Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466598232

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 444

One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global market—raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture. The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation. The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.
Categories: Science

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Author: Raj Patil

Publisher:

ISBN: 1681170299

Category:

Page: 329

View: 514

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality. Cocoa trees resemble English apple trees. They grow best under the canopy of tropical rainforests, seldom reaching more than 7.5 metres (25 feet) high. To flourish they need to be shaded from direct sun and wind, particularly in the early growth stages.
Categories:

Cocoa

Cocoa

Author: Ramesh Sirohi

Publisher:

ISBN: 9350303639

Category: Cocoa

Page: 264

View: 124

Categories: Cocoa

Cocoa

Cocoa

Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa.

Author: Edoh Adabe, K.

Publisher: CTA

ISBN: 9789290815662

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page:

View: 794

A highly nutritious crop, cocoa constitutes a significant source of income for small-scale producers. Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa. In addition to recommending a technical schedule for the production of cocoa plants, the guide stresses the importance of phytosanitary protection and post-harvest operations. Useful advice and economic information on the sector is also given in later chapters.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Drying Atlas

Drying Atlas

[21] M.N. Clifford, Coffee: Botany, Biochemistry and Production of Beans and
Beverage, Croom Helm Publisher, London (UK), 1985. [22] E.O. Afoakwa, Cocoa
Production and Processing Technology, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL (USA), 2014
.

Author: Werner Muhlbauer

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 9780128181638

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 446

View: 334

Drying Atlas: Drying Kinetics and Quality of Agricultural Products provides, in a condensed and systematic way, specific insights on the drying-relevant properties and coefficients of over 40 agricultural products. It also presents information about the production methods that influence the drying process, the quality of the dried product, the official quality standards of the products, and the design principles and operating characteristics of drying systems that are widely used in the postharvest processing and food industry. Available books on drying technology mainly focus on drying theory and simulation of drying processes. This book offers systematic information on the impact of other important parameters, such as relative humidity, air flow rate, mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatment, and drying mode for specific products. It is a unique and valuable reference for scientists and engineers who want to focus on industrial drying applications and dryers, as well as graduate and post-graduate students in postharvest technology and drying. Explores the production methods that influence the drying process and quality of the dried product Outlines the official quality standards of the products, the design principles, and the operating characteristics of drying systems that are used in postharvest processing Features 41 chapters that are (each for an agricultural product) presented in a condensed and systematic way
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Chocolate Science and Technology

Chocolate Science and Technology

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry.

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118913765

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 536

View: 605

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Beverages Processing and Technology

Beverages   Processing and Technology

The cocoa tree flourishes in the dense shade of warm rain forests in its natural
habitat and hence can be cultivated in all similar climatic ... The techniques used
in cocoa production, processing and consumption etc have also been described.

Author: D. Mudgil

Publisher: Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 9789387991729

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 302

View: 255

The objective of this book is to provide complete course content of beverage processing related subjects in ICAR, CSIR and UGC institutions in Food Technology, Dairy Technology, Food & Nutrition, Post Harvest Technology, Agricultural and Food Process Engineering discipline. The book contains fourteen chapters on the topics such as Introduction to Beverages, Role of Ingredients and Additives in Beverages, Fruit Juice Processing, Processing of Specific Fruits & Vegetables Juices, Cereal Based Beverages, Soft Carbonated Beverages, Alcoholic Beverages, Dairy Based Beverages, Sports Beverages, Tea Processing, Technology of Coffee Manufacture, Cocoa and Chocolate Based Beverages, Packaging of Beverages & Functional Beverages. The content of the book will be helpful for B.Tech, M.Tech, M.Sc. & Ph.D. students of above mentioned disciplines. These topics will also be helpful for the students preparing for competitive exams.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Horizons

Horizons

Training small farmers engaged in cocoa production and Belize government
extension service personnel in the use of improved cocoa seedlings and
processing technology lies at the heart of the $ 1.8 million project . Hershey
Foods has ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105130111144

Category: Developing countries

Page:

View: 267

Categories: Developing countries

Economic Progress of Agriculture in Developing Nations 1950 68

Economic Progress of Agriculture in Developing Nations  1950 68

27 / While cocoa production areas have expanded since 1950 , increased use of
insecticides and fungicides and improved varieties has ... A major problem ( like
rubber ) is quality control due to poor harvesting and processing techniques .

Author: United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Foreign Development and Trade Division

Publisher:

ISBN: UIUC:30112018980604

Category: Agricultural industries

Page: 179

View: 499

Categories: Agricultural industries

Chocolate Cocoa and Confectionery Science and Technology

Chocolate  Cocoa and Confectionery  Science and Technology

Recognised as the industry standard, this definitive guide provides a comprehensive review of chocolate and confectionary production and processing operations.

Author: Bernard W. Minifie

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 083421301X

Category: Science

Page: 904

View: 333

Recognised as the industry standard, this definitive guide provides a comprehensive review of chocolate and confectionary production and processing operations. The technical and scientific aspects of the various manufacturing procedures are emphasized: formulations and recipes are used as needed to supplement explanations and to advance understanding of a particular process. Other areas include raw materials, emulsifiers, replacers and compounds, ingredients, sweeteners, starches and colors, applied methods, food value, packaging and entomology.
Categories: Science

The New Encyclop dia Britannica Macrop dia Knowledge in depth

The New Encyclop  dia Britannica  Macrop  dia   Knowledge in depth

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015053532332

Category: Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Page:

View: 102

V.1-12 Micropaedia: Ready reference -- V.13-29 Macropaedia: Knowledge in depth -- V.[30] Propaedia: Outline of knowledge -- V.[31] Index, A-K -- V.[32] Index, L-Z.
Categories: Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Industry and Development

Industry and Development

The copper - processing industry , which is now experiencing greater sales and
profits , provides a good example of the benefits gained by ... In some cases ,
such as petrochemicals , the production of lower - technology chemicals would
also be more suited to production in developing countries . ... Some examples of
the industries involved are cocoa processing , seafood processing and
petrochemicals .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OSU:32435027209105

Category: Developing countries

Page:

View: 105

Categories: Developing countries

Chocolate Cocoa and Confectionery

Chocolate  Cocoa  and Confectionery

Recognised as the industry standard, this definitive guide provides a comprehensive review of chocolate and confectionary production and processing operations.

Author: Bernard W. Minifie

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1489957472

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 904

View: 913

Recognised as the industry standard, this definitive guide provides a comprehensive review of chocolate and confectionary production and processing operations. The technical and scientific aspects of the various manufacturing procedures are emphasized: formulations and recipes are used as needed to supplement explanations and to advance understanding of a particular process. Other areas include raw materials, emulsifiers, replacers and compounds, ingredients, sweeteners, starches and colors, applied methods, food value, packaging and entomology.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

World Cocoa Survey

World Cocoa Survey

At Nkolbisson , work is particularly concentrated on black pod disease and cocoa
fermentation . The program concentrates on general agronomic problems related
to cocoa production : technological studies on cocoa processing , selection ...

Author: C. A. Krug

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:20501094851

Category: Cacao

Page: 242

View: 337

Categories: Cacao

Prospects for Increased Value Added in Nigeria Cocoa Exports

Prospects for Increased Value Added in Nigeria Cocoa Exports

( iv ) How suitable is the existing cocoa processing technology in Nigeria and ,
are there possibilities of domestic sourcing of ... value . added in the Nigerian
cocoa industry and its implications on cocoa production , processing and
marketing .

Author: Ade Olomola

Publisher:

ISBN: UVA:X004002146

Category: Cocoa

Page: 49

View: 185

Categories: Cocoa

5 Years of Agricultural Research 1981 1986

5 Years of Agricultural Research  1981 1986

Total 0.6 0.4 Postharvest Technology 0.2 0 1981 82 83 84 85 Smallholders
Estate A simple coffee seed drier designed to ... varieties and cultural practices
and processing techniques , and raise smallholder incomes from cocoa
production .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: CORNELL:31924059889513

Category: Agriculture

Page: 115

View: 935

Categories: Agriculture

Cocoa Biotechnology Research and Issues in Competitiveness

Cocoa Biotechnology Research and Issues in Competitiveness

In Chapter 5 , a methodological tool to analyse the economic impact of
technological change is presented . After a ... It deals with cocoa production
technologies exclusively and does neither take into account the processing
technology nor the ...

Author: Thomas Braunschweig

Publisher: Lit Verlag

ISBN: UOM:39015050266413

Category: Science

Page: 97

View: 595

Categories: Science

Ghana

Ghana

... production of cocoa butter ( than in cocoa cake ) which can be produced by the
less capital- and technology - intensive expeller technique ( and which sells at
roughly the same price as cocoa butter produced by the processing technique ) .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: IND:30000050335268

Category: Ghana

Page: 99

View: 409

Categories: Ghana

Negotiating a World Cocoa Agreement

Negotiating a World Cocoa Agreement

Technological changes - Technological change is another important factor that
influences the production of cocoa . The best nutritional requirements for cocoa ,
the choice of varieties , the adoption of planting systems and processing methods
 ...

Author: Wayne A. Schutjer

Publisher:

ISBN: UIUC:30112019832242

Category: Cocoa

Page: 53

View: 813

Categories: Cocoa

Impact of Structural Adjustment and Adoption of Technology on Competitiveness of Major Cocoa Producing Countries

Impact of Structural Adjustment and Adoption of Technology on Competitiveness of Major Cocoa Producing Countries

However , it appears that the government intends to press ahead with the ban at
a later date , and there has been a surge in investment in processing capacity .
Brazil Cocoa production in Brazil is concentrated primarily in Bahia , which is ...

Author: E. M. Bloomfield

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822015536634

Category: Cocoa

Page: 90

View: 550

All the world's cocoa is grown in developing countries -- more than half in West Africa -- essentially for export. Except in Brazil, Malaysia and Indonesia, it is grown by smallholders. In the international cocoa market, prices rose steeply in 1977 but have been in almost constant decline since and production surpluses have persisted. For producers, the impact of the structural adjustment and liberalisation process has been mixed. While prices have remained low on the international market, producers have generally received a higher share of the international market price. On the other hand, input prices have increased and subsidies for fertiliser or improved planting material have either been reduced or eliminated. Under these conditions, poor producers then use even fewer purchased inputs. Structural adjustment has had a negative impact on cocoa research, particularly in public research institutions in Brazil and in Africa. In Malaysia the situation is different as the ...
Categories: Cocoa