The Emergence of Social Security in Canada

The Emergence of Social Security in Canada

1 The Emergence of Social Security in Canada : Major Themes The Shift from a Residual to an Institutional Concept of Social Welfare It is possible to identify five major themes in Canadian social security history .

Author: Dennis Guest

Publisher: UBC Press

ISBN: 077480551X

Category: History

Page: 390

View: 950

This third edition of Dennis Guest's book provides the most complete and up-to-date history of social welfare in this country. Yet it also offers insights into the nuts and bolts of policy creation, and explodes recent myths that underlie the current residual approach to social policy, such as 'death by deficit' and 'the inevitable demise of the Canada Pension Plan.' The Emergence of Social Security in Canada is both an important historical resource and an engrossing tale in its own right, and it will be of great interest to anyone concerned about Canadian social policy.
Categories: History

The Emergence of Monasticism

The Emergence of Monasticism

1 The Emergence of Christian Eremitism In 324 an Egyptian villager named Aurelius Isidorus of Karanis was attacked by two enraged neighbours , Pamounis and Harpalos , when he turned their cow , which was eating his crops , off his land ...

Author: Marilyn Dunn

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405106417

Category: History

Page: 292

View: 576

The Emergence of Monasticism offers a new approach to the subject, placing its development against the dynamic of both social and religious change. First study in any language to cover the formative period of medieval monasticism. Gives particular attention to the contribution of women to ascetic and monastic life.
Categories: History

Emergence and Convergence

Emergence and Convergence

ontological : emergence = occurrence of qualitative novelty and epistemological : emergence = unpredictability from lower levels a confusion that even eminent scientists ( e.g. , Mayr 1982 ) and philosophers ( e.g. , Popper 1974 ) have ...

Author: Mario Bunge

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 0802088600

Category: Science

Page: 330

View: 405

Two problems continually arise in the sciences and humanities, according to Mario Bunge: parts and wholes and the origin of novelty. In Emergence and Convergence, he works to address these problems, as well as that of systems and their emergent properties, as exemplified by the synthesis of molecules, the creation of ideas, and social inventions. Along the way, Bunge examines further topical problems, such as the search for the mechanisms underlying observable facts, the limitations of both individualism and holism, the reach of reduction, the abuses of Darwinism, the rational choice-hermeneutics feud, the modularity of the brain vs. the unity of the mind, the cluster of concepts around 'maybe,' the uselessness of many-worlds metaphysics and semantics, the hazards posed by Bayesianism, the nature of partial truth, the obstacles to correct medical diagnosis, and the formal conditions for the emergence of a cross-discipline. Bunge is not interested in idle fantasies, but about many of the problems that occur in any discipline that studies reality or ways to control it. His work is about the merger of initially independent lines of inquiry, such as developmental evolutionary biology, cognitive neuroscience, and socio-economics. Bunge proposes a clear definition of the concept of emergence to replace that of supervenience and clarifies the notions of system, real possibility, inverse problem, interdiscipline, and partial truth that occur in all fields.
Categories: Science

Metaphysical Emergence

Metaphysical Emergence

Accounts of metaphysical emergence typically agree that the emergence of entities can be investigated by attention to the emergence of features of the entities at issue . On this understanding , any emergence there might be involves an ...

Author: Jessica M. Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198823742

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 396

Metaphysical Emergence provides a detailed analyses of two ways for phenomena to be grounded in and yet distinct from underlying physical reality, and brings this to bear on a number of live debates in metpahysics, including those concerning consciousness and free will.
Categories: Philosophy

Emergence in Science and Philosophy

Emergence in Science and Philosophy

Many naturalistically inclined philosophers (e.g., Jackson & Pettit) find causal fundamentalism compelling, so they would accordingly be skeptical about any form of emergence that contravenes causal fundamentalism.

Author: Antonella Corradini

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136955129

Category: Philosophy

Page: 328

View: 252

The concept of emergence has seen a significant resurgence in philosophy and the sciences, yet debates regarding emergentist and reductionist visions of the natural world continue to be hampered by imprecision or ambiguity. Emergent phenomena are said to arise out of and be sustained by more basic phenomena, while at the same time exerting a "top-down" control upon those very sustaining processes. To some critics, this has the air of magic, as it seems to suggest a kind of circular causality. Other critics deem the concept of emergence to be objectionably anti-naturalistic. Objections such as these have led many thinkers to construe emergent phenomena instead as coarse-grained patterns in the world that, while calling for distinctive concepts, do not "disrupt" the ordinary dynamics of the finer-grained (more fundamental) levels. Yet, reconciling emergence with a (presumed) pervasive causal continuity at the fundamental level can seem to deflate emergence of its initially profound significance. This basic problematic is mirrored by similar controversy over how best to characterize the opposite systematizing impulse, most commonly given an equally evocative but vague term, "reductionism." The original essays in this volume help to clarify the alternatives: inadequacies in some older formulations and arguments are exposed and new lines of argument on behalf the two visions are advanced.
Categories: Philosophy

The Emergence of Spacetime in String Theory

The Emergence of Spacetime in String Theory

These two properties combined together constitute the formal structure and physical content of general relativistic spacetime emergence.1 My philosophical analysis of this derivation identifies a notion of emergence combining two ...

Author: Tiziana Vistarini

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134842407

Category: Philosophy

Page: 142

View: 448

The nature of space and time is one of the most fascinating and fundamental philosophical issues which presently engages at the deepest level with physics. During the last thirty years this notion has been object of an intense critical review in the light of new scientific theories which try to combine the principles of both general relativity and quantum theory—called theories of quantum gravity. This book considers the way string theory shapes its own account of spacetime disappearance from the fundamental level.
Categories: Philosophy

The Emergence of Novelty in Organizations

The Emergence of Novelty in Organizations

In the innovation literature in particular, the notion of emergence is key to understandings of sustained product innovation (Dougherty, 2008; Garud et al., 2011), knowledge-based innovation (Anand et al., 2007), new knowledge creation ...

Author: Raghu Garud

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191044038

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 350

View: 819

Creativity, innovation and change are vital to the development and sustainability of all organizations. Yet, questions remain about exactly how novelty comes about, and what dynamic processes are involved in its emergence? Ideas of emergence and process, drawn from a variety of different philosophic traditions, have been the focus of increasing attention in management and organization studies. These issues are brought to bear on novelty and innovation in this volume by examining new organizational and product development processes, whether planned or unplanned. The contributions in this volume offer both theoretical insights and empirical studies on, inter alia, innovation, music technology, haute cuisine, pharmaceuticals and theatre improvisation. In doing so, they throw light on the importance of emergence, improvisation and learning in organizations, and how both practitioners and scholars alike can best understand their own assumptions about process. In addition, the volume includes general essays on process perspectives in organization studies.
Categories: Business & Economics

Emergence 2

Emergence 2

In Emergence, the author posited an entity, endowed with spectacular capabilities. Each of the capabilities required a re-thinking of some of our most sacred and established beliefs. Operating in the manner of dialectic, ...

Author: Justice Hawk

Publisher: iUniverse

ISBN: 9780595449262

Category: Fiction

Page: 200

View: 325

The mysterious entity of the initial Emergence novel reappears in the deep hydrothermal vent areas of the Pacific Ocean. Rather than merely explore the reality of the surface world, the entity chooses to adventure into our reality. Research in origins of life, geology and Super String Theory merge to produce an intense tale of scientific inquiry that questions our most sacred assumptions and beliefs.
Categories: Fiction

Emergence in Complex Cognitive Social and Biological Systems

Emergence in Complex  Cognitive  Social  and Biological Systems

The word “emergence” refers to a relationship between an observer, the models which he is equipped with, and certain results of observations, or of measure operations, in turn dependent on his mental schemata and on his technological ...

Author: Gianfranco Minati

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461507536

Category: Computers

Page: 394

View: 301

The systems movement is made up of many systems societies as well as of disciplinary researchers and researches, explicitly or implicitly focusing on the subject of systemics, officially introduced in the scientific community fifty years ago. Many researches in different fields have been and continue to be sources of new ideas and challenges for the systems community. To this regard, a very important topic is the one of EMERGENCE. Between the goals for the actual and future systems scientists there is certainly the definition of a general theory of emergence and the building of a general model of it. The Italian Systems Society, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sui Sistemi (AIRS), decided to devote its Second National Conference to this subject. Because AIRS is organized under the form of a network of researchers, institutions, scholars, professionals, and teachers, its research activity has an impact at different levels and in different ways. Thus the topic of emergence was not only the focus of this conference but it is actually the main subject of many AIRS activities.
Categories: Computers

The Emergence of Relativism

The Emergence of Relativism

Emergence. of. Relativism. Debates over relativism are as old as philosophy itself. Since the late nineteenth century, relativism has also been a controversial topic in many of the social and cultural sciences.

Author: Martin Kusch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351333559

Category: Philosophy

Page: 258

View: 799

Debates over relativism are as old as philosophy itself. Since the late nineteenth century, relativism has also been a controversial topic in many of the social and cultural sciences. And yet, relativism has not been a central topic of research in the history of philosophy or the history of the social sciences. This collection seeks to remedy this situation by studying the emergence of modern forms of relativism as they unfolded in the German lands during the "long nineteenth century"—from the Enlightenment to National Socialism. It focuses on relativist and anti-relativist ideas and arguments in four contexts: history, science, epistemology, and politics. The Emergence of Relativism will be of interest to those studying nineteenth- and twentieth-century philosophy, German idealism, and history and philosophy of science, as well as those in related disciplines such as sociology and anthropology.
Categories: Philosophy