Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466598232

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 649

One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global market—raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture. The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation. The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.
Categories: Science

Cocoa

Cocoa

Author: Ramesh Sirohi

Publisher:

ISBN: 9350303639

Category: Cocoa

Page: 264

View: 291

Categories: Cocoa

Cocoa

Cocoa

Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa.

Author: Edoh Adabe, K.

Publisher: CTA

ISBN: 9789290815662

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page:

View: 204

A highly nutritious crop, cocoa constitutes a significant source of income for small-scale producers. Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa. In addition to recommending a technical schedule for the production of cocoa plants, the guide stresses the importance of phytosanitary protection and post-harvest operations. Useful advice and economic information on the sector is also given in later chapters.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Author: Raj Patil

Publisher:

ISBN: 1681170299

Category:

Page: 329

View: 319

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality. Cocoa trees resemble English apple trees. They grow best under the canopy of tropical rainforests, seldom reaching more than 7.5 metres (25 feet) high. To flourish they need to be shaded from direct sun and wind, particularly in the early growth stages.
Categories:

Chocolate Science and Technology

Chocolate Science and Technology

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry.

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118913789

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 536

View: 543

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Drying Atlas

Drying Atlas

[18] H. Panda, Handbook on Spices and Condiments (Cultivation, Processing and Extraction), Asia Pacific Business Press Inc, ... [22] E.O. Afoakwa, Cocoa Production and Processing Technology, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL (USA), 2014.

Author: Werner Muhlbauer

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 9780128181638

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 446

View: 837

Drying Atlas: Drying Kinetics and Quality of Agricultural Products provides, in a condensed and systematic way, specific insights on the drying-relevant properties and coefficients of over 40 agricultural products. It also presents information about the production methods that influence the drying process, the quality of the dried product, the official quality standards of the products, and the design principles and operating characteristics of drying systems that are widely used in the postharvest processing and food industry. Available books on drying technology mainly focus on drying theory and simulation of drying processes. This book offers systematic information on the impact of other important parameters, such as relative humidity, air flow rate, mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatment, and drying mode for specific products. It is a unique and valuable reference for scientists and engineers who want to focus on industrial drying applications and dryers, as well as graduate and post-graduate students in postharvest technology and drying. Explores the production methods that influence the drying process and quality of the dried product Outlines the official quality standards of the products, the design principles, and the operating characteristics of drying systems that are used in postharvest processing Features 41 chapters that are (each for an agricultural product) presented in a condensed and systematic way
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Cocoa Chocolate and Human Health

Cocoa  Chocolate and Human Health

Conclusions A diversity of metabolites has been identified in urine and plasma after consumption of cocoa or cocoa ... Afoakwa, E.O. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology; CRC Press, Taylor & Francis: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2014; pp.

Author: Sabine Ellinger

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039285884

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 502

This book entitled “Cocoa, Chocolate, and Human Health” presents the most recent findings about cocoa and health in 14 peer-reviewed chapters including nine original contributions and five reviews from cocoa experts around the world. Bioavailability and metabolism of the main cocoa polyphenols, i.e., the flavanols like epicatechin, are presented including metabolites like valerolactones that are formed by the gut microbiome. Many studies, including intervention studies or epidemiological observations, do not focus on single compounds, but on cocoa as a whole. This proves the effectiveness of cocoa as a functional food. A positive influence of cocoa on hearing problems, exercise performance, and metabolic syndrome is discussed with mixed results; the results about exercise performance are contradictive. Evidence shows that cocoa flavanols may modulate some risk factors related to metabolic syndrome such as hypertension and disorders in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, several cardiometabolic parameters in type 2 diabetics were not affected by a flavanol-rich cocoa powder as simultaneous treatment with pharmaceuticals might have negated the effect of cocoa. The putative health-promoting components of cocoa are altered during processing like fermentation, drying, and roasting of cocoa beans. Chocolate, the most popular cocoa product, shows remarkable losses in polyphenols and vitamin E during 18 months of storage.
Categories: Science

Cocoa

Cocoa

The fourth edition of this highly regarded book has been considerably enlarged to cover all aspects of cocoa production. Higher prices for cocoa have led to much new knowledge about the plant and changes to its methods of production.

Author: G. A. R. Wood

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470698426

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 620

View: 212

The fourth edition of this highly regarded book has been considerably enlarged to cover all aspects of cocoa production. Higher prices for cocoa have led to much new knowledge about the plant and changes to its methods of production. These are discussed, along with new problems that have occurred and the fresh research projects that have been needed.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Chocolate Science and Technology

Chocolate Science and Technology

As a result of the increasing chocolate consumption trends, the cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing industry faces an enormous challenge in meeting the demand and quality criteria expected by the consuming populations.

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118913765

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 536

View: 655

This second edition provides information on recent advances in the science and technology of chocolate manufacture and the entire international cocoa industry. It provides detailed review on a wide range of topics including cocoa production, cocoa and chocolate manufacturing operations, sensory perception of chocolate quality, flavour release and perception, sugar replacement and alternative sweetening solutions in chocolate production, industrial manufacture of sugar-free chocolates as well as the nutrition and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption. The topics cover modern cocoa cultivation and production practices with special attention on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption as well as the application of HACCP and other food safety management systems such as ISO 22,000 in the chocolate processing industry are also addressed. Additionally, detailed research on the influence of different raw materials and processing operations on the flavour and other quality characteristics of chocolates have been provided with scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is intended to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where agriculture, food science and nutrition is studied and researched.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Fermented Foods Part II

Fermented Foods  Part II

Technological Interventions Ramesh C. Ray, Didier Montet ... Conclusion Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a tree that requires special conditions for its cultivation and a careful post-harvest ... Cocoa production and processing technology.

Author: Ramesh C. Ray

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351793766

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 525

View: 914

This book reviews the use of fermentation to develop healthy and functional foods and beverages, and the commercialization of some of the fermented food products through the use of biotechnology The first two sections cover the health and functional benefits of fermented foods and the latter two sections includes chapters on global and region-specific fermented foods that have crossed the geographical barriers to reach the supermarkets all over the world.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Protection in the Developing World

Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Protection in the Developing World

fertilizers used in cocoa production. Industrial processing of cocoa beans however made the largest contribution to global warming potential (63.70%). This impact was found to be mainly caused by the use of diesel for steam generation ...

Author: Ernest K. Yanful

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402091391

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 360

View: 566

This book is the first edited compilation of selected, refereed papers submitted to ERTEP 2007. The selected papers either dealt with technologies or scientific work and policy findings that address specific environmental problems affecting humanity in general, but more specifically, people and ecosystems in developing countries. It was not necessary for the work to have been done in a developing country, but the findings and results must be appropriate or applicable to a developing country setting. It is acknowledged that environmental research, technology applications and policy implementation have been demonstrated to improve environmental sustainability and protection in several developed economies. The main argument of the book is that similar gains can be achieved in developing economies and economies in transition. The book is organized into six chapters along some of the key themes discussed at the conference: Environmental Health Management, Sustainable Energy and Fuel, Water Treatment, Purification and Protection, Mining and Environment, Soil Stabilization, and Environmental Monitoring. It is hoped that the contents of the book will provide an insight into some of the environmental and health mana- ment challenges confronting the developing world and the steps being taken to address them.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Cocoa

Cocoa

Technical details can be found in Afoakwa's Cocoa Production and Processing Technology and Chocolate Science and Technology. For a meticulous (and illustrated) discussion of cocoa quality and cultivation in Mesoamerica, ...

Author: Kristy Leissle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781509513208

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 663

Chocolate has long been a favorite indulgence. But behind every chocolate bar we unwrap, there is a world of power struggles and political maneuvering over its most important ingredient: cocoa. In this incisive book, Kristy Leissle reveals how cocoa, which brings pleasure and wealth to relatively few, depends upon an extensive global trade system that exploits the labor of five million growers, as well as countless other workers and vulnerable groups. The reality of this dramatic inequity, she explains, is often masked by the social, cultural, emotional, and economic values humans have placed upon cocoa from its earliest cultivation in Mesoamerica to the present day. Tracing the cocoa value chain from farms in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean, through to chocolate factories in Europe and North America, Leissle shows how cocoa has been used as a political tool to wield power over others. Cocoa's politicization is not, however, limitless: it happens within botanical parameters set by the crop itself, and the material reality of its transport, storage, and manufacture into chocolate. As calls for justice in the industry have grown louder, Leissle reveals the possibilities for and constraints upon realizing a truly sustainable and fulfilling livelihood for cocoa growers, and for keeping the world full of chocolate.
Categories: Political Science

Fruits Vegetables and Herbs

Fruits  Vegetables  and Herbs

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Almoosawi, S., Tsang, C., Ostertag, L.M., Fyfe, L., Al-Dujaili, E.A., 2012. Differential effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on biomarkers of glucose metabolism ...

Author: Ronald Ross Watson

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128029893

Category: Medical

Page: 618

View: 835

Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion brings together experts from around the world working on the cutting edge of research on fruit, vegetables, and herbs in health promotion. Offering a timely, concise, scientific appraisal of the efficacy of key foods to prevent disease and improve the quality of life, Fruits, Vegetables, and Herbs: Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion provides valuable evidence-based conclusions and recommendations. This reference text will encourage further research on the potential benefits of fruits and vegetables in health and disease prevention, providing a basis for possible dietary modifications by the government and the public. Provides insight on bioactive constituents found in fruits and vegetables that can be further studied to improve health and disease resistance or incorporated into other food products and used as alternative medicines and dietary supplements Includes valuable information on how fruits are important sources of bioflavonoids and nonnutritive bioactives that modify body functions Offers a conclusion or summary of evidence at the end of each chapter to enhance understanding of new approaches in the field
Categories: Medical

Cocoa Pest and Disease Management in Southeast Asia and Australasia

Cocoa Pest and Disease Management in Southeast Asia and Australasia

The important cocoa producing areas should be controlled and isolated from important pests and diseases . ... extension of production technology in order to increase production significantly and of processing technology for increasing ...

Author: Peter J. Keane

Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.

ISBN: 9251030391

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 223

View: 443

Categories: Technology & Engineering

Epoxy Resins Technology Handbook Manufacturing Process Synthesis Epoxy Resin Adhesives and Epoxy Coatings 2nd Revised Edition

Epoxy Resins Technology Handbook  Manufacturing Process  Synthesis  Epoxy Resin Adhesives and Epoxy Coatings  2nd Revised Edition

PAPER, PULP & PAPER CONVERSION * Modern Technology of Pulp, Paper and Paper Conversion Industries * The Complete Technology Book on Pulp & Paper Industries * Handbook on Pulp and Paper Processing AGRO BASED, CEREAL FOOD, MILK, COCOA, ...

Author: Dr. H. Panda

Publisher: ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.

ISBN: 9788178331829

Category:

Page: 576

View: 993

Epoxy is a term used to denote both the basic components and the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. Epoxy resin are a class of thermoset materials used extensively in structural and specialty composite applications because they offer a unique combination of properties that are unattainable with other thermoset resins. Epoxies are monomers or prepolymers that further reacts with curing agents to yield high performance thermosetting plastics. They have gained wide acceptance in protecting coatings, electrical and structural applications because of their exceptional combination of properties such as toughness, adhesion, chemical resistance and superior electrical properties. Epoxy resins are characterized by the presence of a three membered cycle ether group commonly referred to as an epoxy group 1,2-epoxide, or oxirane. The most widely used epoxy resins are diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol-A derived from bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin. The market of epoxy resins are growing day by day. Today the total business of this product is more than 100 crores. Epoxy resins are used for about 75% of wind blades currently produced worldwide, while polyester resins account for the remaining 25%. A standard 1.5-MW (megawatt) wind turbine has approximately 10 tonnes of epoxy in its blades. Traditionally, the markets for epoxy resins have been driven by demand generated primarily in areas of adhesives, building and civil construction, electrical insulation, printed circuit boards, and protective coatings for consumer durables, amongst others. The major contents of the book are synthesis and characteristics of epoxy resin, manufacture of epoxy resins, epoxide curing reactions, the dynamic mechanical properties of epoxy resins, physical and chemical properties of epoxy resins, epoxy resin adhesives, epoxy resin coatings, epoxy coating give into water, electrical and electronic applications, analysis of epoxides and epoxy resins and the toxicology of epoxy resins. It will be a standard reference book for professionals and entrepreneurs. Those who are interested in this field can find the complete information from manufacture to final uses of epoxy resin. This presentation will be very helpful to new entrepreneurs, technocrats, research scholars, libraries and existing units.
Categories:

Kirk Othmer Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology 2 Volume Set

Kirk Othmer Concise Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology  2 Volume Set

... 1:527–528 ring structures, 1:528–530 Chocolate and cocoa, production and processing, 1:530–532 Cholecalciferol. ... specific chromatographic techniques, e.g. Affinity chromatography; specific processes archaeological materials, ...

Author: Kirk-Othmer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470047484

Category: Science

Page: 2762

View: 629

This is an easily-accessible two-volume encyclopedia summarizing all the articles in the main volumes Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, Fifth Edition organized alphabetically. Written by prominent scholars from industry, academia, and research institutions, the Encyclopedia presents a wide scope of articles on chemical substances, properties, manufacturing, and uses; on industrial processes, unit operations in chemical engineering; and on fundamentals and scientific subjects related to the field.
Categories: Science

Lubricating Oils Greases and Petroleum Products Manufacturing Handbook

Lubricating Oils  Greases and Petroleum Products Manufacturing Handbook

The Complete Technology Book on Pulp & Paper Industries * Handbook on Pulp and Paper Processing AGRO BASED, CEREAL FOOD, MILK, COCOA, CHOCOLATE, ICE CREAM, PLANTATION, FARMING, FOOD & BEVERAGES, FRUITS, DAIRY, CONFEC-TIONERY, ...

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers

Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES

ISBN: 9789381039892

Category:

Page: 376

View: 491

Lubricating oils are specially formulated oils that reduce friction between moving parts and help maintain mechanical parts. Lubricating oil is a thick fatty oil used to make the parts of a machine move smoothly. The lubricants market is growing due to the growing automotive industry, increased consumer awareness and government regulations regarding lubricants. Lubricants are used in vehicles to reduce friction, which leads to a longer lifespan and reduced wear and tear on the vehicles. The growth of lubricants usage in the automotive industry is mainly due to an increasing demand for heavy duty vehicles and light passenger vehicles, and an increase in the average lifespan of the vehicles. As saving conventional resources and cutting emissions and energy have become central environmental matters, the lubricants are progressively attracting more consumer awareness. Greases are made by using oil (typically mineral oil) and mixing it with thickeners (such as lithium-based soaps). They may also contain additional lubricating particles, such as graphite, molybdenum disulfide, or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, aka Teflon). White grease is made from inedible hog fat and has a low content of free fatty acids. Yellow grease is made from darker parts of the hog and may include parts used to make white grease. Brown grease contains beef and mutton fats as well as hog fats. Synthetic grease may consist of synthetic oils containing standard soaps or may be a mixture of synthetic thickeners, or bases, in petroleum oils. Silicones are greases in which both the base and the oil are synthetic. Asia-Pacific represents the largest and the fastest growing market, with volume sales projected to grow at a CAGR of 5% over the analysis period. Automotive lubricants represents the largest product market, with engine oils generating a major chunk of the revenues. The market for industrial lubricants is supported by the huge demand for industrial engine oils and growing consumption of process oils. The major content of the book are Food and Technical Grade White Oils and Highly Refined Paraffins, Base Oils from Petroleum, Formulation of Automotive Lubricants, Lubricating Grease, Aviation Lubricants, Formulation and Structure of Lubricating Greases, Marine Lubricants, Industrial Lubricants, Refining of Petroleum, Lubricating Oils, Greases and Solid Lubricants, Refinery Products, Crude Distillation and Photographs of Machinery with Suppliers Contact Details. This book will be a mile stone for its readers who are new to this sector, will also find useful for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area.
Categories:

Biofuels Production and Processing Technology

Biofuels Production and Processing Technology

Third-generation biofuels are based on the production and conversion of algal biomass and are presently under ... The chapter also briefly reviews various processing technologies for the conversion of different raw biomaterials to ...

Author: M.R. Riazi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781498778947

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 690

View: 889

The importance of biofuels in greening the transport sector in the future is unquestionable, given the limited available fossil energy resources, the environmental issues associated to the utilization of fossil fuels, and the increasing attention to security of supply. This comprehensive reference presents the latest technology in all aspects of biofuels production, processing, properties, raw materials, and related economic and environmental aspects. Presenting the application of methods and technology with minimum math and theory, it compiles a wide range of topics not usually covered in one single book. It discusses development of new catalysts, reactors, controllers, simulators, online analyzers, and waste minimization as well as design and operational aspects of processing units and financial and economic aspects. The book rounds out by describing properties, specifications, and quality of various biofuel products and new advances and trends towards future technology.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Petroleum Petroleum Products Technology Handbook

Petroleum   Petroleum Products Technology Handbook

Edn.) The Complete Technology Book of Cocoa, Chocolate, Ice Cream and Other Milk Products The Complete Technology Book ... Edn. The Complete Book on Coconut & Coconut Products (Cultivation and Processing) * Rabbit, Goat, Sheep, Poultry, ...

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers

Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES

ISBN: 9788193733912

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 440

View: 192

Petroleum asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most petroleum crude oils and in some natural deposits. Petroleum crude oil is a complex mixture of a great many different hydrocarbons. Refined petroleum products are derived from crude oils through processes such as catalytic cracking and fractional distillation. Refining is a necessary step before oil can be burned as fuel or used to create end products. Residual fuel oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons prepared by blending a residuum component with a flux stock which is a distillate component diluent, to give the desired viscosity of the fuel oil produced.Petroleum refining is the process of separating the many compoundspresent in crude petroleum.An Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant wherecrude oil is processed and refined into more useful products The global Petroleum Asphalt market is valued at USD 48.8 Billion in 2017 and is expected to reach USD 77.67 Billion by the end of 2024, growing at a Growth Rate of 6.87% between 2017 and 2024.The global bunker fuel market was valued at $137,215.5 million in 2017 and is expected to reach $273,050.4 million by 2025, registering a CAGR of 9.4% from 2018 to 2025. Some of the fundamentals of the book are composition of radiation effects on lubricants, thermal cracking of pure saturatedhydrocarbons, petroleum asphalts, refinery products, refinery feedstocks, blending and compounding, oil refining, residual fuel oils, distillate heating oils, formulations of petroleum, photographs of machinery withsuppliers contact details. A total guide to manufacturing and entrepreneurial success in one of today's most lucrative petroleum industry. This book is one-stop guide to one of the fastest growing sectors of the petroleum industry, where opportunities abound for manufacturers, retailers, and entrepreneurs. This is the only complete handbook on the commercial production of petroleum products. It serves up a feast of how-to information, from concept to purchasing equipment.
Categories: Business & Economics

The Complete Technology Book on Textile Spinning Weaving Finishing and Printing 3rd Revised Edition

The Complete Technology Book on Textile Spinning  Weaving  Finishing and Printing  3rd Revised Edition

Edn.) The Complete Technology Book of Cocoa, Chocolate, Ice Cream and Other Milk Products * The Complete Technology ... Edn. The Complete Book on Coconut & Coconut Products (Cultivation and Processing) * Rabbit, Goat, Sheep, Poultry, ...

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers

Publisher: ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.

ISBN: 9788178331638

Category:

Page: 564

View: 509

Textile industry is one of the few basic industries, which is characterised as a necessary component of human life. One may classify it as a more glamorous industry, but whatever it is, it provides with the basic requirement called clothes. Spinning is the process of converting cotton or manmade fibre into yarn to be used for weaving and knitting. Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. Finishing refers to the processes that convert the woven or knitted cloth into a usable material. Printing is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs. The textile industry occupies an important position in the total volume of merchandise trade across countries. Developing countries account for little over two-third of world exports in textiles and clothing. It is the second largest employer after agriculture, providing employment to over 45 million people directly and 60 million people indirectly. The future for the textile industry looks promising, buoyed by both strong domestic consumption as well as export demand. This book is based on the latest technology involved in textile industry, which describes the processes available at the spinning and fabric forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of wide ranges of products. The major contents of the book are dyeing of textile materials, principles of spinning, process preparatory to spinning, principles of weaving, textile chemicals, yarn preparation, weaving and woven fabrics, knitting and knit fabrics, nonconventional fabrics, cellulosics, mixed fibers, printing compositions, printing processes, transfer dyes, transfer inks etc. It describes the manufacturing processes and photographs of plant & machinery with supplier’s contact details. It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, textile mill owners, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of textile industry.
Categories: