In this book, you will learn how these measures of “progress” are completely dependent on the balance that can be achieved between energy costs (inputs) and gains.
Author: Charles A.S. Hall
Category: Business & Economics
This authoritative but highly accessible book presents the reader with a powerful framework for understanding the critical role of the energy return on investment (EROI) in the survival and well-being of individuals, ecosystems, businesses, economies and nations. Growth and development are fundamental and ubiquitous processes at all scales, from individuals to food crops to national economies. While we are all familiar with the concepts of economic growth and living standards as measured by gross domestic product (GDP), we often take for granted the energy use that underpins GDP and our expectations for year-on-year growth. In this book, you will learn how these measures of “progress” are completely dependent on the balance that can be achieved between energy costs (inputs) and gains. Nothing is made or moved without an energy surplus, and it is the EROI of available energy sources more than any other single factor that determines the shape of civilization. Nearly all politics and economics assume that policy and market forces are the levers upon which future outcomes will hinge. However, this book presents many examples of historical and current events that can be explained much more clearly from an energetic perspective. In addition, a future scenario is developed that gives a central place to EROI in assessing the potential of governmental and private initiatives to substitute so-called renewable energy sources for diminishing stocks of fossil fuels. When cheap fossil fuels are no longer available in the abundance needed to mask economic problems and power business as usual, it will be EROI more than the plethora of “green” technologies that creates the boundary conditions for a sustainable future.
This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain.
Author: Pedro A. Prieto
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI
Seminar paper from the year 2016 in the subject Engineering - Power Engineering, grade: 1,0, Technical University of Munich (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering), course: Advanced Seminar on Renewable and Sustainable Energy ...
Author: Anna Szujo
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Seminar paper from the year 2016 in the subject Engineering - Power Engineering, grade: 1,0, Technical University of Munich (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering), course: Advanced Seminar on Renewable and Sustainable Energy Systems, language: English, abstract: This paper is about the energy return of investment. Energy has a significant impact on economic growth and is a key driver for the wellbeing of a society. The less a society has to spend on energy, the more remains for consumption and discretionary spending that is directly translated into economic growth. This impact can be assessed with the help of the net energy analysis that makes use of the concept of EROI. The Energy Return On Investment is the ratio of the quantity of energy delivered to the quantity of energy consumed in a given process. Thus, this metric serves to measure the accessibility of a resource, meaning that the higher the EROI, the greater the amount of net energy delivered to society in order to support economic growth. This goes hand in hand with the finding that there is a minimum level of EROI that has to be reached, otherwise economic growth cannot be possible. Given that net energy analysis is going to be one of the most fundamental concepts in academic and policy discussion in view of the future of the energy mix there is still a clear need for a standardized and independent framework to calculate EROI.
This book describes the essential concepts and tools needed to analyze the quantity and quality of energy resources available to both developed and developing nations.
Author: Jessica G. Lambert
Category: Business & Economics
This book describes the essential concepts and tools needed to analyze the quantity and quality of energy resources available to both developed and developing nations. Although economists regard energy as just another marketable commodity, the energy return on investment (EROI) underpins all societal functions, and is a major determinant of economic status and the potential of any development scenario. In addition to a summary of the various approaches that have been used to derive EROI, this book will review existing studies as applied to various energy sources, including, where possible, time series analysis. Particularly new is an assessment of some 76 countries with respect to the relation of various energy indices to a number of well-accepted indices of social well-being. The book concludes with policy recommendations as governments and development agencies attempt to wrestle with changing quantity and quality of energy available globally and the resulting economic impacts. Energy Return on Investment is required reading for: Energy analysts and technologists Economists and others who want a better understanding of the ubiquitous role of energy in society National and regional level decision-makers who are concerned with how to generate effective development in a changing world National and International companies working in developing countries Urban and Regional Planners. The report contained herein was commissioned by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID) and developed by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (SUNY-ESF).
This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios.
This report provides a methodology and requisite data to assess the potential Energy Return On Investment (EROI) for nuclear fuel cycle alternatives, and applies that methodology to a limited set of used fuel recycle scenarios. This paper is based on a study by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and a parallel evaluation by AREVA Federal Services LLC, both of which were sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) Program. The focus of the LLNL effort was to develop a methodology that can be used by the FCT program for such analysis that is consistent with the broader energy modeling community, and the focus of the AREVA effort was to bring industrial experience and operational data into the analysis. This cooperative effort successfully combined expertise from the energy modeling community with expertise from the nuclear industry. Energy Return on Investment is one of many figures of merit on which investment in a new energy facility or process may be judged. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered by a facility divided by the energy used to construct, operate and decommission that facility. While EROI is not the only criterion used to make an investment decision, it has been shown that, in technologically advanced societies, energy supplies must exceed a minimum EROI. Furthermore, technological history shows a trend towards higher EROI energy supplies. EROI calculations have been performed for many components of energy technology: oil wells, wind turbines, photovoltaic modules, biofuels, and nuclear reactors. This report represents the first standalone EROI analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing (or recycling) facilities.
This research examines the importance of energy return on investment (EROI) as a useful metric for assessing long-term viability of energy-dependent systems.
This research examines the importance of energy return on investment (EROI) as a useful metric for assessing long-term viability of energy-dependent systems. Here, focuses on the methods, applications, and analyses for determining EROI for solar power and solar energy technologies.
Data in this collections includes the well designs used, input parameters for GETEM, a discussion of the energy needed to haul materials to the drill site, the baseline mud program, and a summary of the energy needed to drill each of the ...
The project provides an updated Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). Results incorporate Argonne National Laboratory's Life Cycle Assessment and base case assumptions consistent with other projects in the Analysis subprogram. EROI is a ratio of the energy delivered to the consumer to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility. EROI is important in assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Currently EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out-of-date, of uncertain methodology, or presented online with little supporting documentation. This data set is a collection of files documenting data used to calculate the Energy Return On Investment (EROI) of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) and erratum to publications prior to the final report. Final report is available from the OSTI web site (http://www.osti.gov/geothermal/). Data in this collections includes the well designs used, input parameters for GETEM, a discussion of the energy needed to haul materials to the drill site, the baseline mud program, and a summary of the energy needed to drill each of the well designs. EROI is the ratio of the energy delivered to the customer to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Whereas efficiency is the ratio of the energy delivered to the customer to the energy extracted from the reservoir.
22 HOW TO EVALUATE ENERGY CONSERVATION USING ROI TECHNIQUES s discussed in earlier chapters , any investment that derives greater benefits than costs should ...
Author: Robert Rachlin
Publisher: M.E. Sharpe
Category: Business & Economics
The Encyclopedia, with its accompanying CD-ROM, is a tailor-made reference for professionals in the building industry who need immediately the most reliable and current sources of information in the field. In an industry already flooded with an enormous amount of resources, the explosion of the Internet and the World Wide Web in particular has added yet another dimension to the flood of information available to the practicing professional. The Encyclopedia -- provides the "intelligence" to find, evaluate, and contact the resources that can save time and money; -- enables the user to cull through the vast number of information sources and quickly target specific areas of interest and the "best" sources within those areas; -- offers the ability to make custom searches, using the full-text search capability or performing "Boolean" searches; -- gives the user the ability to further personalize the searches with notes and reports that can be printed and used for presentations.
This is a satisfactory relationship, but it decreases with a greater transport distance. Such is the case when chips manufactured in Croatia, due to the lack of heat plants, are transported over long distances to neighbouring countries.
Author: Zdravko Pandur
Energy cannot be produced without consumption of some part of the energy, and the proportions in which this occurs are a key indicator of the efficiency of the production process. Energy return on investment (EROI) of energy production shows the relationship between obtained and invested energy in the production process. This relationship is a key factor in sustainable global energy supply. Wood chips and one-metre firewood are used to produce thermal energy. Amount of energy obtained by burning depends on the moisture content and the features of the energy plant. This chapter deals with the issue of the amount of energy required to produce in the process of wood chips and one-metre firewood production and its transport to the heating plant. When calculating the energy balance, it is important to include as many input parameters as possible (parameters of energy consumption), which represents an almost impossible task because one parameter directly binds several others. According to several authors, the relationship between obtained and invested energy or EROI for energy wood is 30:1 which is a better ratio than the production of oil, for which relationship between obtained and invested energy is about 20:1. The results of study show that most of the energy during the production and supply of energy wood products from final felling of oak stands is used for fuel for machinery and vehicles in the production process. Ultimately, the relationship between obtained and invested energy is approximately 25:1 in the case of moisture content in the wood chips in the limit (market) value of 35% and the mean distance truck transportation of wood chips of 50 km. The relationship of obtained and invested energy used for one-metre firewood is bigger than 25:1 because of less invested energy which does not include machines like wood chipper. This is a satisfactory relationship, but it decreases with a greater transport distance. Such is the case when chips manufactured in Croatia, due to the lack of heat plants, are transported over long distances to neighbouring countries.
In this updated edition of a groundbreaking text, concepts such as energy return on investment (EROI) provide powerful insights into the real balance sheets that drive our “petroleum economy.” Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation ...
Author: Charles A.S. Hall
Category: Business & Economics
In this updated edition of a groundbreaking text, concepts such as energy return on investment (EROI) provide powerful insights into the real balance sheets that drive our “petroleum economy.” Hall and Klitgaard explore the relation between energy and the wealth explosion of the 20th century, and the interaction of internal limits to growth found in the investment process and rising inequality with the biophysical limits posed by finite energy resources. The authors focus attention on the failure of markets to recognize or efficiently allocate diminishing resources, the economic consequences of peak oil, the high cost and relatively low EROI of finding and exploiting new oil fields, including the much ballyhooed shale plays and oil sands, and whether alternative energy technologies such as wind and solar power can meet the minimum EROI requirements needed to run society as we know it. For the past 150 years, economics has been treated as a social science in which economies are modeled as a circular flow of income between producers and consumers. In this “perpetual motion” of interactions between firms that produce and households that consume, little or no accounting is given of the flow of energy and materials from the environment and back again. In the standard economic model, energy and matter are completely recycled in these transactions, and economic activity is seemingly exempt from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. As we enter the second half of the age of oil, when energy supplies and the environmental impacts of energy production and consumption are likely to constrain economic growth, this exemption should be considered illusory at best. This book is an essential read for all scientists and economists who have recognized the urgent need for a more scientific, empirical, and unified approach to economics in an energy-constrained world, and serves as an ideal teaching text for the growing number of courses, such as the authors’ own, on the role of energy in society.
This book also reviews what nations have been doing thus far in terms of renewables, including the successes and failures in Canada and across the globe.
Author: John Erik Meyer
Publisher: Springer Nature
Category: Business & Economics
Canada is a well-endowed country that serves as an ideal model to lead the reader through the development of energy, resources, and society historically and into a post-carbon future. The book provides an historical perspective and describes the physical resource limitations, energy budgets, and climate realities that will determine the potential for any transition to renewable energy. Political and social realities, including jurisdiction and energy equality issues, are addressed. However, we cannot simply mandate or legislate policies according to social and political aspirations. Policies must comply with the realities of physical laws, such as the energy return on investment (EROI) for fossil-fuel based and renewable energy systems. EROI is discussed in both historical terms and in reference to the greater efficiencies inherent in a distributed generation, mainly electric, post-carbon society. Meyer explores the often misleading concepts and terms that have become embedded in society and tend to dictate our policy making, as well as the language, social and personal goals, and metrics that need to change before the physical transition can begin at the required scale. This book also reviews what nations have been doing thus far in terms of renewables, including the successes and failures in Canada and across the globe. Ontario’s green energy fiasco, and a comparison of the different circumstances of Norway and Alberta, for example, are covered as part of the author’s comparison of a wide range of countries. What are the achievements, plans, and problems that determine how well different countries are positioned to make “the transition”? The transition path is complex, and the tools we need to develop and the physical infrastructure investments we need to make, are daunting. At some point in time, Canada and Canadians, like all nations, will be living on 100% renewable energy. Whether the social and technological level that endures sees us travelling to the stars, or subsisting at a standard of living more similar to the pre-fossil fuel era, is far from certain.
Fossil fuels provide roughly 85 percent of all primary energy consumed globally.
Author: Eric L. Garza
Fossil fuels provide roughly 85 percent of all primary energy consumed globally. Volatility in fossil fuel prices as well as fears of impending global and regional supply peaks have brought discussion of energy security, energy efficiency and energy transitions into public discourse. Multiple roadblocks prevent large-scale energy transition, however. First among them remains denial of the possibility of near-term limits in fossil fuel supplies. One section of this dissertation presents a study of global oil supply that investigates the potential of a near-term peak using two separate indicators. Both indicators suggest that the peak in global oil supply most likely occurred in 2005 or 2006.
Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system.
Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. The embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished plant. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy - heat is not as valuable as electrical energy.
The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered.
This report presents an evaluation of the Energy Return on Investment (EROI) from recycling an initial batch of 800 t/y of used nuclear fuel (UNF) through a Recycle Center under a number of different fuel cycle scenarios. The study assumed that apart from the original 800 t of UNF only depleted uranium was available as a feed. Therefore for each subsequent scenario only fuel that was derived from the previous fuel cycle scenario was considered. The scenarios represent a good cross section of the options available and the results contained in this paper and associated appendices will allow for other fuel cycle options to be considered.
Companies confronted with a broad range of potential investment choices compare, in more or less sophisticated ways, probable returns and potential risks.
Author: Thomas Walde
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
The Energy Charter Treaty, initiated by the 1991 European Energy Charter and completed in December 1994, is an innovative major multilateral investment and trade treaty. The book has an introduction by Ruud Lubbers who, as the Dutch Prime Minister, played the key role in initiating the Energy Charter negotiations. It brings together contributions on the energy/investment background, the geopolitical context, the Energy Charter negotiations and the relevant specific topics of the Treaty (focusing on investment and trade, but also environment, competition and transit) by the key specialists on the subject, ranging from countries such as the US (which in the end decided not to join the Treaty) to Russia and Kazakhstan, including energy and investment specialists, international investment and commercial lawyers and arbitrators. The contributors include noted international energy/economic law authorities, but also key participants and observers of the Treaty negotiations. This book is intended to provide the first authoritative analysis of the background, negotiations and content of the Energy Charter Treaty and to provide support and guidance for subsequent negotiations and the difficult challenges involved in interpretation and application of the Treaty. It will be an essential tool for anybody working with the Energy Charter Treaty. The book contains in its annex the major documents of the Treaty: The 1991 European Energy Charter, the 1994 Treaty and its relevant Protocols, Annexes, Understandings and Final Act Declarations.
Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out of date or presented online with little supporting documentation.
Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. EROI analyses of geothermal energy are either out of date or presented online with little supporting documentation. Often comparisons of energy systems inappropriately use 'efficiency' when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electric energy delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to build, operate, and decommission the facility.