Electromigration and Electronic Device Degradation

Electromigration and Electronic Device Degradation

Addresses electromigration failure modes in electronics covering both theory and experiments. Reviews silicon and GaAs technologies. Various rate controlling details are summarized including an investigation of temperature dependence.

Author: A. Christou

Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

ISBN: UOM:39015029116350

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 370

View: 984

Addresses electromigration failure modes in electronics covering both theory and experiments. Reviews silicon and GaAs technologies. Various rate controlling details are summarized including an investigation of temperature dependence. Concludes with a discussion regarding current status and future plans for electromigration resistant advanced metallization systems for VLSI.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Graphene and VLSI Interconnects

Graphene and VLSI Interconnects

A. Christou, Electromigration & Electronic Device degradation, Wiley, 1993. 9. ITRS, “Interconnect Summary,” 2013. 10. C. M. Tan and A. Roy, “Electromigration in ULSI interconnects,” Mater. Sci. Eng. R Reports, 58, 1–2, pp. 1–75, 2007.

Author: Cher-Ming Tan

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000470680

Category: Science

Page: 126

View: 458

Copper (Cu) has been used as an interconnection material in the semiconductor industry for years owing to its best balance of conductivity and performance. However, it is running out of steam as it is approaching its limits with respect to electrical performance and reliability. Graphene is a non-metal material, but it can help to improve electromigration (EM) performance of Cu because of its excellent properties. Combining graphene with Cu for very large-scale integration (VLSI) interconnects can be a viable solution. The incorporation of graphene into Cu allows the present Cu fabrication back-end process to remain unaltered, except for the small step of “inserting” graphene into Cu. Therefore, it has a great potential to revolutionize the VLSI integrated circuit (VLSI-IC) industry and appeal for further advancement of the semiconductor industry. This book is a compilation of comprehensive studies done on the properties of graphene and its synthesis methods suitable for applications of VLSI interconnects. It introduces the development of a new method to synthesize graphene, wherein it not only discusses the method to grow graphene over Cu but also allows the reader to know how to optimize graphene growth, using statistical design of experiments (DoE), on Cu interconnects in order to obtain good-quality and reliable interconnects. It provides a basic understanding of graphene–Cu interaction mechanism and evaluates the electrical and EM performance of graphenated Cu interconnects.
Categories: Science

Electrical Contacts

Electrical Contacts

Christou, A., Ed, Electromigration and electronic device degradation, Wiley, New York, 1994. Tu, K. N., Recent advances on electromigration in very-large-scale-integration of interconnects, Journal of Applied Physics, 94(9), 1559–5451, ...

Author: Milenko Braunovic

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351838085

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 909

View: 919

Various factors affect the performance of electrical contacts, including tribological, mechanical, electrical, and materials aspects. Although these behaviors have been studied for many years, they are not widely used or understood in practice. Combining approaches used across the globe, Electrical Contacts: Fundamentals, Applications, and Technology integrates advances in research and development in the tribological, material, and analytical aspects of electrical contacts with new data on electrical current transfer at the micro- and nanoscales. Taking an application-oriented approach, the authors illustrate how material characteristics, tribological behavior, and loading impact the degradation of contacts, formation of intermetallics, and overall reliability and performance. Coverage is divided broadly into three sections, with the first focused on mechanics, tribology, materials, current and heat transfer, and basic reliability issues of electrical contacts. The next section explores applications, such as power connections, electronic connections, and sliding contacts, while the final section presents the diagnostic and monitoring techniques used to investigate and measure phenomena occurring at electrical contact interfaces. Numerous references to current literature reflect the fact that this book is the most comprehensive survey in the field. Explore an impressive collection of data, theory, and practical applications in Electrical Contacts: Fundamentals, Applications, and Technology, a critical tool for anyone investigating or designing electrical equipment with improved performance and reliability in mind.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Microelectronic Interconnections and Assembly

Microelectronic Interconnections and Assembly

[3] R. C. Benson, B. M. Romenesko, J. A. Weiner, B. H. Nall, and H. K. Charles, Jr. "Metal Electromigration ... [10] S. J. Krumbein, "Metallic electromigration phenomena," in Electromigration and electronic device degradation (Ed. by A.

Author: G.G. Harman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401151351

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 299

View: 524

MICROELECTRONIC INTERCONNECTIONS AND MICROASSEMBL Y WORKSHOP 18-21 May 1996, Prague, Czech Republic Conference Organizers: George Harman, NIST (USA) and Pavel Mach (Czech Republic) Summary of the Technical Program Thirty two presentations were given in eight technical sessions at the Workshop. A list of these sessions and their chairpersons is attached below. The Workshop was devoted to the technical aspects of advanced interconnections and microassembly, but also included papers on the education issues required to prepare students to work in these areas. In addition to new technical developments, several papers presented overviews predicting the future directions of these technologies. The basic issue is that electronic systems will continue to be miniaturized and at the same time performance must continue to improve. Various industry roadmaps were discussed as well as new smaller packaging and interconnection concepts. The newest chip packages are often based on the selection of an appropriate interconnection method. An example is the chip-scale package, which has horizontal (x-y) dimensions,;; 20% larger than the actual silicon chip itself. The chip is often flip-chip connected to a micro ball-grid-array, but direct chip attach was described also. Several papers described advances in the manufacture of such packages.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook

Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook

Palacios, T. Graphene electronics: Thinking outside the silicon box. Nat. Nano. 6, 464—465, 2011. ... Christou, A. Electromigration and Electronic Device Degradation (Wiley-Interscience, New York, NY, 1994). Collins, P. G., Hersam, M., ...

Author: James E. Morris

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351831970

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 942

View: 253

Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world. These include: Nanoscale advances in current MOSFET/CMOS technology Nano capacitors for applications such as electronics packaging and humidity sensors Single electron transistors and other electron tunneling devices Quantum cellular automata and nanomagnetic logic Memristors as switching devices and for memory Graphene preparation, properties, and devices Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), both single CNT and random network Other CNT applications such as terahertz, sensors, interconnects, and capacitors Nano system architectures for reliability Nanowire device fabrication and applications Nanowire transistors Nanodevices for spintronics The book closes with a call for a new generation of simulation tools to handle nanoscale mechanisms in realistic nanodevice geometries. This timely handbook offers a wealth of insights into the application of nanoelectronics. It is an invaluable reference and source of ideas for anyone working in the rapidly expanding field of nanoelectronics.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Copper Interconnect Technology

Copper Interconnect Technology

691 (1973) A. Christou, Electromigration and Electronic Device Degradation, John John Wiley, New York (1993) F.M. D'Heurle, Electromigration and failure in electronics: An introduction, Proc. IEEE, 59 (10), 1409 (Oct. 1971); E.T. Ogawa, ...

Author: Tapan Gupta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441900760

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 423

View: 472

Since overall circuit performance has depended primarily on transistor properties, previous efforts to enhance circuit and system speed were focused on transistors as well. During the last decade, however, the parasitic resistance, capacitance, and inductance associated with interconnections began to influence circuit performance and will be the primary factors in the evolution of nanoscale ULSI technology. Because metallic conductivity and resistance to electromigration of bulk copper (Cu) are better than aluminum, use of copper and low-k materials is now prevalent in the international microelectronics industry. As the feature size of the Cu-lines forming interconnects is scaled, resistivity of the lines increases. At the same time electromigration and stress-induced voids due to increased current density become significant reliability issues. Although copper/low-k technology has become fairly mature, there is no single book available on the promise and challenges of these next-generation technologies. In this book, a leader in the field describes advanced laser systems with lower radiation wavelengths, photolithography materials, and mathematical modeling approaches to address the challenges of Cu-interconnect technology.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Handbook for Critical Cleaning Applications processes and controls

Handbook for Critical Cleaning  Applications  processes  and controls

Krumbein, S.J. Metallic electromigration phenomena. Chapter 5, in: Christou, A. (ed.) Electro Migration and Electronic Device Degradation. New York: Wiley Interscience, 1994, pp. 139–166. Muehlbauer, A. and Schweigart, H. Lead-free and ...

Author: Barbara Kanegsberg

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439828298

Category: Science

Page: 576

View: 952

"Updated, re-organized, and rewritten, this second edition of a bestseller covers cleaning processes, applications, management, safety, and environmental concerns. A two-volume set, it discusses cleaning process applications, management, and safety and environmental concerns. International contributors give the text a global viewpoint. Color illustrations, video clips, and animations that make the information accessible are available from the website. The handbook is available for purchase individually or as the two-volume set"--
Categories: Science

Compound Semiconductor Power Transistors and

Compound Semiconductor Power Transistors and

A. Christou , in Electromigration and Electronic Device Degradation , Edited by A. Christou ( Wiley , New York , 1994 ) , Chap . 1 , p 1 . S. D. Mukherjee , Reliability and Degradation : Semiconductor Devices and Circuits , Edited by ...

Author: Electrochemical Society. Electronics Division

Publisher: The Electrochemical Society

ISBN: 1566772222

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 338

View: 269

Categories: Technology & Engineering

Magnetic Materials Processes and Devices VII and Electrodeposition of Alloys

Magnetic Materials  Processes  and Devices VII and Electrodeposition of Alloys

It is not clear how the interface influences Au electromigration in the cathode - side lead . ... Jian Hui Zhao , " Electromigration and Electronic Device Degradation " , Edited by Aris Christou , John Wiley & Sons , Inc. , 1994 . 4.

Author: S. Krongelb

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015060582734

Category: Science

Page: 714

View: 271

Categories: Science

Contamination of Electronic Assemblies

Contamination of Electronic Assemblies

... no - clean soldering and alternate cleaning technologies . Proceedings of the Technical Program , NEPCON West '94 . Vol . 2 , 1994. pp . 1312-1331 . Christou , A. Electromigration and electronic device degradation .

Author: Elissa M. Bumiller

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849314836

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 242

View: 673

Contamination problems have become a major factor in determining the manufacturability, quality, and reliability of electronic assemblies. Understanding the mechanics and chemistry of contamination has become necessary for improving quality and reliability and reducing costs of electronic assemblies. Designed as a practical guide, Contamination of Electronic Assemblies presents a generalized overview of contamination problems and serves as a problem-solving reference point. It takes a step-by-step approach to identifying contaminants and their effects on electronic products at each level of manufacture. The text is divided into four sections: Laminate Manufacturing, Substrate Fabrication, Printed Wiring Board Assembly, and Conformal Coatings. These sections discuss all aspects of contamination of electronic assemblies, from the manufacture of glass fibers used in the laminates to the complete assembly of the finished product. The authors present detection and control methods that can help you reduce defects during the manufacturing process. With tables, figures, and fishbone diagrams serving as a quick reference, Contamination of Electronic Assemblies will help you familiarize yourself with the origination, detection, measurement, control, and prevention of contamination in electronic assemblies.
Categories: Technology & Engineering