Following the 1979 Iranian Revolution, Iran’s film industry, in conforming to the Islamic Republic’s system of modesty, had to ensure that women on-screen were veiled from the view of men. This prevented Iranian filmmakers from making use of the desiring gaze, a staple cinematic system of looking. In Displaced Allegories Negar Mottahedeh shows that post-Revolutionary Iranian filmmakers were forced to create a new visual language for conveying meaning to audiences. She argues that the Iranian film industry found creative ground not in the negation of government regulations but in the camera’s adoption of the modest, averted gaze. In the process, the filmic techniques and cinematic technologies were gendered as feminine and the national cinema was produced as a woman’s cinema. Mottahedeh asserts that, in response to the prohibitions against the desiring look, a new narrative cinema emerged as the displaced allegory of the constraints on the post-Revolutionary Iranian film industry. Allegorical commentary was not developed in the explicit content of cinematic narratives but through formal innovations. Offering close readings of the work of the nationally popular and internationally renowned Iranian auteurs Bahram Bayza’i, Abbas Kiarostami, and Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Mottahedeh illuminates the formal codes and conventions of post-Revolutionary Iranian films. She insists that such analyses of cinema’s visual codes and conventions are crucial to the study of international film. As Mottahedeh points out, the discipline of film studies has traditionally seen film as a medium that communicates globally because of its dependence on a (Hollywood) visual language assumed to be universal and legible across national boundaries. Displaced Allegories demonstrates that visual language is not necessarily universal; it is sometimes deeply informed by national culture and politics.
Throughout this book, allegory is considered both a mode of expression and a
mode of interpretation. ... authoritarian rules'.3 However, Negar Mottahedeh has
offered a slightly different perspective in her theorization of 'displaced allegories'.
Author: Michelle Langford
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Category: Performing Arts
Iranian filmmakers have long been recognised for creating a vibrant, aesthetically rich cinema whilst working under strict state censorship regulations. As Michelle Langford reveals, many have found indirect, allegorical ways of expressing forbidden topics and issues in their films. But for many, allegory is much more than a foil against haphazardly applied censorship rules. Drawing on a long history of allegorical expression in Persian poetry and the arts, allegory has become an integral part of the poetics of Iranian cinema. Allegory in Iranian Cinema explores the allegorical aesthetics of Iranian cinema, explaining how it has emerged from deep cultural traditions and how it functions as a strategy for both supporting and resisting dominant ideology. As well as tracing the roots of allegory in Iranian cinema before and after the 1979 revolution, Langford also theorizes this cinematic mode. She draws on a range of cinematic, philosophical and cultural concepts - developed by thinkers such as Walter Benjamin, Gilles Deleuze, Pier Paolo Pasolini, Christian Metz and Vivian Sobchack - to provide a theoretical framework for detailed analyses of films by renowned directors of the pre-and post-revolutionary eras including Masoud Kimiai, Dariush Mehrjui, Ebrahim Golestan, Kamran Shirdel, Majid Majidi, Jafar Panahi, Marziyeh Meshkini, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Rakhshan Bani-Etemad and Asghar Farhadi. Allegory in Iranian Cinema explains how a centuries-old means of expression, interpretation, encoding and decoding becomes, in the hands of Iran's most skilled cineastes, a powerful tool with which to critique and challenge social and cultural norms.
... political system, through regulation and subsidies, does directly impact the
language of cinema in Iran. Attending directly to this relationship, Negar
Mottahedeh in Displaced Allegories: Post-Revolutionary Iranian Cinema (2008) ...
Author: Peter Decherney
Category: Social Science
Iranian films have been the subject of much critical and scholarly attention over the past several decades, and Iranian filmmakers are mainstays of international film festivals. Yet most of the attention has been focused on a small segment of Iranian film production: auteurist art cinema. Iranian Cinema in a Global Context, on the other hand, takes account of the wide range of Iranian cinema, from popular youth films to low budget underground films. The volume also reassesses the global circulation of Iranian art cinema, looking at its reception at international festivals, in university curricula, and at the Academy Awards. A final theme of the volume explores the intersection between politics and film, with essays on post-Khatami reform influences, representations of ineffective drug policies, and the representation of Jewish characters in Iranian film. Taken together, the essays in this volume present a new definition of the field of Iranian film studies, one that engages global media flows, transmedia interaction, and a heterogeneous Iranian national cinema.
Mottahedeh provides unparalleled analyses of the scene in her fascinating Displaced Allegories (see 91–6, 128–30). Dabashi, Close Up, 253. For an
excellent discussion of the complex role of censorship “as both a prohibitive,
Author: Mathew Abbott
Publisher: Edinburgh University Press
A deflationary, anti-theoretical film-philosophy through the cinema of Abbas KiarostamiMathew Abbott presents a powerful new film-philosophy through the cinema of Iranian director Abbas Kiarostami. Mathew Abbott argues that Kiarostamis films carry out cinematic thinking: they do not just illustrate pre-existing philosophical ideas, but do real philosophical work.Crossing the divide between analytic and continental philosophy, he draws on Ludwig Wittgenstein, Stanley Cavell, John McDowell, Alice Crary, NoAl Carroll, Giorgio Agamben, and Martin Heidegger, bringing out the thinking at work in Kiarostamis most recent films: Taste of Cherry, The Wind Will Carry Us, ABC Africa, Ten, Five, Shirin, Certified Copy and Like Someone in Love.
Postmodernist fiction has thus developed a range of narrative strategies for displacing the nuclear. ... Nuclear apocalypse may be displaced onto some other
apocalypse scenario, as in the case of Gravity's Rainbow, as well as Hoban«s ...
Author: Lidia Yuknavitch
Category: Literary Criticism
Allegories of Violence demilitarizes the concept of war and asks what would happen if we understood war as discursive via late 20th Century novels of war.
The " enemie " -- the threat , present but hidden -- which Mulcaster supposed displaced by the expressions of union between people and monarch here makes
a sudden appearance in the crowd of united citizens . Even as determined a ...
Thus the primary latent wish of the changeling boy is displaced to another "
changeling," the monstrous Bottom, through whom the metamorphic fantasy is
played out to provide an illicit night of love in the bower of the mother. Once again
, a ...
Author: Bruce Clarke
Publisher: SUNY Press
Category: Literary Criticism
This is a theoretical study of human metamorphosis in Western literature.
Bressane's films combine nostalgia and aggression to create the view that there
is a film style to be built, illusions to be destroyed, and educators to be displaced
in his bitter, lacerated critical approach to social and cinematic development.
Author: Ismail Xavier
Publisher: U of Minnesota Press
Category: Performing Arts
" 'A camera in the hand and ideas in the head' was the primary axiom of the young originators of Brazil's Cinema Novo. This movement of the 1960s and early 1970s overcame technical constraints and produced films on minimal budgets. In Allegories of Underdevelopment, Ismail Xavier examines a number of these films, arguing that they served to represent a nation undergoing a political and social transformation into modernity. Its best-known voice, filmmaker Glauber Rocha claimed that Cinema Novo was driven by an "aesthetics of hunger." This scarcity of means demanded new cinematic approaches that eventually gave rise to a legitimate and unique Third World cinema. Xavier stands in the vanguard of scholars presenting and interpreting these revolutionary films - from the masterworks of Rocha to the groundbreaking experiments of Julio Bressane, Rogério Sganzerla, Andrea Tonacci and Arthur Omar - to an English-speaking audience. Focusing on each filmmaker's use of narrative allegories for the "conservative modernization" Brazil and other nations underwent in the 1960s and 1970s, Xavier asks questions relating to the connection between film and history. He examines the way Cinema Novo transformed Brazil's cultural memory and charts the controversial roles that Marginal Cinema and Tropicalism played in this process. Among the films he discusses are Black God, White Devil, Land in Anguish, Red Light Bandit, Macunaíma, Antônio das Mortes, The Angel Is Born, and Killed the Family and Went to the Movies." -- Book cover.
James's comments notwithstanding, however, psychology never entirely displaced spiritual concerns with materialism. Jenny Bourne Taylor has pointed
out that “'Psychology' was firstly understood as the 'study of the soul' and
although by ...
Author: David G. Riede
Publisher: Ohio State University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
"Perhaps because major Victorians like Thomas Carlyle and Matthew Arnold proscribed Romantic melancholy as morbidly diseased and unsuitable for poetic expression, critics have neglected or understated the central importance of melancholy in Victorian poetry. Allegories of One's Own Mind re-directs our attention to a mode that Arnold was rejecting as morbid but also acknowledging when he disparaged the widely current idea that the highest ambition of poetry should be to present an allegory of the poet's own mind. This book shows how early Victorian poets suffered from and railed against what they perceived to be a "disabling post-Wordsworthian melancholy" - we might refer to it as depression - and yet benefited from this self-absorbed or love-obsessed state, which ironically made them more productive."--BOOK JACKET.
Even before the Great Famine, the presence of displaced Irish women and men
who had become the poorest denizens of Great Britain's great towns afforded the
opportunity for figuring England, Ireland, and the problems ofindustrial society in
Author: Mary Jean Corbett
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
In this book, Mary Jean Corbett explores fictional and non-fictional representations of Ireland's relationship with England throughout the nineteenth century. Through postcolonial and feminist theory, she considers how cross-cultural contact is negotiated through tropes of marriage and family, and demonstrates how familial rhetoric sometimes works to sustain, sometimes to contest the structures of colonial inequality. Analyzing novels by Edgeworth, Owenson, Gaskell, Kingsley, and Trollope, as well as writings by Burke, Carlyle, Engels, Arnold, and Mill, Corbett argues that the colonizing imperative for 'reforming' the Irish in an age of imperial expansion constitutes a largely unrecognized but crucial element in the rhetorical project of English nation-formation. By situating her readings within the varying historical and rhetorical contexts that shape them, she revises the critical orthodoxies surrounding colonial discourse that currently prevail in Irish and English studies, and offers a fresh perspective on important aspects of Victorian culture.
DISPLACED ALLEGORIES. POSTREVOLUTIONARY IRANIAN CINEMA NEGAR
MOTTAHEDEH DUKE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2008 Displaced Allegories N to AR
Mott AM EDth There is precious little writing in English on Iranian cinema, ...
Drama, psychology, and “realism” are displaced. Bunyan's The Pilgrim's
Progress survives in spite of its allegory, the pleasure “found in the direct ratio of
the reader's capacity to smother its true purpose, in the direct ratio of his ability to
Author: Michael Schmidt
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
The 700-year history of the novel in English defies straightforward telling. Encompassing a range of genres, it is geographically and culturally boundless and influenced by great novelists working in other languages. Michael Schmidt, choosing as his travel companions not critics or theorists but other novelists, does full justice to its complexity.
... ngo workers and indigenous organizations in the lowlands might use Guaraní
narratives of resistance as “allegory for the resurgence of a different kind of
Guarani struggle, that of bilingual education” (Gustafson 2009b: 38). At the same
Author: Nicole Fabricant
Publisher: UNC Press Books
Category: Social Science
The election of Evo Morales as Bolivia's president in 2005 made him his nation's first indigenous head of state, a watershed victory for social activists and Native peoples. El Movimiento Sin Tierra (MST), or the Landless Peasant Movement, played a significant role in bringing Morales to power. Following in the tradition of the well-known Brazilian Landless movement, Bolivia's MST activists seized unproductive land and built farming collectives as a means of resistance to large-scale export-oriented agriculture. In Mobilizing Bolivia's Displaced, Nicole Fabricant illustrates how landless peasants politicized indigeneity to shape grassroots land politics, reform the state, and secure human and cultural rights for Native peoples. Fabricant takes readers into the personal spaces of home and work, on long bus rides, and into meetings and newly built MST settlements to show how, in response to displacement, Indigenous identity is becoming ever more dynamic and adaptive. In addition to advancing this rich definition of indigeneity, she explores the ways in which Morales has found himself at odds with Indigenous activists and, in so doing, shows that Indigenous people have a far more complex relationship to Morales than is generally understood.
In Michael ' s materialized vision of a wholly temporal “ eternity , ” the static
hierarchies of the older allegorical cosmos are then conclusively displaced onto
the interiorized motions of the individual literate reader . This internalization of the
Author: Catherine Gimelli Martin
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Literary Criticism
Presents Milton’s epic, PARADISE LOST as an allegorical prophecy foretelling the end of one culture and its replacement by another.
Author: Associate Professor of History Wulf KansteinerPublish On: 2006
In addition to goodwill features and displaced ” allegories of persecution , the
programs of the 1960s included celebrations of German rescue efforts ,
especially those undertaken by members of the German clergy . 18 The
programs hardly ...
Author: Associate Professor of History Wulf Kansteiner
Category: Political Science
The collective memories of Nazism that developed in postwar Germany have helped define a new paradigm of memory politics. From Europe to South Africa and from Latin America to Iraq, scholars have studied the German case to learn how to overcome internal division and regain international recognition. In Pursuit of German Memory: History, Television, and Politics after Auschwitz examines three arenas of German memory politics--professional historiography, national politics, and national public television--that have played key roles in the reinvention of the Nazi past in the last sixty years. Wulf Kansteiner shows that the interpretations of the past proposed by historians, politicians, and television producers reflect political and generational divisions and an extraordinary concern for Germany's image abroad. At the same time, each of these theaters of memory has developed its own dynamics and formats of historical reflection. Kansteiner's analysis of the German scene reveals a complex social geography of collective memory. In Pursuit of German Memory underscores the fact that German memories of Nazism, like many other collective memories, combine two seemingly contradictory qualities: They are highly mediated and part of a global exchange of images and story fragments but, at the same time, they can be reproduced only locally, in narrowly circumscribed networks of communication.
Or - here is the dialectical correction — the displacement of mourning onto others
is ... give off a breath and scent of mourning to others , which others — “ men rich
in spirit ” — are the gods now displaced and transformed by their mourning .
Author: Timothy Bahti
Publisher: Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press
Category: German literature
Bahti shows how narrative or interpretive language produces historical meaning--and how this meaning is reached at the expense not only of the historical "facts" but also of the purported intent (or "storyline") of the narrative itself.
But this conception of symbolism ignores the fact that both the allegoric sign and
the symbol are characterized by an ... whereas the allegoric image operates on
the principle of metaphor : the tenor is displaced from the metaphoric vehicle so ...
Author: Deborah L. Madsen
Publisher: Burns & Oates
This study of all the major narrative works of Thomas Pynchon (V, The Crying of Lot 49, Gravity's Rainbow, Vineland) and his early fiction is an attempt to describe the narrative mechanisms that produce the uncertainty and ambiguity noted by all of Pynchon's critics. These critics have analyzed the dynamic uncertainties of Pynchon's texts in terms of cybernetics, thermodynamics, Rilke, Weber, Jung - all terms that are offered by the fiction itself. The generic concept of postmodernist allegory allows the critic to speak from a position outside the text and allows us to see that ambiguity and indeterminancy are the effects produced by the way in which the text is constructed.
By writing displaced allegories , stories set in far - away kingdoms with a cast of
talking toys and tin soldiers , Andersen found he could write about politics and
royalty and society and sex and hypocrisy , without any of his politician or ...
Author: Michael Booth
Category: Danube River
A funny, moving travelogue following in the footsteps of Hans Christian Andersen. Without Hans Christian Andersen there would be no Alice in Wonderland, no Roald Dahl and maybe even no Harry Potter (and he has outsold them all), but few realise that the man who invented children's literature was also a pioneering travel writer. Having been dragged against his will to live in Denmark, Michael Booth discovered one of the great secrets of travel literature - Andersen's A Poet's Bazaar - a fascinating travelogue through a Europe on the cusp of revolution, by an author who, though a genius, was clearly a towering neurotic and proto-drama queen. He discovered, too, his chance to escape Denmark. In 1840 Andersen was also desperate to flee, writing as he sailed: 'It is just as well I am leaving, my soul is unwell ' In Germany he was enraptured both by steam travel and the fiery Franz Liszt.
What Christine Bold says of nineteenth - century story papers applies to all U . S .
popular narrative : that the sensational adventures of popular fiction are not
merely “ dissociated escapism ” but “ displaced allegories of American life . ” .
... Citing " circumstantial " internal evidence from Macbeth and Henry VIII ,
Hadfield argues : [ T ] he ghostly presence of Ireland haunts many of
Shakespeare's works , and ... some plays can be read as displaced allegories of
Irish events .