5.1 SCIENTIFIC ESSENTIALISM AND SOCIAL THEORY Social scientists tend to be strongly anti - essentialist . They associate essentialism with just about everything that is bad in social theory and practice – for example , with racism ...
ʻreal essences , ' such laws must in principle be discoverable , and the view of science based on the view that they can be must be a regulative ideal if essentialism is to be defensible . * 96 If Hollinger's essentialism looks more ...
Author: Garth L. Hallett
Publisher: SUNY Press
After tracing the recent decline in explicitly essentialistic theories, Hallett (Dean of the College of Philosophy and letters, St. Louis U.) critically surveys the essentialism still strongly operative in much philosophical reasoning, then undertakes a fuller inquiry into the sources of essentialism than has previously been attempted. Paper edition (unseen), $16.95. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
Essentialism is how a network works when it protects its foundations . In its essentialist mode , a network condenses its operations into that which it cannot do without , which it cannot imagine otherwise . Essentialism is closure of a ...
Author: Stephan Fuchs
Publisher: Harvard University Press
Category: Social Science
Against Essentialism presents a sociological theory of culture. This interdisciplinary and foundational work deals with basic issues common to current debates in social theory, including society, culture, meaning, truth, and communication. Stephan Fuchs argues that many mysteries about these concepts lose their mysteriousness when dynamic variations are introduced. Fuchs proposes a theory of culture and society that merges two core traditions--American network theory and European (Luhmannian) systems theory. His book distinguishes four major types of social observers--encounters, groups, organizations, and networks. Society takes place in these four modes of association. Each generates levels of observation linked with each other into a culture--the unity of these observations. Against Essentialism presents a groundbreaking new approach to the construction of society, culture, and personhood. The book invites both social scientists and philosophers to see what happens when essentialism is abandoned.
Key Takeaway 11 Implementing essentialism in everyday life requires that essentialism be at the center of every decision made rather than being applied only to certain decisions. Analysis Implementing essentialism in everyday life can ...
Publisher: Instaread Summaries
Essentialism by Greg McKeown | Key Takeaways, Analysis & Review Preview: Essentialism: The Disciplined Pursuit of Less is a self-help book by Greg McKeown. The book outlines a minimalist approach to tasks and obligations by focusing on truly important goals and learning to turn down opportunities that do not directly contribute to meeting those goals. The modern fixation with multitasking and having it all has paradoxically resulted in accomplished, motivated people doing many relatively unimportant things poorly while neglecting their true goals because they are afraid of refusing any request… PLEASE NOTE: This is key takeaways and analysis of the book and NOT the original book. Inside this Instaread of Essentialism:Overview of the bookImportant PeopleKey TakeawaysAnalysis of Key Takeaways
They have deliberately chosen to fully embrace the way of the Essentialist . Regardless of what job , field , or industry we are in , we can all choose to do the same . Hopefully , at this point in the book , you've learned and absorbed ...
Author: Greg McKeown
Category: Business & Economics
NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • More than one million copies sold! Essentialism isn’t about getting more done in less time. It’s about getting only the right things done. “A timely, essential read for anyone who feels overcommitted, overloaded, or overworked.”—Adam Grant Have you ever: • found yourself stretched too thin? • simultaneously felt overworked and underutilized? • felt busy but not productive? • felt like your time is constantly being hijacked by other people’s agendas? If you answered yes to any of these, the way out is the Way of the Essentialist. Essentialism is more than a time-management strategy or a productivity technique. It is a systematic discipline for discerning what is absolutely essential, then eliminating everything that is not, so we can make the highest possible contribution toward the things that really matter. By forcing us to apply more selective criteria for what is Essential, the disciplined pursuit of less empowers us to reclaim control of our own choices about where to spend our precious time and energy—instead of giving others the implicit permission to choose for us. Essentialism is not one more thing—it’s a whole new way of doing everything. It’s about doing less, but better, in every area of our lives. Essentialism is a movement whose time has come.
Directions for future research This chapter has argued that adults and, especially, children view morality in an essentialist way—as arising from an internal “essence” that is rooted in biology and remains stable over time.
Publisher: Academic Press
Expecting a gentle baby tiger to inevitably grow up to be ferocious, a young girl growing up in a household of boys to prefer princesses to toy trucks, or that liberals and conservatives are fundamentally different kinds of people, all reflect a conceptual commitment to psychological essentialism. Psychological essentialism is a pervasive conceptual bias to think that some everyday categories reflect the real, underlying, natural structure of the world. Whereas essentialist thought can sometimes be useful, it is often problematic, particularly when people rely on essentialist thinking to understand groups of people, including those based on gender, race, ethnicity, or religion. This Volume will bring together diverse theoretical and methodological perspectives on how essentialist thinking about the social world develops in childhood and on the implications of these beliefs for children’s social behavior and intergroup relations more generally. This volume draws on diverse theoretical perspectives from psychology, philosophy, and linguistics, and empirical work from experiments with children and cross-cultural studies to provide a comprehensive view of how social essentialism develops. This volume addresses the link between cognition (essentialist beliefs) and social behavior, with implications for prejudice, morality, the justice system, and inter-group relations. By drawing on a diverse evidence base, this volume addresses how beliefs emerge from the interplay among children’s conceptual biases and their social experiences.
2.1 Empiricist anti-essentialism It is through examination of some of the anti-essentialist views that have dominated contemporary philosophy that we can begin to gain a grasp of what essentialism (that is, real essentialism) does and ...
Author: David S. Oderberg
Real Essentialism presents a comprehensive defence of neo-Aristotelian essentialism. Do objects have essences? Must they be the kinds of things they are in spite of the changes they undergo? Can we know what things are really like – can we define and classify reality? Many if not most philosophers doubt this, influenced by centuries of empiricism, and by the anti-essentialism of Wittgenstein, Quine, Popper, and other thinkers. Real Essentialism reinvigorates the tradition of realist, essentialist metaphysics, defending the reality and knowability of essence, the possibility of objective, immutable definition, and its relevance to contemporary scientific and metaphysical issues such as whether essence transcends physics and chemistry, the essence of life, the nature of biological species, and the nature of the person.
THE ESSENTIALISM OF THE MODAL SYLLOGISTIC Does the modal syllogistic expounded in the Prior Analytics depend on Aristotle's essentialist metaphysics? There are four different questions one might understand here.
Author: P. Thom
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Aristotle's modal syllogistic has been an object of study ever since the time of Theophrastus; but these studies (apart from an intense flowering in the Middle Ages) have been somewhat desultory. Remarkably, in the 1990s several new lines of research have appeared, with series of original publications by Fred Johnson, Richard Patterson and Ulrich Nortmann. Johnson presented for the first time a formal semantics adequate to a de re reading of the apodeictic syllogistic; this was based on a simple intuition linking the modal syllogistic to Aristotelian metaphysics. Nortmann developed an ingenious de dicto analysis. Patterson articulated the links (both theoretical and genetic) between the modal syllogistic and the metaphysics, using an analysis which strictly speaking is neither de re nor de dicto. My own studies in this field date from 1976, when my colleague Peter Roeper and I jointly wrote a paper "Aristotle's apodeictic syllogisms" for the XXIInd History of Logic Conference in Krakow. This paper contained the disjunctive reading of particular affirmative apodeictic propositions, which I still favour. Nonetheless, I did not consider that paper's results decisive or comprehensive enough to publish, and my 1981 book The Syllogism contained no treatment of the modal syllogism. The paper's ideas lay dormant till 1989, when I read Johnson's and Patterson's initial articles. I began publishing on the topic in 1991. Gradually my thoughts acquired a certain comprehensiveness and systematicity, till in 1993 I was able to take a semester's sabbatical to write up a draft of this book.
3 Cubism, analytic 3, 7,318 cultural objects 120 and Essentialism 120 Dadaism 3 delimitation of logical and phenomenal space 57, 114, 118–127, 269,304, 327, 334,336–337, 343, 363, 378, 380–381, 389–391, 404, 427–429, 441, ...
Author: Jeffrey Strayer
Haecceities: Essentialism, Identity, and Abstraction is an artistic and philosophical examination of the limits of Abstraction in art and of kinds of radical identity determined in the identification of those limits. Strayer’s results challenge common notions of art and identity.
In this regard, Utzon was an exemplary exponent of transcultural essentialism and as the world increasingly needs to find ever more effective solutions to meet human needs, practically, as well as culturally and emotionally, ...
Author: Adrian Carter
This book introduces and defines the burgeoning concepts of transculturalism and essentialism and how they relate to one another, as articulated with reference to the work of Jørn Utzon. It introduces critical contemporary perspectives of the design thinking and career of this renowned Danish architect, internationally recognised for his competition-winning, iconic design for the Sydney Opera House – an outstanding exemplar of transcultural essentialism in architecture. Transcultural essentialism is analysed through the lens of critical regionalism and architectural phenomenology, with emphasis on the sense of place and tectonics in Utzon’s architectural works. It provides a new understanding of the Danish architect as an early proponent of a still emergent and increasingly relevant direction in architecture. Going beyond biographical studies, it presents a more comprehensive understanding of the broad range of transcultural influences that formed his thinking. The volume includes numerous previously unpublished photographs, drawings, and interviews with Utzon’s family members, former students, and colleagues, offering a significant contribution to the existing body of knowledge for any architecture scholar interested in Utzon’s work and design principles. The book also comprises a Foreword by eminent architecture theorist Juhani Pallasmaa in which he provides insights into the wider architectural and cultural context of Utzon’s worldview.