambigapathy Pandian
Publisher: Penerbit USM
This book reflects an exceptional collection of articles, literature reviews and research finding primarily linked to curriculum and material development activities. The book covers various aspects from the theoretical frameworks and research findings that govern curriculum and material development processes to actual classroom practices that incorporated learners’ needs and contexts. Articles and research findings selected and presented in this book are primarily based on practicing school teachers’ interest. In addition to its wide coverage in terms of topics and contents, the book authors and contributors are from both local and abroad. This is intended for university students, curriculum planners, teachers, school administrators and teacher trainers that serve as guide for courses in language material design and curriculum and instruction.
The Work and Lives of Teachers in China provides valuable insight for policy makers, educators, researchers, teachers and students in education and beyond.
Author: Qing Gu
By bringing together a distinguished group of scholars who have deep, extensive and complementary knowledge and expertise of the Chinese education system, The Work and Lives of Teachers in China engages in detailed discussions on contemporary issues about teachers and teaching in China. It locates teachers’ work and lives in a critical analysis of the political, socio-cultural, ideological and educational reform contexts, and through this, demonstrates how teachers in different professional life phases and in different schools are able to retain their vocational strength and commitment for learning and development. Using rich illustrations from real teachers in real primary and secondary schools, this book represents a collection of scholarly writings which build research and practice informed new knowledge about the nature of teachers’ work and lives in China. Through these comprehensive case studies, the book illustrates to policy makers, head teachers and training and development organisations the importance of sustaining teachers’ commitment and wellbeing in their efforts to improve quality and standards in today’s Chinese schools. The Work and Lives of Teachers in China provides valuable insight for policy makers, educators, researchers, teachers and students in education and beyond.
This dissertation, "Teacher Identity Reconstruction in Response to China''s Curriculum Reform: a Case Study of Six English Language Teachers" by Xiaoyan, Rong, 戎晓燕, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) ...
Author: Xiaoyan Rong
This dissertation, "Teacher Identity Reconstruction in Response to China''s Curriculum Reform: a Case Study of Six English Language Teachers" by Xiaoyan, Rong, 戎晓燕, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Educational reforms have been widely discussed across the world in the 21st century, and recent research suggests that teachers are the mediating agents in implementing educational reforms, particularly curriculum reforms. The eighth curriculum reform in China, which requires a paradigm shift from the teacher-dominated, knowledge-based transmission mode of teaching to the student-centered, experience-based inquiry mode of teaching, has greatly challenged teachers. Notwithstanding the great importance of teachers'' responses to China''s new curriculum reform, there is a little qualitative research that examines teachers'' responses to the new curriculum reform. The present study sets out to examine teachers'' responses to the new curriculum within the particular social, cultural and institutional context, and to explore the factors that might influence teachers'' responses through a qualitative multiple case study. Three dyads of mentor-mentee senior secondary English teachers in three schools at different levels in Beijing, China were selected as the main research participants. Data were collected over a period of time in each school through interviews, observations and analysis of documents such as teaching logs and students'' homework. Data were analyzed following a grounded approach in an iterative process to provide insights into the process of teachers'' implementation of the new curriculum and to ascertain the mediating factors impacting teachers'' responses. Findings from case studies reveal that secondary English teachers in China responded to the new curriculum reform at both cognitive and behavioral levels. These responses altogether triggered changes in teachers'' professional world, which constituted teachers'' professional growth. Grounded in Wenger''s theory of identity formation, this study suggests that the changes in teachers'' professional world mediated teachers'' professional identity reconstruction through the participative and reificative dual process of identification and negotiation of meanings, in which teachers'' competences, trajectories, and participation in the new curriculum implementation were negotiated. During this process, secondary English teachers reappropriated the meaning of secondary EFL teaching in China as a student-centered, individually selective, pedagogically integrating communicative and traditional methods, Chinese context-adapted, but still exam-oriented teaching process in relation to the curriculum reform, and also reclaimed that secondary EFL teachers need to be equipped with updated knowledge pool, be aware of individual needs, make compromises to seek a balance between the prescribed curriculum and teaching reality, and allow an interactive teacher-student relationship in response to the curriculum reform. Findings suggest that the process of teacher identity reconstruction was mediated through three-level factors, socially and culturally: national policies, institutional powers, and teachers'' personal factors. This study contributes to an understanding of teachers'' cognitive and behavioral actions and the interplay between the two in response to a paradigm-shift curriculum reform from a sociocultural perspective. It provides a theoretical lens, namely teacher identity formation to interpret teachers'' responses to the curriculum reform. Situated in a Chinese context where Confucius...
"I have used the name, The Great Leap Forward in relation to my study of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum reform as I have linked economic, political and social developments of the late 20th and early 21st centuries in China ...
Author: Xiaohong Zhang
Category: English language
"I have used the name, The Great Leap Forward in relation to my study of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) curriculum reform as I have linked economic, political and social developments of the late 20th and early 21st centuries in China with education developments that have occurred at the same time as the reform has been implemented". -- Abstract.
This is one of two volumes by the same editors that explore historical, philosophical, and cultural perspectives on literacy in China. This volume focuses on English literacy in China, while the other volume is on Chinese literacy.
Author: Jiening Ruan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This is one of two volumes by the same editors that explore historical, philosophical, and cultural perspectives on literacy in China. This volume focuses on English literacy in China, while the other volume is on Chinese literacy. In modern day China, English has enjoyed an increasingly important status in education, but not without challenges. The essays in this volume provide a comprehensive, cross-disciplinary look at changes in English literacy practices and literacy instruction in China from the first English school in the 19th century to recent curriculum reform efforts to modernize English instruction from basic education through higher education. Together, the essays address a wide array of topics, including early childhood English education, uses of information technology to teach English, and teaching English to Chinese minority students. This work is essential reading for those who want to expand their understanding of English literacy education in China.
An analysis in light of Yin-Yang thinking lends support to the view that teachers' beliefs are situated in an inherently conflicting and complex system, and that this is contextually defined and practically constrained.
Author: Juan Tian
Category: English language
Since the early 21st century, the Chinese government has been launching a new round of nation-wide curriculum reform, which promotes the replacement of the traditional testoriented view of English with the communicative-based view. However, there is a serious research gap in the understanding of how local teachers perceive and react to the tensions arising from opposing views of English as subject matter (Widdowson, 2012; Zhang- Zhengdong, 2006; 2007). Drawing on the distinction between the views of "language as an object" and "language as a tool" (Ellis, 2012), this study examines the impact of the tool-vs-object tension on Chinese secondary school EFL teachers' beliefs about English and the extent to which tension-loaded beliefs are related to classroom practices. Guided by Yin-Yang theory, this study defines the research topic (beliefs about English) as a complex, self-conflicting system which comprises Yin-Yang interplay with regard to teachers' perceptions of context (where), content (what) and pedagogy (how), and proposes an eight-trigram model for analyzing data. A multiple-case study design is employed with Yin-Yang considerations, and case selection involves four participating teachers (Jing, Yun, Yao and Ping), who are from two schools (an urban school and a rural school), which are located in the same region (Beijing, the capital city of China). The research database includes field notes, interviews and audio/video recordings of teachers' classes. Eventually, a total of 19 core beliefs emerge from the data through a coding scheme which recognizes four types of belief-practice congruence, respectively termed Manifest Congruence, Latent Congruence, Subconscious Congruence and Embedded Congruence. A detailed description of each belief is followed by an analysis of its Yin-Yang nature, and each teacher's English-related beliefs are graphically summarized in the eight-trigram model, which allows for cross-case comparisons and the emergence of general patterns. Findings show that an individual teacher tends to hold beliefs that reflect opposing orientations of language at the same time and that there exist individual differences in the way teachers absorb and resolve tool-vs-object tensions, which has an impact on their idiosyncratic practices. It has also been found that their perception of tensions can be asynchronous along the three conceptual levels, as context-related tensions are found easier to be resolved than pedagogy-related tensions, and that experientially and reflectively enhanced beliefs are more likely to achieve pedagogical consistency. An analysis in light of Yin-Yang thinking lends support to the view that teachers' beliefs are situated in an inherently conflicting and complex system, and that this is contextually defined and practically constrained. It is argued that an optimal balance of Yin and Yang is essential for the development and maintenance of a belief system, and this has important implications for EFL education, educational research, teacher education, curriculum development and assessment reform in China. Finally, limitations of the study and recommendations for further research are also suggested.
This collection is important to all involved in language development, from curriculum reform to materials development. It assists from programme evaluation to the setting of assessment standards.
Author: Michael Thomas
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
Over the last decade task-based approaches to language learning and teaching (TBLT) have become a global focus of increased levels of research. Governments around the world have turned to TBLT as a potential solution for curricula that lack authentic and meaningful engagement with language learning and are failing to motivate students as a result. This book focuses on Asia, where this shift has been particularly in evidence. TBLT has often been implemented in top-down approaches to curriculum development, which presents a huge range of challenges at the cultural as well as the pedagogic level. Contemporary Task Based Language Teaching in Asia looks at the drivers, stakeholders and obstacles across the region. Some countries have adapted TBLT to deal with the local constraints, others have found it hard to apply and many are still in the process of investigating its implementation in their specific contexts. This collection is important to all involved in language development, from curriculum reform to materials development. It assists from programme evaluation to the setting of assessment standards. The chapters cover all aspects of language education across Asia, from primary to tertiary, private and public education, as well as innovations at local, regional and national levels.
From the beginning of this century , China has started a thorough curriculum reform in primary and high schools ( Ministry of Education of the People ' s
Republic of China , 2001 ) . The reform is launched against the EFL education
Author: Anwei Feng
Publisher: Multilingual Matters Limited
This volume brings together research on bilingual or trilingual education for the majority and minority nationality groups in China and explores the relationship between them. Papers range from reports of bilingual or trilingual education projects in remote minority regions to discussions about Chinese-English bilingual education in major cities.
This book addresses two main questions, namely how to prepare high-quality teachers in the 21st century and how the East and the West can learn from each other.
Author: Xudong Zhu
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
This book addresses two main questions, namely how to prepare high-quality teachers in the 21st century and how the East and the West can learn from each other. It addresses the different challenges and dilemmas that eastern countries, especially China, and western countries are facing with regard to teacher education. We explore the question by examining teacher education research, practice and policy in different countries, identifying both common problems and country-specific challenges. We then try to find valuable experiences, theories and practice which can solve specific problems in the process of teacher education, also addressing how local and global factors impact it. In this regard, our approach does not strictly separate pre-service teacher education from teachers’ in-service professional development, adopting an integrative perspective. Further, we believe the respective social and cultural contexts must also be taken into account. Lastly, we call for teachers’ knowledge and individual character traits to be accounted for in the education of high-quality teachers.
In the global world, cultural issues relating to the subject of English as Foreign Language (EFL) have become important. This is especially the case when considering the EFL curriculum for Chinese Primary Education.
Author: Jingyi Li
In the global world, cultural issues relating to the subject of English as Foreign Language (EFL) have become important. This is especially the case when considering the EFL curriculum for Chinese Primary Education. Many writers have addressed the nature of curriculum design as knowledge and cultural reproduction, but usually in the North American and European literature. This research takes these debates and relocates them in the context of China as it enters a new market economy, embedded in its own version of 'internationalism'. The 2001 national curriculum marked the beginning of China's educational reform. From a reading of this literature, two main questions emerged: 1) what cultural values are transmitted through EFL textbooks for Chinese Primary Education?; 2) how do curriculum-making processes impact upon textbook production? The findings provide an important insight into knowledge and cultural reproduction in Chinese Education, especially in the subject of EFL. Two volumes of EFL textbooks, which were used in primary schools, were selected to examine the delivery of cultural values. Based on these initial findings, the researcher conducted a series of interviews and focus groups in order to trace the process of textbook production and curriculum creation. Participants included educational administrators in the Ministry of Education in China, curriculum designers, textbook editors from both Chinese and foreign publishers as well as classroom teachers. Research findings suggest that, the production of EFL textbooks should be recognised as a part of curriculum-making processes in the context of Chinese Primary Education. The 'textbook' can be seen as the 'official' interpretation of the Chinese culture. Indeed, the EFL curriculum is recognized as a vehicle for moral education by policy makers and educators. EFL textbooks include many moral messages promoting expected behaviour in contemporary China - 'diligence, independence, respect and obedience, patriotism and collectivism'. The processes of generating this 'production' have spaces for less 'official' and more 'hidden' curriculum messages. Indeed, 'lacunae' - hidden spaces - in EFL curriculum design and textbook production have been identified. Various key players are involved in the curriculum-making process, including the State, its agencies, and intellectuals. However, instead of being a straight top-down structure led by the political elites, the strict control of the State over curriculum policy-making is finely nuanced. In fact, it was found that the practices of curriculum-making involve a complicated State-intellectuals partnership. Further, it is mainly the culture of the intellectual group which is reproduced through the EFL subject in Chinese Primary Education. Textbook editors and censors, inherently part of the intellectual elites, and key players in the curriculum designing process, rely heavily upon their own version of 'common sense'. This thesis therefore concludes that the 'hidden spaces' through which curriculum design, development and delivery take place, generate a more nuanced understanding of Chinese cultural reproduction, than has previously been thought.
Author: International Journal of Educational ReformPublish On: 2006-04-25
The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international ...
Author: International Journal of Educational Reform
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
The mission of the International Journal of Educational Reform (IJER) is to keep readers up-to-date with worldwide developments in education reform by providing scholarly information and practical analysis from recognized international authorities. As the only peer-reviewed scholarly publication that combines authors’ voices without regard for the political affiliations perspectives, or research methodologies, IJER provides readers with a balanced view of all sides of the political and educational mainstream. To this end, IJER includes, but is not limited to, inquiry based and opinion pieces on developments in such areas as policy, administration, curriculum, instruction, law, and research. IJER should thus be of interest to professional educators with decision-making roles and policymakers at all levels turn since it provides a broad-based conversation between and among policymakers, practitioners, and academicians about reform goals, objectives, and methods for success throughout the world. Readers can call on IJER to learn from an international group of reform implementers by discovering what they can do that has actually worked. IJER can also help readers to understand the pitfalls of current reforms in order to avoid making similar mistakes. Finally, it is the mission of IJER to help readers to learn about key issues in school reform from movers and shakers who help to study and shape the power base directing educational reform in the U.S. and the world.
This volume gathers contributions in the closely linked fields of English language assessment and language education. The contributors from China and Hong Kong represent a mixture of established and new scholars.
Author: David Coniam
This volume gathers contributions in the closely linked fields of English language assessment and language education. The contributors from China and Hong Kong represent a mixture of established and new scholars. Areas covered in the language education section range across major developments in the redefining of Hong Kong’s secondary and tertiary curricula, as well as the huge field of China’s vocational education curriculum. Regarding assessment, the contributions reflect major changes in the marking of examinations in Hong Kong, whereby all examinations from 2012 onwards are marked onscreen, to quality control issues in the administration of China’s College English Test, which is taken by over 10 million candidates every year.