Evidence Based Policy

Evidence Based Policy

This is the consensual starting point for Ray Pawson′s latest foray into the world of evaluative research. But this is social science after all and harmony prevails only in the first chapter.

Author: Ray Pawson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781847878199

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 361

In this important new book, Ray Pawson examines the recent spread of evidence-based policy making across the Western world. Few major public initiatives are mounted these days in the absence of a sustained attempt to evaluate them. Programmes are tried, tried and tried again and researched, researched and researched again. And yet it is often difficult to know which interventions, and which inquiries, will withstand the test of time. The evident solution, going by the name of evidence-based policy, is to take the longer view. Rather than relying on one-off studies, it is wiser to look to the 'weight of evidence'. Accordingly, it is now widely agreed the most useful data to support policy decisions will be culled from systematic reviews of all the existing research in particular policy domains. This is the consensual starting point for Ray Pawson's latest foray into the world of evaluative research. But this is social science after all and harmony prevails only in the first chapter. Thereafter, Pawson presents a devastating critique of the dominant approach to systematic review - namely the 'meta-analytic' approach as sponsored by the Cochrane and Campbell collaborations. In its place is commended an approach that he terms 'realist synthesis'. On this vision, the real purpose of systematic review is better to understand programme theory, so that policies can be properly targeted and developed to counter an ever-changing landscape of social problems. The book will be essential reading for all those who loved (or loathed) the arguments developed in Realistic Evaluation (Sage, 1997). It offers a complete blueprint for research synthesis, supported by detailed illustrations and worked examples from across the policy waterfront. It will be of especial interest to policy-makers, practitioners, researchers and students working in health, education, employment, social care, criminal justice, regeneration and welfare.
Categories: Social Science

Evidence Based Policy

Evidence Based Policy

EvidenceBased Policy is the primer we have been waiting for, and with its marvelous blend of theory and examples provides ... —Ray Pawson, author of Evidencebased Policy: A Realist Perspective and coauthor of Realistic Evaluation “Chock ...

Author: Nancy Cartwright

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199986705

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 955

Over the last twenty or so years, it has become standard to require policy makers to base their recommendations on evidence. That is now uncontroversial to the point of triviality--of course, policy should be based on the facts. But are the methods that policy makers rely on to gather and analyze evidence the right ones? In Evidence-Based Policy, Nancy Cartwright, an eminent scholar, and Jeremy Hardie, who has had a long and successful career in both business and the economy, explain that the dominant methods which are in use now--broadly speaking, methods that imitate standard practices in medicine like randomized control trials--do not work. They fail, Cartwright and Hardie contend, because they do not enhance our ability to predict if policies will be effective. The prevailing methods fall short not just because social science, which operates within the domain of real-world politics and deals with people, differs so much from the natural science milieu of the lab. Rather, there are principled reasons why the advice for crafting and implementing policy now on offer will lead to bad results. Current guides in use tend to rank scientific methods according to the degree of trustworthiness of the evidence they produce. That is valuable in certain respects, but such approaches offer little advice about how to think about putting such evidence to use. Evidence-Based Policy focuses on showing policymakers how to effectively use evidence, explaining what types of information are most necessary for making reliable policy, and offers lessons on how to organize that information.
Categories: Political Science

Evidence Based Policy

Evidence Based Policy

A Realist Perspective Ray Pawson. what we want to see). He was a realist in that he accepted the existence of a reality which is independent of our senses, but which we can only discover through our senses. It is the 'critical' element ...

Author: Ray Pawson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781446227831

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 789

In this important new book, Ray Pawson examines the recent spread of evidence-based policy making across the Western world. Few major public initiatives are mounted these days in the absence of a sustained attempt to evaluate them. Programmes are tried, tried and tried again and researched, researched and researched again. And yet it is often difficult to know which interventions, and which inquiries, will withstand the test of time. The evident solution, going by the name of evidence-based policy, is to take the longer view. Rather than relying on one-off studies, it is wiser to look to the 'weight of evidence'. Accordingly, it is now widely agreed the most useful data to support policy decisions will be culled from systematic reviews of all the existing research in particular policy domains. This is the consensual starting point for Ray Pawson's latest foray into the world of evaluative research. But this is social science after all and harmony prevails only in the first chapter. Thereafter, Pawson presents a devastating critique of the dominant approach to systematic review - namely the 'meta-analytic' approach as sponsored by the Cochrane and Campbell collaborations. In its place is commended an approach that he terms 'realist synthesis'. On this vision, the real purpose of systematic review is better to understand programme theory, so that policies can be properly targeted and developed to counter an ever-changing landscape of social problems. The book will be essential reading for all those who loved (or loathed) the arguments developed in Realistic Evaluation (Sage, 1997). It offers a complete blueprint for research synthesis, supported by detailed illustrations and worked examples from across the policy waterfront. It will be of especial interest to policy-makers, practitioners, researchers and students working in health, education, employment, social care, criminal justice, regeneration and welfare.
Categories: Social Science

Beyond Evidence Based Policy in Public Health

Beyond Evidence Based Policy in Public Health

Nutbeam, D. andBoxall,A. M. (2008)Whatinfluences thetransfer ofresearch intohealthpolicy andpractice? ... EvidenceBased Policy & PracticeinPublic Services. ... Pawson, R. (2006) EvidenceBased Policy:A Realist Perspective.

Author: K. Smith

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137026583

Category: Social Science

Page: 251

View: 245

This book explores the complex relationship between public health research and policy, employing tobacco control and health inequalities in the UK as contrasting case studies. It argues that focusing on research-informed ideas usefully draws attention to the centrality of values, politics and advocacy for public health debates.
Categories: Social Science

The Politics of Evidence Based Policy Making

The Politics of Evidence Based Policy Making

What counts as good evidence. London: Alliance for Useful Evidence. http://www.alliance4usefulevidence.org/assets/ What-Counts-as-Good-Evidence-WEB.pdf. Pawson, R. (2006). Evidence-based policy: A realist perspective. London: Sage.

Author: Paul Cairney

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781137517814

Category: Political Science

Page: 137

View: 810

The Politics of Evidence Based Policymaking identifies how to work with policymakers to maximize the use of scientific evidence. Policymakers cannot consider all evidence relevant to policy problems. They use two shortcuts: ‘rational’ ways to gather enough evidence, and ‘irrational’ decision-making, drawing on emotions, beliefs, and habits. Most scientific studies focus on the former. They identify uncertainty when policymakers have incomplete evidence, and try to solve it by improving the supply of information. They do not respond to ambiguity, or the potential for policymakers to understand problems in very different ways. A good strategy requires advocates to be persuasive: forming coalitions with like-minded actors, and accompanying evidence with simple stories to exploit the emotional or ideological biases of policymakers.
Categories: Political Science

Evidence based Decisions and Economics

Evidence based Decisions and Economics

Journal ofHealth Services Research and Policy 2005; 10: 245–250. Pawson R. Evidence-Based Policy: a realist perspective. London: Sage Publications, 2006. 91 Pawson R, Greenhalgh T, Harvey G, Walshe K. Realist review – a new method of ...

Author: Ian Shemilt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444320404

Category: Medical

Page: 216

View: 975

The need for evidence-based decisions that take account of botheffectiveness and economics is greater now than ever. Using casestudies and illustrative examples throughout the authors describehow the activities and outputs of evidence synthesis, systematicreview, economic analysis and decision-making interact within andacross different spheres of health and social policy and practice. Expanding on the first edition the book now covers approaches toevidence synthesis that combine economics and systematic reviewmethods in the applied fields of social welfare, education andcriminal justice, as well as health care. Written by economists andhealth services researchers closely involved in developingevidence-based policy and practice it showcases currentstate-of-the-art methodology and will be an invaluable read for allpolicy-makers and practitioners using evidence to inform decisions,analysts conducting research to support decisions and studentsdiscovering the need for evidence-based decisions to incorporateeconomic perspectives and evidence.
Categories: Medical

Studying Organizations Using Critical Realism

Studying Organizations Using Critical Realism

'evidence-based Policy: The Promise of a “realist Synthesis” ', Evaluation, 8:340–58. –––– (2003). 'nothing as Practical as a good Theory', Evaluation, 9:471–90. –––– (2004a). 'evidence based Policy: a realist Perspective', in b.

Author: Paul K. Edwards

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191643408

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 400

View: 203

The development of Critical Realism (CR), as a philosophy of science, is generally attributed to a series of books by Roy Bhaskar. It has proven to be influential, not least because it has an affinity with many people's views about the way the world fits together, both within and outside of academia. Whilst there are numerous contributions outlining CR theory in sociological and organizational research, as well as general texts about realist ontology, work delineating the consequences of these views for research practice is an emerging area of interest. This book aims to fill a significant gap in the literature by providing a practical guide to the application of CR in empirical research projects. More specifically, it explores the methodological consequences of committing to a CR ontology—the assumptions that researchers from this tradition make about the nature of reality. These assumptions are important because ontological commitments, which relate what we believe exists, often affect our epistemological concerns, which relate to our beliefs about how whatever exists can be studied and known. Thus, for a researcher, ontology and epistemology are important because they have consequences for the possibilities and limits of the research methods, techniques, and analyses that they employ. The book explains what CR is and outlines the logic of research design. In a series of chapters on major social science research methods, purpose-written by experts in the relevant technique, the book contains extended illustration of how to conduct inquiry using CR.
Categories: Business & Economics

Evidence based policy making in the social sciences

Evidence based policy making in the social sciences

Pawson, R. (2006) Evidenced-based policy: A realist perspective (London: Sage). Pawson, R. and Tilley, N. (1997) Realistic evaluation (London: Sage). Pearson, L.J. and Moon, K. (2014) 'A novel method for assessing integration activities ...

Author: Stoker, Gerry

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 9781447329398

Category: Political Science

Page: 276

View: 492

Drawing on the insights of some of the world’s leading authorities in public policy analysis, this important book offers a distinct and critical showcase of emerging forms of discovery for policy-making. Chapter by chapter this expert group of social scientists showcase their chosen method or approach, showing the context, the method’s key features and how it can be applied in practice, including the scope and limitations of its application and value to policy makers. Arguing that it is not just econometric analysis, cost benefit or surveys that can do policy work, the contributors demonstrate a range of other methods that can provide evidenced-based policy insights and how they can help facilitate progressive policy outcomes. The book will be ideal for upper level undergraduate students as well as Public Policy post-graduates, and can be used as the basis of an intensive learning experience for policy makers.
Categories: Political Science

The Myth of Research Based Policy and Practice

The Myth of Research Based Policy and Practice

Nisbet, J. and Broadfoot, P. (1980) The Impact of Research on Policy and Practice in Education. Aberdeen: Aberdeen University Press. ... Pawson, R. (2006) Evidence-based Policy: A Realist Perspective. London: Sage.

Author: Martyn Hammersley

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781446280805

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 223

Martyn Hammersley's provocative new text interrogates the complex relationship between research, policymaking and practice, against the background of the evidence-based practice movement. Addressing a series of probing questions, this book reflects on the challenge posed by the idea that social research can directly serve policymaking and practice. Key questions explored include: - Is scientific research evidence-based? - What counts as evidence for evidence-based practice? - Is social measurement possible, and is it necessary? - What are the criteria by which qualitative research should be judged? The book also discusses the case for action research, the nature of systematic reviews, proposals for interpretive reviews, and the process of qualitative synthesis. Highly readable and undeniably relevant, this book is a valuable resource for both academics and professionals involved with research.
Categories: Social Science

Evidence based Public Health

Evidence based Public Health

Glasgow : Public Health and Health Policy, University of Glasgow . ... R ( 2003 ) ' Nothing as practical as a good theory ' Evaluation 9/4 : 471–90 Pawson , R ( 2006a) Evidence based policy: a realist perspective .

Author: Amanda Killoran

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199563623

Category: Medical

Page: 499

View: 561

A follow up to Public Health Evidence: Tackling Health Inequalities, this book builds on the themes already introduced, and provides a broader perspective on an evidence-based approach to public health, concentrating on health inequalities.
Categories: Medical