The first of these is thematic and is employed to reveal contrasts between the idealised images of crusading depicted by its promoters and the experiences of those who responded to their calls to take the cross.
Author: Caroline Smith
Crusading in the Age of Joinville enhances the current literature dealing with the issue of crusaders' motivations by providing a detailed examination of the ideas and experiences of those who promoted and participated in the crusades of Louis IX of France in the mid-thirteenth century. It assesses the possibilities and problems associated with the source material available to historians of crusading in the thirteenth century and highlights the unique nature and value of John of Joinville's Life of Saint Louis. Two distinct approaches are taken to the analysis of these sources in order to demonstrate their richness. The first of these is thematic and is employed to reveal contrasts between the idealised images of crusading depicted by its promoters and the experiences of those who responded to their calls to take the cross. Secondly, the careers of Joinville and his close contemporary Oliver of Termes provide extended case studies demonstrating that involvement with crusading could have very different origins and expressions. Overall, Crusading in the Age of Joinville provides an innovative and accessible study of crusaders and crusading in the thirteenth century.
Caroline Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville. Aldershot and Burlington, VT. Ashgate, 2006. Pp. xii, 216. ISBN 0 7546 53633. This book draws on a close reading of Jean de Joinville's Vie de saint Louis in order to try to get at ...
Author: Benjamin Z. Kedar
Crusades covers seven hundred years from the First Crusade (1095-1102) to the fall of Malta (1798) and draws together scholars working on theatres of war, their home fronts and settlements from the Baltic to Africa and from Spain to the Near East and on theology, law, literature, art, numismatics and economic, social, political and military history. Routledge publishes this journal for The Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East. Particular attention is given to the publication of historical sources in all relevant languages - narrative, homiletic and documentary - in trustworthy editions, but studies and interpretative essays are welcomed too. Crusades appears in both print and online editions. Peter W. Edbury again features in an issue of Crusades, this time with his piece on The French translation of William of Tyre's Historia: the manuscript tradition.
Crusader Transport Ships: a Reconstruction of some Archetypes for Round-Hulled Sailing Ships, ̄ Mariner's Mirror 70 (1984), ... roy saint Looÿs au peril de la mer dans la Vie de saint Louis de Joinville, ̄ in Mondes Marins du moyen-âge: ...
Author: Thomas F. Madden
These essays, selected from papers presented at the International Symposium on Crusade Studies in February 2006, represent a stimulating cross-section of this vibrant field. Organized under the rubric of "medieval worlds" the studies in this volume demonstrate the broad interdisciplinary spectrum of modern crusade studies, extending far beyond the battlefield into the conflict and occasional cooperation between the diverse cultures and faiths of the Mediterranean. Although the crusades were a product of medieval Europe, they provide a backdrop against which medieval worlds can be observed to come into both contact and collision. The range of studies in this volume includes subjects such as Muslim and Christian understandings of their wars within their own intellectual and artistic perspectives, as well as the development of memory and definition of crusading in both the East and West. A section on the Crusades and the Byzantine world examines the intersection of western and eastern Christian attitudes and agendas and how they played out - particularly in the Aegean and Asia Minor. The book concludes with three studies on the crusader king, Louis IX, examining not only his two crusades in new ways, but also the role of the crusade in his later sanctification.
Although the two-stage composition and patchwork nature of Joinville's text make any attempt to identify an overarching literary agenda futile, the author's concern for articulating ... Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville, 73–4.
Author: Stephen J. Spencer
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
Emotions in a Crusading Context is the first book-length study of the emotional rhetoric of crusading. It investigates the ways in which a number of emotions and affective displays-primarily fear, anger, and weeping-were understood, represented, and utilised in twelfth- and thirteenth-century western narratives of the crusades, making use of a broad range of comparative material to gauge the distinctiveness of those texts: crusader letters, papal encyclicals, model sermons, chansons de geste, lyrics, and an array of theological and philosophical treatises. In addition to charting continuities and changes over time in the emotional landscape of crusading, this study identifies the underlying influences which shaped how medieval authors represented and used emotions; analyzes the passions crusade participants were expected to embrace and reject; and assesses whether the idea of crusading created a profoundly new set of attitudes towards emotions. Emotions in a Crusading Context calls on scholars of the crusades to reject the traditional methodological approach of taking the emotional descriptions embedded within historical narratives as straightforward reflections of protagonists' lived feelings, and in so doing challenges the long historiographical tradition of reconstructing participants' beliefs and experiences from these texts. Within the history of emotions, Stephen J. Spencer demonstrates that, despite the ongoing drive to develop new methodologies for studying the emotional standards of the past, typified by experiments in 'neurohistory', the social constructionist (or cultural-historical) approach still has much to offer the historian of medieval emotions.
M. Lower, The Barons' Crusade: A Call to Arms and its Consequences (Philadelphia, 2005); P. Jackson, 'The crusades of 1239–41 and their aftermath', ... See also: C. Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot, 2006).
Author: Thomas Asbridge
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
'Asbridge can't help but tell a ripping yarn, often breezily dramatic, whipping the narrative along.' The Times In the eleventh century, a vast Christian army, summoned to holy war by the Pope, rampaged through the Muslim world of the eastern Mediterranean, seizing possession of Jerusalem, a city revered by both faiths. Over the two hundred years that followed this First Crusade, Islam and the West fought for dominion of the Holy Land, clashing in a succession of chillingly brutal wars, both firm in the belief that they were at God's work. The Crusades tells the story of this epic struggle from the perspective of both Christians and Muslims, reconstructing the experiences and attitudes of those on either side of the conflict. Mixing pulsing narrative and piercing insight, it exposes the full horror, passion and barbaric grandeur of the crusading era. ‘A dramatic and powerful look at both sides of the story . . .’ Sunday Times 'A compelling narrative . . . A masterful conclusion' Observer
2 The following narrative is based on: Jean of Joinville, Vie de saint Louis, ed. ... 2009; first published Paris: Gallimard, 1996), 376–98; Caroline Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2006), ...
Author: Natasha R. Hodgson
This volume presents the first substantial exploration of crusading and masculinity, focusing on the varied ways in which the symbiotic relationship between the two was made manifest in a range of medieval settings and sources, and to what ends. Ideas about masculinity formed an inherent part of the mindset of societies in which crusading happened, and of the conceptual framework informing both those who recorded the events and those who participated. Examination and interrogation of these ideas enables a better contextualised analysis of how those events were experienced, comprehended and portrayed. The collection is structured around five themes: sources and models; contrasting masculinities; emasculation and transgression; masculinity and religiosity and kingship and chivalry. By incorporating masculinity within their analysis of the crusades and of crusaders the contributors demonstrate how such approaches greatly enhance our understanding of crusading as an ideal, an institution and an experience. Individual essays consider western campaigns to the Middle East and Islamic responses; events and sources from the Iberian peninsula and Prussia are also interrogated and re-examined, thus enabling cross-cultural comparison of the meanings attached to medieval manhood. The collection also highlights the value of employing gender as a vital means of assessing relationships between different groups of men, whose values and standards of behaviour were socially and culturally constructed in distinct ways.
Louis embraced the crusade with zeal, used the crusade as a context for pious works and the demon- stration of personal bravery, ... Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville; Edward Peters, ''There and Back Again: Cru- saders in Motion, ...
Author: Jessalynn Bird
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
In 1213, Pope Innocent III issued his letter Vineam Domini, thundering against the enemies of Christendom—the "beasts of many kinds that are attempting to destroy the vineyard of the Lord of Sabaoth"—and announcing a General Council of the Latin Church as redress. The Fourth Lateran Council, which convened in 1215, was unprecedented in its scope and impact, and it called for the Fifth Crusade as what its participants hoped would be the final defense of Christendom. For the first time, a collection of extensively annotated and translated documents illustrates the transformation of the crusade movement. Crusade and Christendom explores the way in which the crusade was used to define and extend the intellectual, religious, and political boundaries of Latin Christendom. It also illustrates how the very concept of the crusade was shaped by the urge to define and reform communities of practice and belief within Latin Christendom and by Latin Christendom's relationship with other communities, including dissenting political powers and heretical groups, the Moors in Spain, the Mongols, and eastern Christians. The relationship of the crusade to reform and missionary movements is also explored, as is its impact on individual lives and devotion. The selection of documents and bibliography incorporates and brings to life recent developments in crusade scholarship concerning military logistics and travel in the medieval period, popular and elite participation, the role of women, liturgy and preaching, and the impact of the crusade on western society and its relationship with other cultures and religions. Intended for the undergraduate yet also invaluable for teachers and scholars, this book illustrates how the crusades became crucial for defining and promoting the very concept and boundaries of Latin Christendom. It provides translations of and commentaries on key original sources and up-to-date bibliographic materials.
Author: Shirin A. KhanmohamadiPublish On: 2013-12-03
In 1894, Henri-Francois Delaborde called the Vie “rather the transcription of a conversation than a neatly composed book”; quoted in Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville, 58. Likewise, Gaston Paris, citing Joinville's final words ...
Author: Shirin A. Khanmohamadi
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
Challenging the traditional conception of medieval Europe as insular and even xenophobic, Shirin A. Khanmohamadi's In Light of Another's Word looks to early ethnographic writers who were surprisingly aware of their own otherness, especially when faced with the far-flung peoples and cultures they meant to describe. These authors—William of Rubruck among the Mongols, "John Mandeville" cataloguing the world's diverse wonders, Geraldus Cambrensis describing the manners of the twelfth-century Welsh, and Jean de Joinville in his account of the various Saracens encountered on the Seventh Crusade—display an uncanny ability to see and understand from the perspective of the very strangers who are their subjects. Khanmohamadi elaborates on a distinctive late medieval ethnographic poetics marked by both a profound openness to alternative perspectives and voices and a sense of the formidable threat of such openness to Europe's governing religious and cultural orthodoxies. That we can hear the voices of medieval Europe's others in these narratives in spite of such orthodoxies allows us to take full measure of the productive forces of disorientation and destabilization at work on these early ethnographic writers. Poised at the intersection of medieval studies, anthropology, and visual culture, In Light of Another's Word is an innovative departure from each, extending existing studies of medieval travel writing into the realm of poetics, of ethnographic form into the premodern realm, and of early visual culture into the realm of ethnographic encounter.
See also Caroline Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot, 2006), pp. 98–103,139–49, 194–5. 6 Il Corpus normativo templare: Edizione dei testi romanzi con traduzionee commento in Italiano, ed. Giovanni Amatuccio (Galatina ...
Author: Simon John
This volume has been created by scholars from a range of disciplines who wish to show their appreciation for Professor John France and to celebrate his career and achievements. For many decades, Professor France’s work has been instrumental in many of the advances made in the fields of crusader studies and medieval warfare. He has published widely on these topics including major publications such as: Victory in the East: A Military History of the First Crusade (1994) and Western Warfare in the Age of the Crusades (1999). This present volume mirrors his interests, offering studies upon both areas. The fifteen essays cover a wide variety of topics, spanning chronologically from the Carolingian period through to the early fourteenth century. Some offer new insights upon long-contested issues, such as the question of whether a new form of cavalry was created by Charles Martel and his successors or the implications of the Mongol defeat at Ayn Jalut. Others use innovative methodologies to unlock the potential of various types of source material including: manuscript illuminations depicting warfare, Templar graffiti, German crusading songs, and crusading charters. Several of the articles open up new areas of debate connected to the history of crusading. Malcolm Barber discusses why Christendom did not react decisively to the fall of Acre in 1291. Bernard Hamilton explores how the rising Frankish presence in the Eastern Mediterranean during the central medieval period reshaped Christendom’s knowledge and understanding of the North African cultures they encountered. In this way, this work seeks both to advance debate in core areas whilst opening new vistas for future research.
Crusading appears in the Quomodo as a much more prominent theme than in other contemporary accounts of the lives of ... they reveal about crusader motivation is offered by Caroline Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot and ...
Author: David Crouch
Publisher: Leuven University Press
In popular imagination few phenomena are as strongly associated with medieval society as knighthood and chivalry. At the same time, and due to a long tradition of differing national perspectives and ideological assumptions, few phenomena have continued to be the object of so much academic debate. In this volume leading scholars explore various aspects of knightly identity, taking into account both commonalities and particularities across Western Europe. Knighthood and Society in the High Middle Ages addresses how, between the eleventh and the early thirteenth centuries, knighthood evolved from a set of skills and a lifestyle that was typical of an emerging elite habitus, into the basis of a consciously expressed and idealised chivalric code of conduct. Chivalry, then, appears in this volume as the result of a process of noble identity formation, in which some five key factors are distinguished: knightly practices, lineage, crusading memories, gender roles, and chivalric didactics.
Geoffrey of Villehardouin and Jean de Joinville, Chronicles of the Crusades, trans. ... 143–86; Caroline Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 2006); G.A. Loud, “The Papal 'Crusade' against Frederick II in ...
Author: John Aberth
Contesting the Middle Ages is a thorough exploration of recent arguments surrounding nine hotly debated topics: the decline and fall of Rome, the Viking invasions, the Crusades, the persecution of minorities, sexuality in the Middle Ages, women within medieval society, intellectual and environmental history, the Black Death, and, lastly, the waning of the Middle Ages. The historiography of the Middle Ages, a term in itself controversial amongst medieval historians, has been continuously debated and rewritten for centuries. In each chapter, John Aberth sets out key historiographical debates in an engaging and informative way, encouraging students to consider the process of writing about history and prompting them to ask questions even of already thoroughly debated subjects, such as why the Roman Empire fell, or what significance the Black Death had both in the late Middle Ages and beyond. Sparking discussion and inspiring examination of the past and its ongoing significance in modern life, Contesting the Middle Ages is essential reading for students of medieval history and historiography.
The Crusades and Family Memory in the High Middle Ages Nicholas L. Paul. of Joinville (d. 1188), John of Joinville recalled how during his own crusade campaign (1248–54) he made a special journey to the Hospitaller castle of Krak des ...
Author: Nicholas L. Paul
Publisher: Cornell University Press
When the First Crusade ended with the conquest of Jerusalem in 1099, jubilant crusaders returned home to Europe bringing with them stories, sacred relics, and other memorabilia, including banners, jewelry, and weapons. In the ensuing decades, the memory of the crusaders' bravery and pious sacrifice was invoked widely among the noble families of western Christendom. Popes preaching future crusades would count on these very same families for financing, leadership, and for the willing warriors who would lay down their lives on the battlefield. Despite the great risks and financial hardships associated with crusading, descendants of those who suffered and died on crusade would continue to take the cross, in some cases over several generations. Indeed, as Nicholas L. Paul reveals in To Follow in Their Footsteps, crusading was very much a family affair. Scholars of the crusades have long pointed to the importance of dynastic tradition and ties of kinship in the crusading movement but have failed to address more fundamental questions about the operation of these social processes. What is a "family tradition"? How are such traditions constructed and maintained, and by whom? How did crusading families confront the loss of their kin in distant lands? Making creative use of Latin dynastic narratives as well as vernacular literature, personal possessions and art objects, and architecture from across western Europe, Paul shows how traditions of crusading were established and reinforced in the collective memories of noble families throughout the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Even rulers who never fulfilled crusading vows found their political lives dominated and, in some ways, directed by the memory of their crusading ancestors. Filled with unique insights and careful analysis, To Follow in Their Footsteps reveals the lasting impact of the crusades, beyond the expeditions themselves, on the formation of dynastic identity and the culture of the medieval European nobility.
Author: Geffroy VillehardouinPublish On: 1974-01-31
The first trustworthy and fully informed history of the Crusades, Villehardouin's Conquest of Constantinople describes the era of the Fourth Crusade - the period between 1199 and 1207, during which a planned battle with Moslem forces ...
Author: Geffroy Villehardouin
Publisher: Penguin UK
Composed by soldiers who fought in the Holy Wars, these two famous French chronicles are among the most important portrayals of both the dark and light side of the two hundred year struggle for possession of Jerusalem. The first trustworthy and fully informed history of the Crusades, Villehardouin's Conquest of Constantinople describes the era of the Fourth Crusade - the period between 1199 and 1207, during which a planned battle with Moslem forces ironically culminated in war against Eastern Christians that led to the sacking of Constantinople. The Life of Saint Louis, by Joinville, was inspired by the author's close attachment to the pious King Louis, and focuses on the years between 1226 and 1270. It provides a powerful, personal insight into the brutal battles and the fascinating travels of one nobleman, fighting in the Sixth and Seventh Crusades.
13 For crusading during Louis's reign , see , among others : S. Lloyd , “ The Crusades of St Louis , " History Today , 47/5 ( 1997 ) : 37-43 ; Caroline Smith , Crusading in the Age of Joinville ( Aldershot , 2006 ) .
Author: Robert Odell Bork
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
This sixth volume in the AVISTA series considers medieval travel from a variety of interdisciplinary perspectives, placing the physical practice of transportation in the larger context of medieval thought about the world and its meaning. The papers included cover vehicle design and logistical management, the practicalities of how travellers oriented themselves, and the symbolism of the landscapes and maps created in the Middle Ages.
11 Christoph T. Maier, Preaching the Crusades: Mendicant Friars and the Cross in the Thirteenth Century (Cambridge, 1994), p. 70. 12 See Caroline Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot, 2006), pp. 158–70; W. C. Jordan, ...
The Seventh Crusade, led by King Louis IX of France, was the last major expedition for the recovery of the Holy Land actually to reach the Near East. The failure of his invasion of Egypt (1249-50), followed by his four-year stay in Palestine in order to retrieve the disaster, had a profound impact on the Latin West. In addition, Louis's operations in the Nile delta indirectly precipitated the Mamluk coup d'état, which ended the rule of the Ayyubids, Saladin's dynasty, in Egypt and began the transfer of power there to a military elite that would prove to be a far more formidable enemy to the Franks of Syria and Palestine. This volume comprises translations of the principal documents and of extracts from narrative sources - both Muslim and Christian - relating to the crusade, and includes many texts, notably the account of Ibn Wasil, not previously available in English. The themes covered include: the preparations and search for allies; the campaign in the Nile delta; the impact on recruitment of the simultaneous crusade against the emperor Frederick II; the Mamluk coup and its immediate consequences in the Near East; Western reactions to the failure in Egypt; and the popular 'crusade' of the Pastoureaux in France (1251), which aimed originally to help the absent king, but which degenerated into violence against the clergy and the Jews and had to be suppressed by force.
In some instances, a source's entire narrative arc is dedicated to the story of a crusade, while in others a crusade ... See C. Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot, 2006); and M.C. Gaposchkin, The Making of Saint Louis: ...
Author: Beth C. Spacey
Publisher: Boydell & Brewer
First comprehensive study of miracles in Crusade narrative, showing how and why they were deployed by their authors.
The family of the Templar Andrew of Joinville, which had ties with the commanderies of Thors and Ruetz, produced a long list ... and potential recruits indirectly if crusaders were among 154 Smith, Crusading in the age of Joinville, p.
Author: Jochen Schenk
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This study explores the relationship between the Order of the Temple and the network of landowning families that supported it.
Et onques retourner mes yex vers Joinville, pour ce que le cuers ne me attendrisist dou biel chastel que je lessoie ... Caroline Smith notes the interplay between clerical and secular modes in Crusading in the Age ofJoinville, passim.
Author: Richard W. Kaeuper
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
The medieval code of chivalry demanded that warrior elites demonstrate fierce courage in battle, display prowess with weaponry, and avenge any strike against their honor. They were also required to be devout Christians. How, then, could knights pledge fealty to the Prince of Peace, who enjoined the faithful to turn the other cheek rather than seek vengeance and who taught that the meek, rather than glorious fighters in tournaments, shall inherit the earth? By what logic and language was knighthood valorized? In Holy Warriors, Richard Kaeuper argues that while some clerics sanctified violence in defense of the Holy Church, others were sorely troubled by chivalric practices in everyday life. As elite laity, knights had theological ideas of their own. Soundly pious yet independent, knights proclaimed the validity of their bloody profession by selectively appropriating religious ideals. Their ideology emphasized meritorious suffering on campaign and in battle even as their violence enriched them and established their dominance. In a world of divinely ordained social orders, theirs was blessed, though many sensitive souls worried about the ultimate price of rapine and destruction. Kaeuper examines how these paradoxical chivalric ideals were spread in a vast corpus of literature from exempla and chansons de geste to romance. Through these works, both clerics and lay military elites claimed God's blessing for knighthood while avoiding the contradictions inherent in their fusion of chivalry with a religion that looked back to the Sermon on the Mount for its ethical foundation.
Nicholson, H., 'Serving King and Crusade: The Military Orders in Royal Service in Ireland, 1220–1400' in Bull, ... For a study of Joinville's relationship with the Crusading movement see: Smith, C., Crusading in the Age of Joinville.
Author: Gordon Napier
Publisher: The History Press
The order of the Knights Templar, which existed for about two centuries in the Middle Ages, was created after the First Crusade of 1096 to ensure the safety of European pilgrims to Jerusalem after its conquest. Officially endorsed by the Catholic church in 1129, the order became a favoured charity across Europe, and grew rapidly in membership and power. Templar knights, easily recognisable in their white mantle with a distinct red cross, were some of the best equipped, trained, and disciplined fighting units of the Crusades. When the Holy Land was lost and the Templars suffered crushing defeats, support for the Order faded. Rumours about the Templars' secret initiation ceremony created mistrust, and King Philip IV of France, on 13 October 1307 had many of the order’s members in France arrested, tortured into ‘confession’ and burned at the stake. In 1312, Pope Clement, under continuing pressure from Philip, forcibly disbanded the order. The sudden disappearance of a major part of the European infrastructure gave rise to speculation and legends, which have kept the name ‘Templar’ alive. This book brings the story into logical focus.
Author: Jonathan Riley-SmithPublish On: 2009-04-21
... The First Crusaders, 1095–1131 (Cambridge, 1997); J. M. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade (Philadelphia, 1986); S. Lloyd, English Society and the Crusade (Oxford, 1988); C. Smith, Crusading in the Age of Joinville (Aldershot, 2006).
Author: Jonathan Riley-Smith
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Riley-Smith's acclaimed book is now regarded as a classic short study. The updated fourth edition of this essential introduction features a new Preface which surveys and reviews developments in crusading scholarship, a new map, material on a child crusader, and a short discussion of the current effects of aggressive Pan-Islamism.