Endocannabinoids

Endocannabinoids

( 1995 ) demonstrated that the CB , mRNA but not CB2 mRNA are expressed in the mouse uterus , where endocannabinoids can also be synthesized . Although there is extensive distribution and localization of the CB , receptors in the brain ...

Author: Emmanuel S Onaivi

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420023640

Category: Science

Page: 592

View: 690

Over the past decade, there have been major advances in understanding the mechanisms whereby marijuana interacts with the brain in producing psychoactive and potentially therapeutic effects. The discovery of specific gene coding for cannabinoid receptors activated by smoking marijuana, and the finding of endogenous cannabinoids, which also activate the receptors, have transformed cannabinoid research into mainstream science with significant implications in human health and disease Endocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond documentsadvances in the discovery and functioning of naturally occurring marijuana-like substances in human biology. It explores recent findings that point to the existence of an endocannabinoid physiological control system (EPCS) that directly impacts human development, health, and disease. While cannabinoid effects on the brain have received the greatest attention throughout the literature, this work looks at research on the endogenous cannabinoid system’s association across all of human physiology, including the immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. With thoroughly researched and exceptionally insightful contributions from more than three-dozen top-flight researchers representing a cross-section of disciplines from molecular biology, genetics, and neurology to gynecology, physiology, and pharmacology, this work explores a range of topics as wide as the human body is complex. These topics include the EPCS’s relation to cell development and regulation, CNS function, immune function modulation, reproduction, and digestion, as well as its function in mental illness, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. The final section in the book considers the significance of endogenous cannabinoids found in some of the simplest multicellular organisms in the animal kingdom, as well as in mammalian cells at the earliest stages of development, all of which suggests that they play a fundamental role in human biology. Enocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond explores areas that few books have ventured into, providing cutting-edge information that will ultimately help us better understand human biology at the systemic and perhaps even cellular level, as well as lead to the development of a whole new range of medications.
Categories: Science

Endocannabinoids

Endocannabinoids

4.11 Summary of Vascular Effects of Endocannabinoids Endocannabinoids cause acute and time-dependent vasorelaxation of arteries in animal and human studies through activation of CB1, CBe, TRPV and PPARs, coupled to inhibition of calcium ...

Author: Roger G. Pertwee

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319208251

Category: Medical

Page: 475

View: 546

There is currently considerable interest in the development of medicines that would enhance endocannabinoid-induced “autoprotection”, for example through inhibition of endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes or cellular uptake processes or that would oppose endocannabinoid-induced “autoimpairment”. This volume describes the physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology of the endocannabinoid system and potential strategies for targeting this system in the clinic.
Categories: Medical

Endocannabinoids

Endocannabinoids

The Endocannabinoids and Their Receptors 164 2. Cannabinoid Regulation of the Neuroendocrine Stress Response 166 2.1 Inhibitory Endocannabinoid Tone on the HPA Axis 167 2.2 Acute Stress Regulation of Endocannabinoids and the HPA Axis ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128013762

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 771

Endocannabinoids, the latest volume in the International Review of Neurobiology series is a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art research into the neurobiology of migraines. It reviews the current knowledge and understanding in the field, and provides a starting point for researchers and practitioners entering the field. Contains the expertise of contributors in the field of the neurobiology of migraines The endocannabinoid system is the biological system in the body which mediates the effects of cannabis Provides an up to date, comprehensive overview of the biological functions of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain and how it regulates an array of processes, such as brain development, reward, emotion and pain
Categories: Science

The Emerging Role of Endocannabinoids in Synaptic Plasticity Reward and Addiction

The Emerging Role of Endocannabinoids in Synaptic Plasticity  Reward  and Addiction

Endocannabinoids can modulate excitatory or inhibitory synapses over both short- and long-term time scales, often via presynaptic depression of neurotransmitter release (Castillo et al., 2012). Furthermore, these effects can be ...

Author: Jeffrey G. Edwards

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889762651

Category: Science

Page: 148

View: 362

Categories: Science

Endocannabinoids Molecular Pharmacological Behavioral and Clinical Features

Endocannabinoids  Molecular  Pharmacological  Behavioral and Clinical Features

N.R. Neuroscience Institute-Cagliari, University of Cagliari, Monserrato (CA), Italy Abstract: Regulation of motivated behavior toward both natural stimuli and drugs of abuse is among functions where the endocannabinoid system is deeply ...

Author: Eric Murillo-Rodríguez

Publisher: Bentham Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781608050284

Category: Medical

Page: 223

View: 588

The endocannabinoid system comprises at least two G-protein-coupled receptors (the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors) activated by marijuana’s psychoactive principle ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous ligands known as endocannabinoids. The apex of endocannabinoid research seems to have been reached with the clinical development, and also in some cases, the marketing, of synthetic or natural pharmaceuticals targeting this signalling system, which followed the understanding of the physiological and pathological role of endocannabinoids in several conditions, a role that was investigated first in rodent experimental models and then in humans. Endocannabinoids: Molecular, Pharmacological, Behavioral and Clinical Features is a monograph that presents interesting manuscripts selected by the editor on the subject. Chapters in this book include original research or reviews which report the relevance of the endocannabinoid system by describing the results of experimental evidence about the neurobiological role of the endocannabinoid system. The main topics include, but are not limited to: *The genetics of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and their tissue distribution, their splicing variants and polymorphisms, and the possible implications of all this in determining different behaviours as well as various pathological conditions and the addiction to substances of abuse. *Pharmacological approaches describing the potential use in the central nervous system disorders of endocannabinoid-based drugs, such as cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation processes, and even plant cannabinoids other than THC and with a molecular mechanism of action. *The role of the endocannabinoid system in several neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy. The volume would be a great interest to neuropharmacologists, physiologists and biochemists who aim to learn about the endocannabinoid system in detail. Endocannabinoids: Molecular, Pharmacological, Behavioral and Clinical Features is a monograph that presents interesting manuscripts selected by the editor on the subject. Chapters in this book include original research or reviews which report the relevance of the endocannabinoid system by describing the results of experimental evidence about the neurobiological role of the endocannabinoid system. The main topics include, but are not limited to: *The genetics of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and their tissue distribution, their splicing variants and polymorphisms, and the possible implications of all this in determining different behaviours as well as various pathological conditions and the addiction to substances of abuse. *Pharmacological approaches describing the potential use in the central nervous system disorders of endocannabinoid-based drugs, such as cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation processes, and even plant cannabinoids other than THC and with a molecular mechanism of action. *The role of the endocannabinoid system in several neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy. The volume would be a great interest to neuropharmacologists, physiologists and biochemists who aim to learn about the endocannabinoid system in detail. Endocannabinoids: Molecular, Pharmacological, Behavioral and Clinical Features is a monograph that presents interesting manuscripts selected by the editor on the subject. Chapters in this book include original research or reviews which report the relevance of the endocannabinoid system by describing the results of experimental evidence about the neurobiological role of the endocannabinoid system. The main topics include, but are not limited to: *The genetics of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors and their tissue distribution, their splicing variants and polymorphisms, and the possible implications of all this in determining different behaviours as well as various pathological conditions and the addiction to substances of abuse. *Pharmacological approaches describing the potential use in the central nervous system disorders of endocannabinoid-based drugs, such as cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists, inhibitors of endocannabinoid inactivation processes, and even plant cannabinoids other than THC and with a molecular mechanism of action. *The role of the endocannabinoid system in several neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions, such as epilepsy. The volume would be a great interest to neuropharmacologists, physiologists and biochemists who aim to learn about the endocannabinoid system in detail.
Categories: Medical

Endocannabinoids and Lipid Mediators in Brain Functions

Endocannabinoids and Lipid Mediators in Brain Functions

Beat Lutz Abstract This chapter aims at highlighting the diverse roles of endocannabinoids in the coordination of ... The endocannabinoid system appears to be a central intrinsic homeostatic factor in the organism, modulating these ...

Author: Miriam Melis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319573717

Category: Medical

Page: 372

View: 170

The science of cannabinoids is 50 years old. These past years provided a remarkable and constant number of breakthroughs, showing that the signaling mediated by endocannabinoids and lipid mediators impacts almost every function of the body. Indeed, this represents a special field of research, which allows tackling the complexity of biological functions, and provides potential therapeutic frameworks for a plethora of diseases. The number of exciting discoveries brought up to the scientific community almost on a daily basis highlights the importance of an updated volume on this topic. Particularly, given that potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis and cannabinoids are currently under heavy analysis in many Countries worldwide. Hence, the main objective of this book is to explore not only some of the many functions of endocannabinoids (and lipid mediators) in physiological control of networks at a cellular and molecular level, but also to extend this knowledge for potential use of cannabinoids and/or drugs regulating endocannabinoid levels in vivo as therapeutic target(s) in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. In this book new findings and ideas about the endocannabinoid system and its roles as neuronal circuit modulator related to human brain pathologies characterized by alterations in neuroplasticity will be highlighted. Endocannabinoid roles in key systems controlling appetite, pain, learning and memory, as well as sleep and stress responses will be presented. In addition, pathological processes associated with changes in endocannabinoid signaling will be discussed in the context of anxiety, autism, depression and addiction. This book will provide an excellent background to researchers looking for extending their areas of interest, and to newcomers in the field.
Categories: Medical

Endocannabinoid Signaling

Endocannabinoid Signaling

Analysis of Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Derived N-Acylethanolamines in Biological Matrices Renger F. Witkamp, Ian de Bus, Bauke Albada, and Michiel G. J. Balvers 1 Abstract The adequate quantification of endocannabinoids and related ...

Author: Mauro Maccarrone

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9781071627280

Category: Science

Page: 502

View: 970

This second edition provides new and updated chapters detailing all major elements of the ECB system. Chapters guide readers through identification of drug targets, electrophysiology, computational chemistry, and machine learning. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Endocannabinoid Signaling: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition is a valuable resource for all researchers interested in learning more about this important and developing field.
Categories: Science

The Endocannabinoid System

The Endocannabinoid System

... Rome, Italy; 3European Center for Brain Research/IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy ENDOCANNABINOIDS AND THEIR ANALOGS The isolation of the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis (Cannabis sativa), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, ...

Author: Eric Murillo-Rodríguez

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780128096673

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 779

The Endocannabinoid System: Genetics, Biochemistry, Brain Disorders, and Therapy examines the cellular, biochemical, genetic, and therapeutic aspects of the endocannabinoid system. The chapters cover significant conceptual advances in the endocannabinoid field and shed light on the many brain disorders in which this biological system is involved. Written by world-leading experts in the field, the topics covered in this book will have a positive impact on the area of molecular biology, including, but not limited to, cell biology, neuroscience, pharmacology, signaling, disease mechanisms, and therapeutics. Provides an introduction to endocannabinoids in the central nervous system and an overview to their functions in the brain Presents information on neurobiological and cellular studies on the role of the cannabinoid signaling system and its implications in human diseases Includes well-written overviews of the basics of endocannabinoid system structure and function Contains well-illustrated material, with diagrams, charts, and tables Explores compelling case studies and their application to chapters written by experts
Categories: Nature

THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM THE KEY TO LIFE

THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM  THE KEY TO LIFE

On the other hand, Rinaldi-Carmona and other collaborators developed in 1994 the first antagonist (Rimonabant) of the CB1 receptor; Dr. Mechoulam's group identified in 1995 another endocannabinoid, 2arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), ...

Author: Pharmacology University

Publisher: Pharmacology University

ISBN:

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 36

View: 360

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been a revolutionary discovery in recent years. Thanks to this system, we can understand how cells, tissues, and organs of the human body communicate with each other through its components. This has been evidenced in its important role as a modulator, regulator, and signaling in different metabolic processes that influence the balance and maintenance of the physiological functions of the organism. The study of this system facilitates the understanding of events and processes developed in the body and how phytocannabinoids help to improve a wide variety of disturbances and disorders that can be physical and psychological. Join us on this journey to explore the history, discovery, composition, and interactions of the endocannabinoid system with the different systems of the human body, as well as its importance as a pharmacological target for cannabis derivatives and advances at the medicinal level, in the search for new therapies for the treatment of multiple diseases. Would you like to know more about the endocannabinoid system and its components? Visit Pharmacology University's social networks and dive into the wide collection of ebooks and audiobooks we have prepared for you.
Categories: Health & Fitness

Drug Addiction

Drug Addiction

The 2 endocannabinoids may act on local CB1 receptors2,7,122 to regulate glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission, ... Three points are worthy of emphasis.52 First, endocannabinoid-dependent stress antinociception is not affected by ...

Author: Rao S. Rapaka

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387766782

Category: Medical

Page: 782

View: 899

This book provides a comprehensive overview of physiological, biochemical, and genetic pathways underlying drug addiction, and resultant efforts to develop novel treatment strategies dealing with drug addiction and other CNS disorders where the neurophysiological processes overlap, such as treatment of pain. The volume focuses on the translation of fundamental addiction research to a variety of treatments and brings together scientists with wide ranging expertise.
Categories: Medical