The Science of False Memory

The Science of False Memory

paradigms, is one in which false reports are consistent with the gist of participants' experience. ... This basal feature of the most frequently studied false-memory paradigms—that the target material specifies connected meanings ...

Author: C. J. Brainerd

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198035047

Category: Psychology

Page: 578

View: 408

Findings from research on false memory have major implications for a number of fields central to human welfare, such as medicine and law. Although many important conclusions have been reached after a decade or so of intensive research, the majority of them are not well known outside the immediate field. To make this research accessible to a much wider audience, The Science of False Memory has been written to require little or no background knowledge of the theory and techniques used in memory research. Brainerd and Reyna introduce the volume by considering the progenitors to the modern science of false memory, and noting the remarkable degree to which core themes of contemporary research were anticipated by historical figure such as Binet, Piaget, and Bartlett. They continue with an account of the varied methods that have been used to study false memory both inside and outside of the laboratory. The first part of the volume focuses on the basic science of false memory, revolving around three topics: old and new theoretical ideas that have been used to explain false memory and make predictions about it; research findings and predictions about false memory in normal adults; and research findings and predictions about age-related changes in false memory between early childhood and adulthood. Throughout Part I, Brainerd and Reyna emphasize how current opponent-processes conceptions of false memory act as a unifying influence by integrating predictions and data across disparate forms of false memory. The second part focuses on the applied science of false memory, revolving around four topics: the falsifiability of witnesses and suspects memories of crimes, including false confessions by suspects; the falsifiability of eyewitness identifications of suspects; false-memory reports in investigative interviews of child victims and witnesses, particularly in connection with sexual-abuse crimes; false memory in psychotherapy, including recovered memories of childhood abuse, multiple-personality disorders, and recovered memories of previous lives. Although Part II is concerned with applied research, Brainerd and Reyna continue to emphasize the unifying influence of opponent-processes conceptions of false memory. The third part focuses on emerging trends, revolving around three expanding areas of false-memory research: mathematical models, aging effects, and cognitive neuroscience. False Memory will be an invaluable resource for professional researchers, practitioners, and students in the many fields for which false-memory research has implications, including child-protective services, clinical psychology, law, criminal justice, elementary and secondary education, general medicine, journalism, and psychiatry.
Categories: Psychology

False memory Creation in Children and Adults

False memory Creation in Children and Adults

and implanted false reports, 114–116 and reminiscence, 116–117 and spontaneous false reports, 112– 114 Constructive memory framework (CMF), 130, 133, 135, 139, 143, 146, 152, 154, 158–159 Constructive nature of memory, 7, 46–47, 223, ...

Author: David F. Bjorklund

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781135671679

Category: Psychology

Page: 264

View: 182

As one of the most hotly debated topics of the past decade, false memory has attracted the interest of researchers and practitioners in many of psychology's subdisciplines. Real-world issues surrounding the credibility of memories (particularly memories of traumatic events, such as sexual abuse) reported by both children and adults have been at the center of this debate. Were the adults actually retrieving repressed memories under the careful direction of psychotherapists, or were the memories being "created" by repeated suggestion? Were children telling investigators about events that actually happened, or were the interviewing techniques used to get at unpleasant experiences serving to implant memories that eventually became their own? There is evidence in the psychological research literature to support both sides, and the potential impact on individuals, families, and society as a whole has been profound. This book is an attempt to cut through the undergrowth and get at the truth of the "recovered memory/false-memory creation" puzzle. The contributors review seminal work from their own research programs and provide theory and critical evaluation of existing research that is necessary to translate theory into practice. The book will be of great value to basic and applied memory researchers, clinical and social psychologists, and other professionals working within the helping and legal professions.
Categories: Psychology

New Trends in False Memory Research

New Trends in False Memory Research

However, differences in social false memory paradigms between younger and older participants are a matter of controversy. Meade and Roediger (2009) used a turn-taking collaborative procedure from the recall list of categorized words, ...

Author: Maria Soledad Beato

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889763146

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 124

Categories: Science

Concise Learning and Memory

Concise Learning and Memory

People will also describe their false memories in some detail, attributing them to locations in the study list (Read, 1996) and to a particular speaker (Payne et al., 1996). They are also willing to estimate how frequently they ...

Author:

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080877869

Category: Psychology

Page: 888

View: 124

The study of learning and memory is a central topic in neuroscience and psychology. Many of the basic research findings are directly applicable in the treatment of diseases and aging phenomena, and have found their way into educational theory and praxis. Concise Learning and Memory represents the best 30 chapters from Learning and Memory: A comprehensive reference (Academic Press March 2008), the most comprehensive source of information about learning and memory ever assembled, selected by one of the most respective scientists in the field, John H. Byrne. This concise version provides a truly authoritative collection of overview articles representing fundamental reviews of our knowledge of this central cognitive function of animal brains. It will be an affordable and accessible reference for scientists and students in all areas of neuroscience and psychology. There is no other single-volume reference with such authority and comprehensive coverage and depth currently available. * Represents an authoritative selection of the fundamental chapters from the most comprehensive source of information about learning and memory ever assembled, Learning and Memory - A comprehensive reference (Academic Press Mar 2008) * Representing outstanding scholarship, each chapter is written by a leader in the field and an expert in the topic area * All topics represent the most up to date research * Full color throughout, heavily illustrated * Priced to provide an affordable reference to individuals and workgroups
Categories: Psychology

Lifespan Development of Human Memory

Lifespan Development of Human Memory

Children's and adults ' spontaneous false memories for sentences : Long - term persistence and mere - testing effects.- Child Development . Brainerd , C. J. , & Poole , D. A. ( 1997 ) . Long - term survival of children's false memories ...

Author: Peter Graf (PhD.)

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026207236X

Category: Psychology

Page: 322

View: 248

An original approach to memory development that views memory as a continuous process of growth and loss over the human lifespan rather than as a series of separate periods. Until recently, the vast majority of memory research used only university students and other young adults as subjects. Although such research successfully introduced new methodologies and theoretical concepts, it created a bias in our understanding of the lifespan development of memory. This book signals a departure from young-adult-centered research. It views the lifespan development of memory as a continuous process of growth and loss, where each phase of development raises unique questions favoring distinct research methods and theoretical approaches. Drawing on a broad range of investigative strategies, the book lays the foundation for a comprehensive understanding of the lifespan development of human memory. Topics include the childhood and adulthood development of working memory, episodic and autobiographical memory, and prospective memory, as well as the breakdown of memory functions in Alzheimer's disease. Of particular interest is the rich diversity of approaches, methods, and theories. The book takes an interdisciplinary perspective, drawing on work from psychology, psychiatry, gerontology, and biochemistry.
Categories: Psychology

Popular Myths about Memory

Popular Myths about Memory

implant false memories of a traumatic event, such as childhood sexual abuse. Nonetheless, plausibility is a malleable phenomenon (Mazzoni et al., 2001), and in today's society, CSA is, regrettably, far from implausible.

Author: Brian H. Bornstein

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739192191

Category: Psychology

Page: 334

View: 666

In Popular Myths about Memory, Brian H. Bornstein confronts popular myths about memory with scientific evidence on memory permanence, recovered memory and repression, amnesia, eyewitness memory, superior memory, and other topics. This book is recommended for scholars interested in psychology, media and film studies, communication studies, and sociology.
Categories: Psychology

Handbook of Metamemory and Memory

Handbook of Metamemory and Memory

(Mazzoni, Lombardo, Malvagia, & Loftus, 1999) or via solving anagrams (Bernstein, Whittlesea, & Loftus, 2002), did not examine whether these procedures had created false memories. Instead, they only asked participants whether they ...

Author: John Dunlosky

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780805862140

Category: Psychology

Page: 504

View: 112

Primers on metamemory and memory -- Current directions in memory monitoring and control -- Contemporary issues involving the metamemory-memory framework.
Categories: Psychology

Memory Online

Memory Online

Our study represents an initial step towards building a body of experimental evi- dence that can explain how interaction dynamics may con- tribute to such false memory production and collective narratives that represent false memory.

Author: Qi Wang

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781000826036

Category: Psychology

Page: 151

View: 337

This book presents cutting-edge research on memory in the age of the Internet and social media. The empirical studies reported in the ten chapters address the influence of the digital age on remembering in three broad areas: offloading memory and the associated costs, benefits, and boundary conditions; autobiographical memory online; and false memory at a time of fake news and misinformation. These studies employ innovative and rigorous methodological approaches that are ecologically valid in the online context. Their findings reveal complex and dynamic characteristics of human memory in a digitally mediated world that shapes our learning, our sense of self, and our beliefs and decision making. Collectively, the chapters in this volume provide rich theoretical insights into the workings and functions of memory. This book ushers in a new era of research on memory in the age of digitization. Memory Online will be a beneficial read for students and scholars of Psychology, Cognitive Science, Communication, and Media Studies. The chapters in this book were originally published as a special issue of Memory.
Categories: Psychology

Memory

Memory

false memory induction procedure (Loftus, Coan, & Pickrell, 1996). In this method, false memories of events False memory induction are induced in participants. Of course, for ethical reasons, abuse memories are avoided, but Loftus and ...

Author: Bennett L. Schwartz

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781452259123

Category: Psychology

Page: 481

View: 906

The science and practice of memory come to life with Bennett Schwartz' Memory, Second Edition. Integrated coverage of cognitive psychology and neuroscience throughout the text connect theory and research to the areas in the brain where memory processes occur, while unique applications of memory concepts to such areas as education, investigations, and courtrooms engage students in an exploration of how memory works in everyday life. Four themes create a framework for the text: the active nature of learning and remembering; memory's status as a biological process; the multiple components of memory systems; and how memory principles can improve our individual ability to learn and remember. Substantive changes in each chapter and 156 new references bring this new edition completely up to date and offer students an array of high-interest examples for augmenting their own memory abilities and appreciation of memory science.
Categories: Psychology

Handbook of Research Methods in Human Memory

Handbook of Research Methods in Human Memory

It is important to stress that the imagination inflation method does not use explicit suggestive pressure to promote the formation of false memories. However, the finding that imagination can by itself lead to the creation of false ...

Author: Hajime Otani

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780429801570

Category: Psychology

Page: 474

View: 315

The Handbook of Research Methods in Human Memory presents a collection of chapters on methodology used by researchers in investigating human memory. Understanding the basic cognitive function of human memory is critical in a wide variety of fields, such as clinical psychology, developmental psychology, education, neuroscience, and gerontology, and studying memory has become particularly urgent in recent years due to the prominence of a number of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s. However, choosing the most appropriate method of research is a daunting task for most scholars. This book explores the methods that are currently available in various areas of human memory research and serves as a reference manual to help guide readers’ own research. Each chapter is written by prominent researchers and features cutting-edge research on human memory and cognition, with topics ranging from basic memory processes to cognitive neuroscience to further applications. The focus here is not on the "what," but the "how"—how research is best conducted on human memory.
Categories: Psychology