Cortical Circuits

Cortical Circuits

PartII Functional Aspects of Cortical Circuitry AsafKeller Part Ipresented the anatomical basisfor corticalcircuitry: the various neuronal typesand the synaptic connections betweenthem. The aim ofPartII istwofold: first,toprovide data ...

Author: WHITE

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468487213

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 821

This elegant book presents current evidence on the organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex. The focus on synapses and their function provides the basis for understanding how this critical part of the brain could work. Dr. White and his colleague Dr. Keller have collated an impressive mass of material. This makes the crucial information accessible and coherent. Dr. White pioneered an area of investigation that to most others, and occasionally to himself, seemed a bottomless pit of painstaking at tention to detail for the identification and enumeration of cortical syn apses. I do not recall that he or anyone else suspected, when he began to publish his now classic papers, that the work would be central to an accelerating convergence of information and ideas from neurobiology and computer science, especially artificial intelligence (AI) (Rumelhart and McClelland, 1986). The brain is the principal organ responsible for the adaptive capacities of animals. What has impressed students of biology, of medicine, and, to an extent, of philosophy is the correlation between the prominence of the cerebral cortex and the adaptive "complexity" of a particular spe cies. Most agree that the cortex is what sets Homo sapiens apart from other species quantitatively and qualitatively (Rakic, 1988). This is summarized in the first chapter.
Categories: Medical

Local Cortical Circuits

Local Cortical Circuits

... Moshe, 1936-Local cortical circuits. (Studies of brain function ; v. 6) Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Neural circuitry. 2. Cerebral cortex. 3. Action potentials (Electrophysiology) I. Title. II. Series. [DNLM: 1.

Author: Moshe Abeles

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642817083

Category: Medical

Page: 104

View: 387

Neurophysiologists are often accused by colleagues in the physical sci ences of designing experiments without any underlying hypothesis. This impression is attributable to the ease of getting lost in the ever-increasing sea of professional publications which do not state explicitly the ultimate goal of the research. On the other hand, many of the explicit models for brain function in the past were so far removed from experimental reality that they had very little impact on further research. It seems that one needs much intimate experience with the real nerv-. ous system before a reasonable model can be suggested. It would have been impossible for Copernicus to suggest his model of the solar system without the detailed observations and tabulations of star and planet motion accu mulated by the preceeding generations. This need for intimate experience with the nervous system before daring to put forward some hypothesis about its mechanism of action is especially apparent when theorizing about cerebral cortex function. There is widespread agreement that processing of information in the cor tex is associated with complex spatio-temporal patterns of activity. Yet the vast majority of experimental work is based on single neuron recordings or on recordings made with gross electrodes to which tens of thousands of neurons contribute in an unknown fashion. Although these experiments have taught us a great deal about the organization and function of the cor tex, they have not enabled us to examine the spatio-temporal organization of neuronal activity in any detail.
Categories: Medical

Fast Oscillations in Cortical Circuits

Fast Oscillations in Cortical Circuits

Steriade and colleagues , working in cats in vivo found fast rhythmic bursting ( FRB ) cells in deep cortical layers ( V ... at least some of the FRB neurons in the study of Steriade et al . were sparsely spiny local circuit neurons .

Author: Roger D. Traub

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262201186

Category: Medical

Page: 324

View: 386

In Fast Oscillations in Cortical Circuits, the authors use a combination of electrophysiological and computer modeling techniques to analyze how large networks of neurons can produce both epileptic seizures and functionally relevant synchronized oscillations.
Categories: Medical

Visual Attention and Cortical Circuits

Visual Attention and Cortical Circuits

Shifts in selective visual attention : Towards the underlying neural circuitry . ... Vascular imprints of neuronal activity : Relationships between the dynamics of cortical blood flow , oxygenation , and volume changes following sensory ...

Author: Jochen Braun

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262024934

Category: Medical

Page: 313

View: 173

An attempt to derive a comprehensive theory of attention from both neurobiological and psychological data. The neurobiology and psychology of attention have much to learn from each other. Neurobiologists recognize that responses in sensory cortex depend on the behavioral relevance of a stimulus, but have few ways to study how perception changes as a result. Psychologists have the conceptual and methodological tools to do just that, but are confounded by the multiple interpretations and theoretical ambiguities. This book attempts to bridge the two fields and to derive a comprehensive theory of attention from both neurobiological and psychological data. It highlights situations where attention can be seen to alter both neural activity and psychophysical performance/phenomenal experience. This bicultural approach contributes not only to attention research but to the larger goal of linking neural activity to conscious experience. The book focuses mainly on the effects of visual attention on the ventral and dorsal streams of visual cortex in humans and monkeys and the associated changes in visual performance. Several larger findings emerge: attention may involve more than one neural system; attention modulates all stages of cortical visual processing; the effect of attention is constrained by the intrinsic connectivity of cortex and the resulting contextual interactions; and the notion of a saliency map remains central to thinking about visual attention. The book also considers several approaches to evaluating the same variable through different methods, such as behavioral measurements, functional imaging, and single-unit recording. Contributors Narcisse P. Bichot, Erik Blaser, Geoffrey M. Boynton, Jochen Braun, Maurizio Corbetta, Sean M. Culhane, Florin Cutzu, Sophie Deneve, Robert Desimone, John Duncan, Sunil P. Gandhi, Charles D. Gilbert, David J. Heeger, James W. Holsapple, Alexander C. Huk, Minami Ito, Laurent Itti, Christof Koch, Peter E. Latham, Nilli Lavie, D. Kathleen Lee, Zhong-Lin Lu, John H.R. Maunsell, Carrie J. McAdams, Brad C. Motter, Alexandre Pouget, Adam Reeves, John H. Reynolds, Jeffrey D. Schall, Christian Scheier, Shinsuke Shimojo, Gordon L. Shulman, George Sperling, Kirk G. Thompson, John K. Tsotsos, Katsumi Watanabe, Erich Weichselgartner, Gerald Westheimer
Categories: Medical

The Ontogenesis of Cortical Circuitry The Spatial Distribution of Synapses in Somesthetic Cortex of Newborn Dog

The Ontogenesis of Cortical Circuitry  The Spatial Distribution of Synapses in Somesthetic Cortex of Newborn Dog

On the basis of the results obtained in the present study, we believe that the quantitative analysis of synapse distributions is a practical and meaningful approach to the study of developing cortical circuitry.

Author: M. E. Molliver

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642516313

Category: Medical

Page: 54

View: 823

The ontogenesis of cortical circuitry is the subject of the investigation reported in this paper!. Strategie elements of cortical circuitry are synaptic contacts: sites of neuronal interaction. If we first determine the location of early formed synap ses, we may then seek the pre-and postsynaptic elements, that is, the structures which meet and interact at each synaptic junction. The dynamic aspects of cortical development cannot be studied directly: neuronal growth cannot be observed in an intact brain. The pattern of develop ment can be approached only by the analysis of static properties at multiple ages. We have selected the newborn dog as a starting point for these studies. Our observations have been restricted to a small portion of primary somesthetic cor tex. This region was selected because, in mature cortex, its input and physiologie properties are relatively weIl known. It is particularly advantageous to study a primary sensory projection area because its morphologie development can be di rectly related to its functional development. (A related investigation of the onto genesis of electrical activity in somesthetic cortex of the dog will be reported separately). A selective review of the literature is necessary in order to place this work in the context of a few relevant phenomena of cortical development.
Categories: Medical

Cortical Areas

Cortical Areas

Theoretical studies also suggest that intrinsic cortical circuits may play an important role in generation of basic receptive field properties, either by amplifying weakly-tuned thalamic afferent signals (Somers etal., 1995) or even by ...

Author: Almut Schuez

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203299296

Category: Medical

Page: 526

View: 195

The study of areas in the cerebral cortex has a long history, bringing empirical data into close relation with fundamental conceptual issues about the cortex. The subject is currently being revitalized with the advent of new experimental methods and this book brings a modern perspective to the study of these areas. Cortical Areas: Unity and Diversi
Categories: Medical

Cortical Connectivity

Cortical Connectivity

Circuits. for. I-Wave. Generations. Corticospinal neurons are among the largest neurons in the brain and are located in layer V of cerebral cortex. They receive inputs from facilitatory interneurons in the M1 (Patton and Amassian 1954).

Author: Robert Chen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642327667

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 888

The study and modulation of cortical connections is a rapidly growing area in neuroscience. This unique book by prominent researchers in the field covers recent advances in this area. The first section of the book describes studies of cortical connections, modulation of cortical connectivity and changes in cortical connections with activities such as motor learning and grasping in primates. The second section covers the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to study and modulate cortical connectivity in humans. The last section describes changes in brain connectivity in neurological and psychiatric diseases, and potential new treatments that manipulate brain connectivity. This book provides an up-to-date view of the study of cortical connectivity, and covers its role in both fundamental neuroscience and potential clinical applications.
Categories: Medical

Neural Circuits Revealed

Neural Circuits Revealed

FIGURE 6 | Cre lines provide genetic access to specific cortical layers and cortical interneurons for circuit analyses. (A,B) Many Cre lines have been generated with selective expression in distinct cortical layers.

Author: Mariano Soiza-Reilly

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889195619

Category: Neural circuitry

Page: 181

View: 709

Deciphering anatomical and functional maps in the nervous system is a main challenge for both clinical and basic neuroscience. Modern approaches to mark and manipulate neurons are bringing us closer than ever to better understand nervous system wiring diagrams. Here we present both original research and review material on current work in this area. Together, this eBook aims to provide a comprehensive snapshot of some of the tools and technologies currently available to investigate brain wiring and function, as well as discuss ongoing challenges the field will be confronted with in the future.
Categories: Neural circuitry

Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases From Vessel Alterations to Cortical Parenchymal Injury

Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases  From Vessel Alterations to Cortical Parenchymal Injury

10:660. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2019.00660 Basal Ganglia-Cortical Circuit Disruption in Subcortical Silent Lacunar Infarcts ... The structural and functional connectivity of BG-cortical circuits using diffusion and resting-state functional ...

Author: Andreas Charidimou

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889635870

Category:

Page:

View: 158

Categories:

Cortical Deficits in Schizophrenia

Cortical Deficits in Schizophrenia

cortical GABA interneurons in transgenic mice expressing soluble neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (Pillai-Nair et al. ... As cortical circuits and their DA innervation do not mature until late adolescence (Rosenberg and Lewis 1995), ...

Author: Patricio O'Donnell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387743516

Category: Medical

Page: 239

View: 159

This hugely important text aims to illuminate one of the most difficult areas of study in psychiatric medicine – the basis for schizophrenia in human DNA. The genetics of schizophrenia have been elusive for decades. Lately, however, a complex set of genes and gene variations that confer predisposition to schizophrenia have been identified. The challenge is to understand the biology of the genes and find out how they exert their influence. Here is all the latest research.
Categories: Medical