Extinction

Extinction

In this 'Very Short Introduction', Paul B. Wignall looks at the causes and nature of extinction events, what makes a species vulnerable, and the debates in modern science of the role of climate and humans.

Author: Paul B. Wignall

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198807285

Category: Science

Page: 124

View: 630

Extinction has occurred throughout the history of life, and nearly all the species that have ever existed have now disappeared. In this 'Very Short Introduction', Paul B. Wignall looks at the causes and nature of extinction events, what makes a species vulnerable, and the debates in modern science of the role of climate and humans.
Categories: Science

Networks A Very Short Introduction

Networks  A Very Short Introduction

Networks are involved in many aspects of everyday life, from food webs in ecology and the spread of pandemics to social networking and public transport.

Author: Guido Caldarelli

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199588077

Category: Computers

Page: 122

View: 123

Networks are involved in many aspects of everyday life, from food webs in ecology and the spread of pandemics to social networking and public transport. This Very Short Introduction explores the basics of network theory to understand the science of complexity and its importance, using examples from nature, technology, and society, and history.
Categories: Computers

Oceans a Very Short Introduction

Oceans  a Very Short Introduction

Our oceans are hugely important, as a source of food and mineral wealth, as an environment for a vast variety of wildlife, for the role they play in climate regulation, and as part of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and other ...

Author: Dorrik Stow

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199655076

Category: Science

Page: 152

View: 346

The importance of the oceans to life on Earth cannot be overstated. Liquid water covers more than 70% of our planet's surface and, in past geological time, has spread over 85%. Life on Earth began in the oceans over 3.5 billion years ago and remained there for the great majority of that time. Today the seas still provide 99% of habitable living space, the largest repository of biomass, and holds the greatest number of undiscovered species on the planet. Our oceans are vital for the regulation of climate, and with global warming and decreasing land area, they have become increasingly important as the source of food, energy in the form of oil and gas, and for their mineral wealth. Oceans also form a key part of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements critical to life. Nutrients in upwelling areas are spread by ocean currents, and the plankton of the seas supports a wealth of wildlife. In this Very Short Introduction Dorrik Stow analyses these most important components of our blue planet and considers their relationship with, and exploitation by, humans. He shows how the oceans are an essential resource to our overpopulated world, and discusses why exploration and greater scientific understanding of the oceans, their chemistry, and their mineral wealth are now a high priority. Stow also explores what we know of how oceans originate, and evolve and change; the shape of the seafloor and nature of its cover; the physical processes that stir the waters and mix such a rich chemical broth; and the inseparable link between oceans and climate. As polar ice melts and sea-levels rise, countless millions who have made their homes on low-lying lands close to the sea are threatened. As scientific exploration of the seas gathers pace, the new knowledge gained of the ocean-Earth systems and their interaction with the human environment is vital to our understanding of how we can preserve these ultimately fragile environments. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

Anthropocene

Anthropocene

Climate scientists, geologists, ecologists, and archaeologists recognize the profound effects of human activity on Earth, though whether and how this should be recognized as a formal geological epoch - the Anthropocene - remains under ...

Author: Erle C. Ellis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198792987

Category: NATURE

Page: 208

View: 99

Climate scientists, geologists, ecologists, and archaeologists recognize the profound effects of human activity on Earth, though whether and how this should be recognized as a formal geological epoch - the Anthropocene - remains under debate, Erle Ellis describes how the Anthropocene concept is affecting the sciences, humanities, and politics.
Categories: NATURE

Coral Reefs

Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse of ecosystems. In this Very Short Introduction, Charles Sheppard tells the fascinating story of how and where coral reefs are formed and the diversity of marine life they support.

Author: Charles Sheppard

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199682775

Category: Nature

Page: 127

View: 201

Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse of ecosystems. Charles Sheppard tells the fascinating story of how and where coral reefs are formed and the diversity of marine life they support. He also highlights the threats they face due to exploitation and the conservation efforts in place to tackle these issues.
Categories: Nature

Biogeography a Very Short Introduction

Biogeography  a Very Short Introduction

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

Author: Mark V. Lomolino

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198850069

Category: Science

Page: 168

View: 139

Biogeography is the study of geographic variation in all characteristics of life - ranging from genetic, morphological and behavioural variation among regional populations of a species, to geographic trends in diversity of entire communities across our planet's sufrace. From the ancient hunters and gatherers to the earliest naturalists, Charles Darwin, Alfred Russel Wallace, and scientists today, the search for patterns in life has provided insights that proved invaluable for understanding the natural world. And many, if not most, of the compelling kaleidoscope of patterns in biological diversity make little sense unless placed in an explicit geographic context. The Very Short Introduction explains the historical development of the field of biogeography, its fundamental tenets, principles and tools, and the invaluable insights it provides for understanding the diversity of life in the natural world. As Mark Lomolino shows, key questions such as where species occur, how they vary from place to place, where their ancestors occurred, and how they spread across the globe, are essential for us to develop effective strategies for conserving the great menagerie of life across our planet. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

Utilitarianism a Very Short Introduction

Utilitarianism  a Very Short Introduction

This book considers its origins, its relevance to modern moral challenges, and the arguments and discussions around utilitarian approaches.

Author: Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198728795

Category: Philosophy

Page: 144

View: 913

In this Very Short Introduction Peter Singer and Katarzyna de Lazari-Radek provide an authoritative account of the nature of utilitarianism, from its nineteenth-century origins, to its justification and its varieties. Considering how utilitarians can respond to objections that are often regarded as devastating, they explore the utilitarian answer to the question of whether torture can ever be justified. They also discuss what it is that utilitarians should seek to maximize, paying special attention to the classical utilitarian view that only pleasure or happiness is of intrinsic value. Singer and de Lazari-Radek conclude by analysing the continuing importance of utilitarianism in the world, indicating how it is a force for new thinking on contemporary moral challenges like global poverty, the treatment of animals, climate change, reducing the risk of human extinction, end-of-life decisions for terminally-ill patients, and the shift towards assessing the success of government policies in terms of their impact on happiness.
Categories: Philosophy

The History of Life A Very Short Introduction

The History of Life  A Very Short Introduction

This Very Short Introduction presents a succinct and accessible guide to the key episodes in the story of life on earth - from the very origins of life four million years ago to the extraordinary diversity of species around the globe today.

Author: Michael J. Benton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199226320

Category: Science

Page: 170

View: 833

This Very Short Introduction presents a succinct and accessible guide to the key episodes in the story of life on earth - from the very origins of life four million years ago to the extraordinary diversity of species around the globe today.
Categories: Science

Fire a Very Short Introduction

Fire  a Very Short Introduction

The extinction of the dinosaurs and many other animals and plants in a mass
extinction some 66 million years ago has been linked to a large asteroid impact.
The impact is quite well established, and left the massive Chicxulub crater in
Mexico ...

Author: Andrew C. Scott

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198830030

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 235

Fire is rarely out of the headlines, from large natural wildfires raging across the Australian or Californian countrysides to the burning of buildings such as the disasters of Grenfell tower and Notre Dame. Fire on these scales can represent a serious risk to human life and property. But the advent of fire made and controlled by humans also represented a crucial point in our evolution, allowing us to cook our food, forge our weapons, and warm our homes. This Very Short Introduction covers the fundamentals of fire, whether wild or under human control, starting with the basics of ignition, combustion, and fuel. Andrew Scott considers both natural wildfires and the role of humans in making and suppressing fire. Despite frightening reports of wildfire destruction, he also shows how landscape fires have been part of our planet's history for 400 million years, and do not always have to be extinguished. He also considers the problem of fires in urban settings, including new ways to prevent fires. The cost of wildfire can be steep - as well as the burning, post-fire erosion and flooding can have a great impact on both humans and the environment. It can also have a lasting effect in shaping ecosystems and plant life. Scott ends by examining the relationship between fire and the climate, and considering the future of wildfire in a warming world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Science

Languages A Very Short Introduction

Languages  A Very Short Introduction

How many languages are there? What differentiates one language from another? Are new languages still being discovered? Why are so many languages disappearing? These are some of the questions considered in this Very Short Introduction.

Author: Stephen R. Anderson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199590599

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 135

View: 389

How many languages are there? Are new languages still being discovered? Why are so many languages disappearing? In this Very Short Introduction, eminent linguist Stephen Anderson addresses such questions as he illuminates the science behind languages. Considering a wide range of different languages and linguistic examples, Anderson provides the basic facts about the world's major families of spoken languages and their distribution around the globe. He explores the basis for linguistic classification and raises questions about how we identify a language. Considering signed languages as well as spoken, Anderson also examines the wider social issues of losing languages, and their impact on vanishing cultures and peoples.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Ecology a Very Short Introduction

Ecology  a Very Short Introduction

Many species at risk of climate - related extinction are those with narrow
distributions and limited dispersal capabilities . One option to maintain wild
populations of these especially vulnerable species is to translocate them to new
suitable ...

Author: Jaboury Ghazoul

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198831013

Category: Nature

Page: 184

View: 984

Understanding how our living environment works is essentially a study of ecological systems. Ecology is the science of how organisms interact with each other and with their environment, and how such interactions create self-organising communities and ecosystems. This science touches us all. The food we eat, the water we drink, the natural resources we use, our physical and mental health, and much of our cultural heritage are to a large degree products of ecological interactions of organisms and their environment. This Very Short Introduction celebrates the centrality of ecology in our lives. Jaboury Ghazoul explores how ecology has evolved rapidly from natural history to become a predictive science that explains how the natural world works, and which guides environmental policy and management decisions. Drawing on a range of examples, he shows how ecological science can be applied to management and conservation, including the extent to which theory has shaped practice. Ecological science has also shaped social and cultural perspectives on the environment, a process that influences politics of the environment. Ghazoul concludes by considering the future of ecology, particularly in the light of current and future environmental challenges. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Nature

Fossils A Very Short Introduction

Fossils  A Very Short Introduction

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

Author: Keith Thomson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191578021

Category: Nature

Page: 160

View: 226

Fossils have been vital to our understanding of the formation of the earth and the origins of all life on it. However, their impact has not been limited to debates about geology and evolution: attempts to explain their existence has shaken religion at its very roots, and they have remained a subject of ceaseless fascination for people of all ages and backgrounds. In this delightful book, Keith Thomson provides a remarkably all-encompassing explanation of fossils as a phenomenon. How did Darwin use fossils to support his theory of evolution? What are 'living fossils'? What fossils will we leave behind for future generations to examine? Building on the scientific aspects, he places fossils in a very human context, highlighting their impact on philosophy and mythology, our concept of time, and today's popular culture. What quickly becomes obvious is that the discovery of fossils and the ways in which they have been interpreted over time makes for fascinating reading. From the black market to the Piltdown Man, and from mythological dragons to living dinosaurs, fossils hold a permanent place in the popular imagination. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: Nature

The Industrial Revolution A Very Short Introduction

The Industrial Revolution  A Very Short Introduction

ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly.

Author: Robert C. Allen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191016776

Category: History

Page: 144

View: 800

The 'Industrial Revolution' was a pivotal point in British history that occurred between the mid-eighteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries and led to far reaching transformations of society. With the advent of revolutionary manufacturing technology productivity boomed. Machines were used to spin and weave cloth, steam engines were used to provide reliable power, and industry was fed by the construction of the first railways, a great network of arteries feeding the factories. Cities grew as people shifted from agriculture to industry and commerce. Hand in hand with the growth of cities came rising levels of pollution and disease. Many people lost their jobs to the new machinery, whilst working conditions in the factories were grim and pay was low. As the middle classes prospered, social unrest ran through the working classes, and the exploitation of workers led to the growth of trade unions and protest movements. In this Very Short Introduction, Robert C. Allen analyzes the key features of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, and the spread of industrialization to other countries. He considers the factors that combined to enable industrialization at this time, including Britain's position as a global commercial empire, and discusses the changes in technology and business organization, and their impact on different social classes and groups. Introducing the 'winners' and the 'losers' of the Industrial Revolution, he looks at how the changes were reflected in evolving government policies, and what contribution these made to the economic transformation. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories: History

Global Economic History A Very Short Introduction

Global Economic History  A Very Short Introduction

Together these countries pioneered new technologies that have made them ever richer.

Author: Robert C. Allen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199596652

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 170

View: 521

The gap between the rich and the poor can be vast. Robert C. Allen considers the main factors that contribute to this gap, looking at the interconnections between economic growth, culture, technology, and income distribution. Exploring the historical processes that have created the unequal world of today, he takes a global look at wealth worldwide.
Categories: Business & Economics

Climate Change a Very Short Introduction

Climate Change  a Very Short Introduction

Climate change is perhaps the greatest challenge facing humanity. This book describes the substantial evidence for climate change and considers its potentially catastrophic impacts worldwide in the coming decades.

Author: Mark Maslin

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0198867867

Category:

Page: 160

View: 404

Climate change is perhaps the greatest challenge facing humanity. This book describes the substantial evidence for climate change and considers its potentially catastrophic impacts worldwide in the coming decades. It also discusses the geopolitical aspects, and explores what actions can be taken by individuals, companies, and governments.
Categories:

An Introduction to the Study of Mammals Living and Extinct

An Introduction to the Study of Mammals Living and Extinct

very existence would have been unknown to science but for the interesting
account of its anatomy and habits left by Steller ... Some species at least had
nasal bones , short , broad , but normal in position , whereas in all the existing
genera ...

Author: William Henry Flower

Publisher:

ISBN: HARVARD:32044107347288

Category: Extinct animals

Page: 763

View: 563

Categories: Extinct animals

Mammals a Very Short Introduction

Mammals  a Very Short Introduction

Relative newcomers within the story of evolution, mammals are hugely successful and have colonized land, water, and air.

Author: T. S. Kemp

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198766940

Category:

Page: 160

View: 318

From a modest beginning in the form of a little shrew-like, nocturnal, insect eating ancestor that lived 200 million years ago, mammals evolved into the huge variety of different kinds of animals we see today. Many species are still small, and follow the lifestyle of the ancestor, but others have adapted to become large grazers and browsers, like the antelopes, cattle, rhinos, and elephants, or the lions, hyaenas, and wolves that prey upon them. Yet others evolved to be specialist termite eaters able to dig into the hardest mounds, or tunnel creating burrowers, and a few took to the skies as gliders and the bats. Many live partly in the water, such as otters, beavers, and hippos, while whales and dugongs remain permanently in the seas, incapable of ever emerging onto land. In this Very Short Introduction Tom Kemp explains how it is a tenfold increase in metabolic rate - endothermy or "warm-bloodedness" - that lies behind the high levels of activity, and the relatively huge brain associated with complex, adaptable behaviour that epitomizes mammals. He describes the remarkable fossil record, revealing how and when the mammals gained their characteristics, and the tortuous course of their subsequent evolution, during which many bizarre forms such as sabre-toothed cats, and 30-tonne, 6-m high browsers arose and disappeared. Describing the wonderful adaptations that mammals evolved to suit their varied modes of life, he also looks at those of the mainly arboreal primates that culminated ultimately in Homo sapiens. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Categories:

Introduction

Introduction

The study of the earth's crust teaches us that very many species of plants and
animals became extinct at successive ... The historical period of man is too short
to ascertain with certainty whether such a view be correct , but it appears to be ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105024659042

Category:

Page: 16

View: 714

Categories:

Proceedings

Proceedings

Nevertheless , the potential for sequential introduction to counter hastened
extinction trajectories in positively ... large stochastic effects are not offset by time
- averaged introductions , single events or very short event sequences ( that are ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UVA:X006185500

Category: Biology

Page:

View: 864

Categories: Biology

Schaum s Outline of Theory and Problems of Introduction to Psychology

Schaum s Outline of Theory and Problems of Introduction to Psychology

In general , it is assumed that CR strength will be revealed by the amount of time
or number of trials necessary to extinguish the response . Very short extinction
represents a weak CR , while longer extinction means the CR was stronger . 11 .

Author: Arno F. Wittig

Publisher: Schaum's Outline Series

ISBN: 0070711941

Category: Psychology

Page: 342

View: 954

This work is an introduction to the theory and practice of Business Statistics, a core course in business colleges, 4-year institutions, and MBA programmes. This updated edition includes more focus on Excel to reflect upon the change in the curriculum.
Categories: Psychology