Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466598232

Category: Science

Page: 374

View: 883

One of the largest food commodities exported from the developing countries to the rest of the world, cocoa has gained increasing attention on the global market—raising many questions about its quality, sustainability and traceability. Cocoa Production and Processing Technology presents detailed explanations of the technologies that could be employed to assure sustainable production of high-quality and safe cocoa beans for the global confectionary industry. It provides overviews of up-to-date technologies and approaches to modern cocoa production practices, global production and consumption trends as well as principles of cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture. The book covers the origin, history and taxonomy of cocoa, and examines the fairtrade and organic cocoa industries and their influence on smallholder farmers. The chapters provide in-depth coverage of cocoa cultivation, harvesting and post-harvest treatments with a focus on cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations and their influence on quality, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation techniques, drying, storage and transportation. The author provides details on cocoa fermentation processes as well as the biochemical and microbiological changes involved and how they influence flavour. He also addresses cocoa trading systems, bean selection and quality criteria, as well as industrial processing of fermented and dried cocoa beans into liquor, cake, butter and powder. The book examines the general principles of chocolate manufacture, detailing the various stages of the processes involved, the factors that influence the quality characteristics and strategies to avoid post-processing quality defects. This volume presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality.
Categories: Science

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

Cocoa Production and Processing Technology

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product ...

Author: Raj Patil

Publisher:

ISBN: 1681170299

Category:

Page: 329

View: 603

This book presents innovative techniques for sustainability and traceability in high-quality cocoa production and explores new product development with potential for cost reduction as well as improved cocoa bean and chocolate product quality. Cocoa trees resemble English apple trees. They grow best under the canopy of tropical rainforests, seldom reaching more than 7.5 metres (25 feet) high. To flourish they need to be shaded from direct sun and wind, particularly in the early growth stages.
Categories:

Cocoa

Cocoa

Author: Ramesh Sirohi

Publisher:

ISBN: 9350303639

Category: Cocoa

Page: 264

View: 168

Categories: Cocoa

Cocoa

Cocoa

Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa.

Author: Edoh Adabe, K.

Publisher: CTA

ISBN: 9789290815662

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page:

View: 127

A highly nutritious crop, cocoa constitutes a significant source of income for small-scale producers. Attractively presented, with full-colour illustrations, tables and step-by-step guides, the text clearly sets out the procedure to start growing cocoa. In addition to recommending a technical schedule for the production of cocoa plants, the guide stresses the importance of phytosanitary protection and post-harvest operations. Useful advice and economic information on the sector is also given in later chapters.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Drying Atlas

Drying Atlas

[21] M.N. Clifford, Coffee: Botany, Biochemistry and Production of Beans and
Beverage, Croom Helm Publisher, London (UK), 1985. [22] E.O. Afoakwa, Cocoa
Production and Processing Technology, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL (USA), 2014
.

Author: Werner Muhlbauer

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 9780128181638

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 446

View: 590

Drying Atlas: Drying Kinetics and Quality of Agricultural Products provides, in a condensed and systematic way, specific insights on the drying-relevant properties and coefficients of over 40 agricultural products. It also presents information about the production methods that influence the drying process, the quality of the dried product, the official quality standards of the products, and the design principles and operating characteristics of drying systems that are widely used in the postharvest processing and food industry. Available books on drying technology mainly focus on drying theory and simulation of drying processes. This book offers systematic information on the impact of other important parameters, such as relative humidity, air flow rate, mechanical, thermal and chemical pre-treatment, and drying mode for specific products. It is a unique and valuable reference for scientists and engineers who want to focus on industrial drying applications and dryers, as well as graduate and post-graduate students in postharvest technology and drying. Explores the production methods that influence the drying process and quality of the dried product Outlines the official quality standards of the products, the design principles, and the operating characteristics of drying systems that are used in postharvest processing Features 41 chapters that are (each for an agricultural product) presented in a condensed and systematic way
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Beverages Processing and Technology

Beverages   Processing and Technology

The cocoa tree flourishes in the dense shade of warm rain forests in its natural
habitat and hence can be cultivated in all similar climatic ... The techniques used
in cocoa production, processing and consumption etc have also been described.

Author: D. Mudgil

Publisher: Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 9789387991729

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 302

View: 447

The objective of this book is to provide complete course content of beverage processing related subjects in ICAR, CSIR and UGC institutions in Food Technology, Dairy Technology, Food & Nutrition, Post Harvest Technology, Agricultural and Food Process Engineering discipline. The book contains fourteen chapters on the topics such as Introduction to Beverages, Role of Ingredients and Additives in Beverages, Fruit Juice Processing, Processing of Specific Fruits & Vegetables Juices, Cereal Based Beverages, Soft Carbonated Beverages, Alcoholic Beverages, Dairy Based Beverages, Sports Beverages, Tea Processing, Technology of Coffee Manufacture, Cocoa and Chocolate Based Beverages, Packaging of Beverages & Functional Beverages. The content of the book will be helpful for B.Tech, M.Tech, M.Sc. & Ph.D. students of above mentioned disciplines. These topics will also be helpful for the students preparing for competitive exams.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Chocolate Science and Technology

Chocolate Science and Technology

The character of chocolate not only originates in flavour precursors present in
cocoa beans but are generated during post-harvest ... from the cocoa genotype,
environmental factors, and post-harvest treatments and processing technologies
affect flavour ... The chapters cover the entirety of the science and technology of
chocolate manufacture — from cocoa production through manufacturing
processes to ...

Author: Emmanuel Ohene Afoakwa

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444357332

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 296

View: 668

This book provides an overview of the science and technology of chocolate manufacture from cocoa production, through the manufacturing processes, to the sensory, nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption. It covers cocoa cultivation and production with special attention paid to cocoa bean composition, genotypic variations in the bean, post-harvest pre-treatments, fermentation and drying processes, and the biochemical basis of these operations. The scientific principles behind industrial chocolate manufacture are outlined with detailed explanations of the various stages of chocolate manufacturing including mixing, refining, conching and tempering. Other topics covered include the chemistry of flavour formation and development during cocoa processing and chocolate manufacture; volatile flavour compounds and their characteristics and identification; sensory descriptions and character; and flavour release and perception in chocolate. The nutritional and health benefits of cocoa and chocolate consumption are also addressed. There is a focus throughout on those factors that influence the flavour and quality characteristics of the finished chocolate and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement. The book is designed to be a desk reference for all those engaged in the business of making and using chocolate worldwide; confectionery and chocolate scientists in industry and academia; students and practising food scientists and technologists; nutritionists and other health professionals; and libraries of institutions where food science is studied and researched. an overview of the science behind chocolate manufacture covers the whole process from cocoa production, through manufacturing, to the nutrition and health aspects of chocolate consumption focuses on factors that influence chocolate flavour and quality, and that provide scope for process optimization and improvement.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Food Technology

Food Technology

To create the desired finished , product manufacturers need to know about cocoa
( the raw material ) , how it is made into chocolate and the correct processing
techniques . Cocoa Production Cocoa comes from the beans of the tropical
cocoa ...

Author: Jill Robinson

Publisher: Nelson Thornes

ISBN: 0748760849

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 168

View: 499

This text has been revised to cover 2001 GCSE specifications for the National Curriculum. It has increased emphasis on CAD-CAM, ICT, industrial practice and environmental issues.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

The Complete Book on Emulsifiers with Uses Formulae and Processes 2nd Revised Edition

The Complete Book on Emulsifiers with Uses  Formulae and Processes  2nd Revised Edition

How to start an emulsifier Production Business, How to Start Emulsifier
Processing Industry in India, Industrial ... Complete Complete And Technology
TechnologyOtherMilk Book Book Products on Of Flavoured Cocoa, Chocolate,
Ice Cream ...

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers

Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES

ISBN: 9788190568531

Category: Emulsions

Page: 428

View: 334

Emulsifier is an organic compound that encompasses in the same molecule two dissimilar structural groups e.g. water soluble and a water insoluble moiety. It is the ingredient which binds the water and oil in a cream or lotion together permanently. The composition, solubility properties, location and relative sizes of these dissimilar groups in relation to the overall molecular configuration determine the surface activity of a compound. Emulsifiers are classified on the basis of their hydrophilic or solubilizing groups in to four categories anionic, non ionic, cationics and amphoterics. Emulsifier is utilized in various industries; agriculture, building and construction, elastomers & plastics, food & beverages, industrial cleaning, leather, metals, paper, textiles paints & protective coatings etc. An emulsion is an ideal formulation for the administration. The emulsion form allows uniform application of a small amount of active ingredient on the surface of the skin. Some of the important emulsions in different field are pharmaceutical emulsions, rosin & rubber emulsion, textile emulsions, pesticide emulsions, food emulsions, emulsion in paint industry, emulsion in polish industry, leather & paper treatment emulsions etc. Various cosmetics creams, such as moisturizers, contain emulsifiers. Lighter, less greasy feeling creams are oil in water emulsions; heavier creams used to treat rough skin are water in oil emulsions, with oil as the main ingredient. Liquid soaps, toothpastes and other body care products also contain emulsifiers. Emulsifiers have the ability to optimize the concentration of certain nutrients in an emulsion. For example, in hair conditioners, some conditioning agents can damage hair if not properly diluted in the solution. Emulsifiers are among the most frequently used types of food additives. Emulsifiers can help to make a food appealing. Emulsifiers have a big effect on the structure and texture of many foods. Increasing demand for low fat food among health conscious consumers is gradually driving the market for emulsifiers. Besides stabilizing emulsions, emulsifiers derived from non hydrogenated fats help in maintaining sensory characteristics of food such as texture, flavor, and taste that are often lost due to fat reduction. This characteristic of making healthier products similar in taste to fat containing versions has enabled emulsifiers in gaining widespread acceptance in the market. The global food industry is also witnessing increase in demand for multipurpose emulsifiers that perform functions of both stabilization and emulsification. Some of the fundamentals of the book are characteristics and application of emulsifiers, wetting and detergent structures in emulsifier, effect of surfactant on the properties of solutions, wetting characteristics of emulsifiers, formulated emulsifiers, non surfactant functional additives, inert fillers, functional surfactant additives, uses of emulsifiers, household and personal products, industrial uses of emulsifier, anionic surfactants, non ionic surfactants, cationic, amphoteric and enzyme, alkylolamides, vinylarene polymers, alkyl sulfates, ethoxylation processes, application of emulsifiers, etc. The present book contains manufacturing processes of various types of emulsifiers which have applications in different industries. This is a resourceful book for scientists, technologists, entrepreneurs and ingredients suppliers. TAGS applications of emulsifier, Book on emulsifier, emulsifier Based Small Scale Industries, emulsifier examples, emulsifier in food, Emulsifier Processing Industry in India, emulsifiers list, Emulsifiers with Uses, Formulae and Processes, Emulsion - Uses of Emulsions, Emulsion Surface Area, Emulsions in Polish Industry, Food Emulsifier Applications, Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications, formulation and stability of emulsions with polymeric emulsifiers, Formulation of emulsifiers, Formulation of Emulsion Paints manufacturing process, Formulation of Textile emulsions manufacturing process, function of emulsifier in cosmetics, function of emulsifier in food, how to manufacture emulsifiers, How to start an emulsifier Production Business, How to Start Emulsifier Processing Industry in India, Industrial Applications of Emulsion Technology, Industrial Uses of Emulsifier, Leather and Paper Treatment Emulsions manufacturing process, Manufacturing process of emulsifier, Most Profitable emulsifier Processing Business Ideas, Nature and use of emulsifiers in foods, new small scale ideas in emulsifier processing industry, pharmaceutical application of emulsion, Procedure for Emulsification of Oil in Water Using Surfactants, Process of Polish Emulsions, Process technology book on emulsifier, role of emulsifier in emulsion, role of surfactant in emulsion, Starting an emulsifier Processing Business, types of food emulsifiers, Uses of emulsifiers, What is an Emulsifier?
Categories: Emulsions

What is Missing Between Agricultural Growth and Infrastructure Development Cases of Coffee and Dairy in Africa

What is Missing Between Agricultural Growth and Infrastructure Development  Cases of Coffee and Dairy in Africa

11 Coffee and cocoa are quite similar in terms of production and processing
technology. However, tea is technically differentiated from them, and as the result
, the following empirical model does not include tea. 12 The importance of roads
for ...

Author: Atsushi Iimi

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN:

Category:

Page:

View: 245

Categories:

Proceedings of the World Conference on Lauric Oils

Proceedings of the World Conference on Lauric Oils

The Fractionation of Lauric Oil Components for Cocoa Butter Substitutes Soon
Wong Atlanto Sdn Bhd , 25B Jalan ss 15 / 8A ... The Production of Fatty Alcohols
and Their Amino Derivatives from ... Although these last three processes are
physical techniques in theory , in practice they involve chemicals and intense
heating ...

Author: Thomas H. Applewhite

Publisher: The American Oil Chemists Society

ISBN: 093531556X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 178

View: 170

These proceedings contain the text of plenary sessions and papers from poster sessions at the World Conference held in February 1994. In addition to sources, processing, and applications, the papers also address aspects of the marketing and economics of lauric oils. Among the specific topics: quality aspects of shipping and handling lauric oils and oleochemicals; the development and commercialization of high-lauric rapeseed oil; catalytic hydrogenation of lauric oils and fatty acids; and health effects of lauric oils compared to unsaturated vegetable oils. No index. Annotation copyright by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations

Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations

EMMANUEL OHENE AFOAKWA Contents 7.1 Introduction 272 7.2 Cocoa
Processing Technology 274 7.2.1 Bean ... Liquor Production 279 7.2.7 Liquor
Pressing 280 7.2.8 Cake Grinding (Kibbling) 280 7.2.9 Cocoa Powder Production
280 7.3 ...

Author: Rosane F. Schwan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439847930

Category: Science

Page: 633

View: 633

Cocoa and coffee beans are some of the most traded agricultural commodities on international markets. Combined, they provide raw materials for a global industry valued in excess of $250 billion. Despite this, few people know that microorganisms and microbial fermentation play key roles in their production and can have major impacts on product quality, safety, and value. Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations explores the scientific principles behind cocoa and coffee fermentation. The book covers botanical and production backgrounds, methods of bean fermentation and drying, microbial ecology and activities of fermentation, the biochemistry of fermentation, product quality and safety, and waste utilization. The book aims to optimize cocoa and coffee processing based on scientific evidence to enhance traditional processing methods that often give rise to inefficiencies and inconsistencies in product quality. It also aims to provide a better understanding of the complex microbial ecology in cocoa and coffee fermentations which involve interactions between species of yeasts, bacteria, and filamentous fungi. Cocoa and Coffee Fermentations hopes to inspire further research linking the microbiology and biochemistry of cocoa and coffee bean fermentations with the development of better controlled fermentations, implementation of quality assurance programs, and ultimately improvement of the sensory attributes of the final product.
Categories: Science

Food Processing Technology

Food Processing Technology

In bread and cocoa , the subsequent unit operations of baking and roasting
produce the characteristic aromas . ... on the number and type of new enzymes
that are available for use in food processing or production of specialist
ingredients .

Author: P.J. Fellows

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849308879

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 608

View: 334

The first edition of Food Processing Technology was quickly adopted as the standard text by many food science and technology courses. While keeping with the practice of covering the wide range of food processing techniques, this new edition has been substantially expanded to take account of the advances in technology that have taken place since the publication of the first edition. The Second Edition includes new chapters on computer control of processing, novel 'minimal' technologies, and Ohmic heating, and an extended chapter on modified atmosphere packaging. It is a comprehensive - yet basic - text that offers an overview of most unit operations, while at the same time providing details of the processing equipment, operating conditions and the effects of processing on the biochemistry of foods. The book is divided into five parts, in which unit operations are grouped according to the nature of the heat transfer that takes place. Each chapter describes the formulae required for calculation of processing parameters, sample problems, and the effects on sensory characteristics and nutritional properties of selected foods. By combining food processing theory and calculations with descriptions of commercial practice and results of scientific studies, Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice, Second Edition helps readers make attractive saleable products and extend the shelf-life of foods.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

The New Encyclop dia Britannica Macrop dia Knowledge in depth

The New Encyclop  dia Britannica  Macrop  dia   Knowledge in depth

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015053532332

Category: Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Page:

View: 534

V.1-12 Micropaedia: Ready reference -- V.13-29 Macropaedia: Knowledge in depth -- V.[30] Propaedia: Outline of knowledge -- V.[31] Index, A-K -- V.[32] Index, L-Z.
Categories: Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Industry and Development

Industry and Development

The copper - processing industry , which is now experiencing greater sales and
profits , provides a good example of the benefits gained by ... In some cases ,
such as petrochemicals , the production of lower - technology chemicals would
also be more suited to production in developing countries . ... Some examples of
the industries involved are cocoa processing , seafood processing and
petrochemicals .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OSU:32435027209105

Category: Developing countries

Page:

View: 161

Categories: Developing countries

Commonwealth Education Partnerships 2007

Commonwealth Education Partnerships  2007

It was to investigate problems of pests and diseases , which had considerably
reduced cocoa production in the ... transfer the technology for the commercial
production of cocoa by - products and non - traditional products . to promote farm
... Mandate of CRIG CRIG's current mandate is to : • Undertake research into all
problems relating to the production , processing and utilization of cocoa and the
other ...

Author: Commonwealth Secretariat

Publisher: Nexus Strategic Partnerships Ltd.

ISBN: 0954962915

Category: Social Science

Page: 415

View: 860

Commonwealth Education Partnership 2007 is an essential overview of the development of education systems in the Commonwealth, focusing on international collaborations and on the partnerships in member countries between government, NGOs and the private sector in education. Focuses in this edition: increasing access and the right to quality education; supporting teachers for quality education; resourcing; and education for the good of all. Published for the Commonwealth Secretariat by Nexus Partnerships.
Categories: Social Science

The Planter

The Planter

The key scientific sessions include : * Components of health foods * Production
and processing technologies * Safety , nutritional and legislative implications The
... The Business Times reports on the proposal to increase cocoa production .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822022942288

Category: Agriculture

Page:

View: 292

Categories: Agriculture

Control Applications in Post harvest and Processing Technology 1998

Control Applications in Post harvest and Processing Technology 1998

In the confectionery industry fat is the most critical raw material , both in
technological and financial terms . ... Cocoa butter itself possesses a good many
interesting properties , as well as major limitations . ... they enhance ability to
withstand tropical climates , they have rheological properties suitable for modern
, highly flexible production lines , they provide a totally bland taste , they are
highly suitable for ...

Author: International Federation of Automatic Control

Publisher: Pergamon

ISBN: CORNELL:31924077306128

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 161

View: 267

The aim of the CAPPT'98 workshop was to provide a forum for presentation and discussion of recent advances on control applications in post-harvest and processing technology.The sponsors were International Society of Horticultural Sciences (ISHS), International Commission of Agricultural Engineering (CIGR), European Society of Agricultural Engineers (EurAgEng), Gouml;douml;llodblac; University of Agricultural Sciences and Hungarian Academy of Sciences, National Committee for Technological Development, Hungary. The venue of the workshop was the Hotel Eacute;ben in Budapest and also the Campus of the Gouml;douml;llodblac; University of Agricultural Sciences.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Prospects for Increased Value Added in Nigeria Cocoa Exports

Prospects for Increased Value Added in Nigeria Cocoa Exports

( iv ) How suitable is the existing cocoa processing technology in Nigeria and ,
are there possibilities of domestic sourcing of ... value . added in the Nigerian
cocoa industry and its implications on cocoa production , processing and
marketing .

Author: Ade Olomola

Publisher:

ISBN: UVA:X004002146

Category: Cocoa

Page: 49

View: 952

Categories: Cocoa

Cocoa Biotechnology Research and Issues in Competitiveness

Cocoa Biotechnology Research and Issues in Competitiveness

In Chapter 5 , a methodological tool to analyse the economic impact of
technological change is presented . After a ... It deals with cocoa production
technologies exclusively and does neither take into account the processing
technology nor the ...

Author: Thomas Braunschweig

Publisher: Lit Verlag

ISBN: UOM:39015050266413

Category: Science

Page: 97

View: 757

Categories: Science