Offering close readings of the work of the nationally popular and internationally renowned Iranian auteurs Bahram Bayza’i, Abbas Kiarostami, and Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Mottahedeh illuminates the formal codes and conventions of post ...
Author: Negar Mottahedeh
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Performing Arts
Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran’s film industry, in conforming to the Islamic Republic’s system of modesty, had to ensure that women on-screen were veiled from the view of men. This prevented Iranian filmmakers from making use of the desiring gaze, a staple cinematic system of looking. In Displaced Allegories Negar Mottahedeh shows that post-Revolutionary Iranian filmmakers were forced to create a new visual language for conveying meaning to audiences. She argues that the Iranian film industry found creative ground not in the negation of government regulations but in the camera’s adoption of the modest, averted gaze. In the process, the filmic techniques and cinematic technologies were gendered as feminine and the national cinema was produced as a woman’s cinema. Mottahedeh asserts that, in response to the prohibitions against the desiring look, a new narrative cinema emerged as the displaced allegory of the constraints on the post-Revolutionary Iranian film industry. Allegorical commentary was not developed in the explicit content of cinematic narratives but through formal innovations. Offering close readings of the work of the nationally popular and internationally renowned Iranian auteurs Bahram Bayza’i, Abbas Kiarostami, and Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Mottahedeh illuminates the formal codes and conventions of post-Revolutionary Iranian films. She insists that such analyses of cinema’s visual codes and conventions are crucial to the study of international film. As Mottahedeh points out, the discipline of film studies has traditionally seen film as a medium that communicates globally because of its dependence on a (Hollywood) visual language assumed to be universal and legible across national boundaries. Displaced Allegories demonstrates that visual language is not necessarily universal; it is sometimes deeply informed by national culture and politics.
Moving beyond censorship as a singular motivating force, Mottahedeh argues
that many films of the post-revolutionary era function as 'displaced allegories' of
their very conditions of production.4 In doing so, film-makers have reinvented film
Author: Michelle Langford
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Category: Performing Arts
Iranian filmmakers have long been recognised for creating a vibrant, aesthetically rich cinema whilst working under strict state censorship regulations. As Michelle Langford reveals, many have found indirect, allegorical ways of expressing forbidden topics and issues in their films. But for many, allegory is much more than a foil against haphazardly applied censorship rules. Drawing on a long history of allegorical expression in Persian poetry and the arts, allegory has become an integral part of the poetics of Iranian cinema. Allegory in Iranian Cinema explores the allegorical aesthetics of Iranian cinema, explaining how it has emerged from deep cultural traditions and how it functions as a strategy for both supporting and resisting dominant ideology. As well as tracing the roots of allegory in Iranian cinema before and after the 1979 revolution, Langford also theorizes this cinematic mode. She draws on a range of cinematic, philosophical and cultural concepts - developed by thinkers such as Walter Benjamin, Gilles Deleuze, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Christian Metz and Vivian Sobchack - to provide a theoretical framework for detailed analyses of films by renowned directors of the pre-and post-revolutionary eras including Masoud Kimiai, Dariush Mehrjui, Ebrahim Golestan, Kamran Shirdel, Majid Majidi, Jafar Panahi, Marziyeh Meshkini, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Rakhshan Bani-Etemad and Asghar Farhadi. Allegory in Iranian Cinema explains how a centuries-old means of expression, interpretation, encoding and decoding becomes, in the hands of Iran's most skilled cineastes, a powerful tool with which to critique and challenge social and cultural norms.
Filled with veiled references and allegories, Rizal's novels were—even in the
1970s—the most influential and accessible tradition of Philippine sociopolitical ...
The melodramas of the horrible mother are thus displaced allegories. They play ...
Author: José B. Capino
Publisher: University of California Press
Category: Performing Arts
Lino Brocka (1939–1991) was one of Asia and the Global South’s most celebrated filmmakers. A versatile talent, he was at once a bankable director of genre movies, an internationally acclaimed auteur of social films, a pioneer of queer cinema, and an outspoken critic of Ferdinand Marcos’s autocratic regime. José B. Capino examines the figuration of politics in the Filipino director’s movies, illuminating their historical contexts, allegorical tropes, and social critiques. Combining eye-opening archival research with fresh interpretations of over fifteen of Brocka’s major and minor works, Martial Law Melodrama does more than reveal the breadth of his political vision. It also offers a timely lesson about popular cinema’s vital role in the struggle for democracy.
... field of Iranian cinema, Middle-Eastern cosmopolitanism and historiography of
modern Iran and early cinema. 17 Negar Mottahedeh, Displaced Allegories: Post
-Revolutionary Iranian Cinema (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2008), 2.
Author: Golbarg Rekabtalaei
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
From popular and 'New Wave' pre-revolutionary films of Fereydoon Goleh and Abbas Kiarostami to post-revolutionary films of Mohsen Makhmalbaf, the Iranian cinema has produced a range of films and directors that have garnered international fame and earned a global following. Golbarg Rekabtalaei takes a unique look at Iranian cosmopolitanism and how it transformed in the Iranian imagination through the cinematic lens. By examining the development of Iranian cinema from the early twentieth century to the revolution, Rekabtalaei locates discussions of modernity in Iranian cinema as rooted within local experiences, rather than being primarily concerned with Western ideals or industrialisation. Her research further illustrates how the ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity of Iran's citizenry shaped a heterogeneous culture and a cosmopolitan cinema that was part and parcel of Iran's experience of modernity. In turn, this cosmopolitanism fed into an assertion of sovereignty and national identity in a modernising Iran in the decades leading up to the revolution.
Displaced Allegories: Post-Revolutionary Iranian Cinema. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press, 2008. ———. Representing the Unrepresentable: Historical
Images of National Reform from the Qajars to the Islamic Republic of Iran.
Author: Terri Ginsberg
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Category: Motion pictures
"This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Middle Eastern Cinema contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on individual films, filmmakers, actors, significant historical figures, events, and concepts, and the countries themselves"--
Postmodernist fiction has thus developed a range of narrative strategies for displacing the nuclear. ... Nuclear apocalypse may be displaced onto some other
apocalypse scenario, as in the case of Gravity's Rainbow, as well as Hoban«s ...
Author: Lidia Yuknavitch
Category: Literary Criticism
Allegories of Violence demilitarizes the concept of war and asks what would happen if we understood war as discursive via late 20th Century novels of war.
Author: Associate Professor of History Wulf KansteinerPublish On: 2006
In addition to goodwill features and displaced ” allegories of persecution , the
programs of the 1960s included celebrations of German rescue efforts ,
especially those undertaken by members of the German clergy . 18 The
programs hardly ...
Author: Associate Professor of History Wulf Kansteiner
Category: Political Science
The collective memories of Nazism that developed in postwar Germany have helped define a new paradigm of memory politics. From Europe to South Africa and from Latin America to Iraq, scholars have studied the German case to learn how to overcome internal division and regain international recognition. In Pursuit of German Memory: History, Television, and Politics after Auschwitz examines three arenas of German memory politics--professional historiography, national politics, and national public television--that have played key roles in the reinvention of the Nazi past in the last sixty years. Wulf Kansteiner shows that the interpretations of the past proposed by historians, politicians, and television producers reflect political and generational divisions and an extraordinary concern for Germany's image abroad. At the same time, each of these theaters of memory has developed its own dynamics and formats of historical reflection. Kansteiner's analysis of the German scene reveals a complex social geography of collective memory. In Pursuit of German Memory underscores the fact that German memories of Nazism, like many other collective memories, combine two seemingly contradictory qualities: They are highly mediated and part of a global exchange of images and story fragments but, at the same time, they can be reproduced only locally, in narrowly circumscribed networks of communication.
And this exposition happens precisely because the Ode is as Sensible as it is allegorical . In Sensibility , allegory is us urped and displaced by an allegorical
language . One way we could discuss such a displacement is to show how the
Benjamin conceived time and space as fundamental to the very production of allegory , thereby and forever reconceiving all prior critical models as dynamic ,
modes of production , rather than static , illustrations of illustration . He displaced
In short , Charney ascribed a building ' s monumentality to an act of symbolic ,
dimensional , temporal , or accidental displacement . Charney ' s ironic
understanding of monumentality in terms of the displacement of a “ happening "
Author: Melvin Charney
Publisher: Canadian Centre for Architecture = Centre canadien d'architecture
Thus the primary latent wish of the changeling boy is displaced to another "
changeling," the monstrous Bottom, through whom the metamorphic fantasy is
played out to provide an illicit night of love in the bower of the mother. Once again
, a ...
Author: Bruce Clarke
Publisher: SUNY Press
Category: Literary Criticism
This is a theoretical study of human metamorphosis in Western literature.
Bressane's films combine nostalgia and aggression to create the view that there
is a film style to be built, illusions to be destroyed, and educators to be displaced
in his bitter, lacerated critical approach to social and cinematic development.
Author: Ismail Xavier
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
Category: Performing Arts
" 'A camera in the hand and ideas in the head' was the primary axiom of the young originators of Brazil's Cinema Novo. This movement of the 1960s and early 1970s overcame technical constraints and produced films on minimal budgets. In Allegories of Underdevelopment, Ismail Xavier examines a number of these films, arguing that they served to represent a nation undergoing a political and social transformation into modernity. Its best-known voice, filmmaker Glauber Rocha claimed that Cinema Novo was driven by an "aesthetics of hunger." This scarcity of means demanded new cinematic approaches that eventually gave rise to a legitimate and unique Third World cinema. Xavier stands in the vanguard of scholars presenting and interpreting these revolutionary films - from the masterworks of Rocha to the groundbreaking experiments of Julio Bressane, Rogério Sganzerla, Andrea Tonacci and Arthur Omar - to an English-speaking audience. Focusing on each filmmaker's use of narrative allegories for the "conservative modernization" Brazil and other nations underwent in the 1960s and 1970s, Xavier asks questions relating to the connection between film and history. He examines the way Cinema Novo transformed Brazil's cultural memory and charts the controversial roles that Marginal Cinema and Tropicalism played in this process. Among the films he discusses are Black God, White Devil, Land in Anguish, Red Light Bandit, Macunaíma, Antônio das Mortes, The Angel Is Born, and Killed the Family and Went to the Movies." -- Book cover.
These images , or figures , borrow the poise and the richly displaced emphasis of allegories . They are not quite allegorical , however , lacking first of all the
interaction with other allegorical figures that brings into balance the allegories of
... of thought appear , modes of thought about literature different from those which
grew up in the latter half of the sixteenth century when a turn toward more literal
methods of representation gradually displaced the allegorical in popularity .
positions or the displacement of a ruler . As Keti Ferenke Koroma suggests in N .
19 , the narratives thus emphasize the priority of the firstborn and of the senior
wife , and stress the undeniable importance of the primary bond between a
Author: Michael Jackson
Publisher: African Systems of Thought
" --Research in African LiteraturesPoet and anthropologist Michael Jackson brings to this study of the folktales of the Kuranko people of Sierra Leone a sensitivity to the philosophical nuances of literature.
In reading a text , allegory does violence to the text by reducing it to doctrine .
Likewise , in its exegesis of woman , allegory does violence to the subject of
woman by reducing it to doctrinal hierarchization . Allegory displaces woman with
The " enemie " -- the threat , present but hidden -- which Mulcaster supposed displaced by the expressions of union between people and monarch here makes
a sudden appearance in the crowd of united citizens . Even as determined a ...
... and without the Episcopal Church of England , caused so rational a view of the
scriptural doctrine of Sacrifice to fall for a time into the background , and the
temporary reinstatement in pulpit and academy of the displaced allegorical
Thus , in the economy of displacement that operates in in La Couronne
Margaritique , Philibert is displaced by Marguerite , who in turn is displaced by
Lemaire through the exercise of his special power over language . This is no