18.104.22.168 Fossil fuels Fossil fuels form from prehistoric biomass that accumulated at the bottom of water bodies faster than ambient microbes could remineralize and recycle it. Most coal formed from the residues of terrestrial plants and ...
Author: Scott Stout
Publisher: Academic Press
Standard Handbook Oil Spill Environmental Forensics: Fingerprinting and Source Identification, Second Edition, provides users with the latest information on the tools and methods that have become popular over the past ten years. The book presents practitioners with the latest environmental forensics techniques and best practices for quickly identifying the sources of spills, how to form an effective response, and how to determine liability. This second edition represents a complete overhaul of the existing chapters, and includes 13 new chapters on methods and applications, such as emerging application of PAHi isomers in oil spill forensics, development and application of computerized oil spill identification (COSI), and fingerprinting of oil in biological and passive sampling devices. Contains 13 new chapters on methods and applications, including emerging application of PAH isomers in oil drill forensics, the development and application of computerized oil spill identification (COSI), and the fingerprinting of oil in biological and passive sampling devices Presents the latest technology and methods in biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons and its implications for source identification, surface trajectory modeling of marine oil spills, and identification of hydrocarbons in biological samples for source determination Contains new case studies to illustrate key applications, methods, and techniques
The deluge of TV drama series in which forensic investigators almost always nail the criminal has led to a rush of students wanting to study forensic science at university. Carol Mayne has gone one step further, setting up her own ...
Author: Stephen Luntz
Publisher: CSIRO PUBLISHING
Forensics, Fossils and Fruitbatsis a fascinating collection of more than 70 profiles of Australian scientists from 15 fields of physical, biological and medical science. These scientists have been selected because their research is inspiring, intriguing or simply quirky, or because they have taken an unusual or interesting path to the work they do. Profiles include: * A forensic archaeologist whose work has taken her from Antarctica to Pompeii * A palaeontologist who revolutionized understanding of Australia's dinosaurs * A computer scientist teaching computers to understand jokes * The engineer behind technologies that could bring clear sight to a billion people and clean energy to billions more. For anyone considering a career in science, Forensics, Fossils and Fruitbatsprovides insight into the challenges and triumphs of being a scientist. For everyone else, it is a rare peek into the reality of how science is done.
Forensic investigators rely most heavily on chemical fingerprints to accurately identify the source of fugitive oil, ... and heat from the earth over long periods of time transformed the terrestrial and marine biomass into fossil fuels.
Author: Scott Stout
Category: Technology & Engineering
Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies includes 34 chapters that serve to present various aspects of environmental forensics in relation to “real-world oil spill case studies from around the globe. Authors representing academic, government, and private researcher groups from 14 countries bring a diverse and global perspective to this volume. Oil Spill Environmental Forensics Case Studies addresses releases of natural gas/methane, automotive gasoline and other petroleum fuels, lubricants, vegetable oils, paraffin waxes, bitumen, manufactured gas plant residues, urban runoff, and, of course, crude oil, the latter ranging from light Bakken shale oil to heavy Canadian oil sands oil. New challenges surrounding forensic investigations of stray gas in the shallow subsurface, volatiles in air, dissolved chemicals in water (including passive samplers), and biological tissues associated with oil spills are included, as are the effects and long-term oil weathering, long-term monitoring in urbanized and non-urbanized environments, fate and transport, forensic historical research, new analytical and chemical data processing and interpretation methods. Presents cases in each chapter on the application of specific oil spill environmental forensic techniques Features chapters written by international experts from both academia and industry Includes relevant concepts and theories elucidated for each theme
Author: Laura M. Sanders ArndtPublish On: 2007-10-01
Name Date Fossils Which trace fossil evidence would crime investigators ... What Does a Forensic Scientist Need to Know? There is an art to finding tracks and other trace fossils in nature or a crime scene. Investigators and scientists ...
Applications to archaeology and forensics The super-abundance of microfossils in a range of sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments/ Quaternary deposits is key to their utility in archaeological and forensic settings.
Author: M. Williams
Publisher: Geological Society of London
Microfossils are an abundant component of the sedimentary rock record. Their analysis can reveal not only the environments in which the rocks were deposited, but also their age. When combined, the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of microfossils offer enormous utility for archaeological and forensic investigations. Their presence can act as a geological ‘fingerprint’ and the tiniest fragment of material, such as a broken Iron Age potsherd, can contain a microfossil signature that reveals the geographical source of the materials under investigation. This book explores how microfossils are employed as tools to interpret human society and habitation throughout history. Examples include microfossil evidence associated with Palaeolithic human occupation at Boxgrove in Sussex, alongside investigations into human-induced landscape change during the Holocene. Further examples include the use of microfossils to provenance the source materials of Iron Age ceramics, Roman mosaics and Minoan pottery, in addition to their application to help solve modern murder cases, highlighting the diverse applications of microfossils to improving our understanding of human history.
Because of the scientific and financial value of many fossils, analytical techniques have been developed that maximise information gained from specimens that can be translated to forensic work. The most obvious example would be fossil ...
Author: Alastair Ruffell
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book is a comprehensive introduction to the application of geoscience to criminal investigations. Clearly structured throughout, the text follows a path from the large-scale application of remote sensing, landforms and geophysics in the first half to the increasingly small-scale examination of rock and soils to trace amounts of material. The two scales of investigation are linked by geoscience applications to forensics that can be applied at a range of dimensions. These include the use of topographic mapping, x-ray imaging, geophysics and remote sensing in assessing whether sediment, rocks or concrete may have hidden or buried materials inside for example, drugs, weapons, bodies. This book describes the wider application of many different geoscience-based methods in assisting law enforcers with investigations such as international and national crimes of genocide and pollution, terrorism and domestic crime as well as accident investigation. The text makes a clear link to the increasingly important aspects of the spatial distribution of geoscience materials (be it soil sampling or the distribution of mud-spatter on clothing), Geographic Information Science and geostatistics. A comprehensive introduction to the application of geoscience to criminal investigation Examples taken from an environmental and humanitarian perspective in addition to the terrorist and domestic criminal cases more regularly discussed A chapter on the use of GIS in criminalistics and information on unusual applications and methods - for example underwater scene mapping and extraterrestrial applications Material on how geoscience methods and applications are used at a crime scene Accompanying website including key images and references to further material An invaluable text for both undergraduate and postgraduate students taking general forensic science degrees or geoscience courses "The whole book is peppered with useful and appropriate examples from the authors' wide experiences and also from the wider literature... an essential purchase for any forensic science department as well as for any law enforcement organisation." —Lorna Dawson, Macaulay Institute
As mentioned earlier, the13C content of the atmospheric CO2 continually changes with time and today, as ever increasing amounts of fossil fuels are being combusted, releasing CO2 into the atmosphere, it is becoming more enriched in the ...
Author: Brian L. Murphy
Publisher: Academic Press
The third edition of Introduction to Environmental Forensics is a state-of-the-art reference for the practicing environmental forensics consultant, regulator, student, academic, and scientist, with topics including compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), advanced multivariate statistical techniques, surrogate approaches for contaminant source identification and age dating, dendroecology, hydrofracking, releases from underground storage tanks and piping, and contaminant-transport modeling for forensic applications. Recognized international forensic scientists were selected to author chapters in their specific areas of expertise and case studies are included to illustrate the application of these methods in actual environmental forensic investigations. This edition provides updates on advances in various techniques and introduces several new topics. Provides a comprehensive review of all aspects of environmental forensics Coverage ranges from emerging statistical methods to state-of-the-art analytical techniques, such as gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry and polytopic vector analysis Numerous examples and case studies are provided to illustrate the application of these forensic techniques in environmental investigations
... neglected in textbooks and specialized journals alike . However , a few paleontologists ( taphonomists ) have addressed the issue of fossilization directly , especially its early stages . These connoisseurs of fossil forensics have ...
Author: David Gillette
Publisher: Columbia University Press
The first book to clearly explain the science used by paleontologists and the new, cutting-edge techniques that led to the discovery of Seismosaurus, the longest dinosaur yet known----and possibly the largest land animal to have ever lived. The book also illustrates the exciting collaboration between Gillette, the chemists and physicists who helped to reconstruct Seismosaurus.
In referring to Dr. Sturk's remains, Le Fanu accurately uses the term “fossil” in the narrative to describe the skull and related grave artifacts well before this distinction between forensic anthropology and archeology was considered ...
Author: Michael Arntfield
Category: Social Science
Michael Arntfield interrogates the legacy of Victorian-era crime fiction and Gothic horror on investigative forensic methods used by police today.
The law that is most important to understanding the importance of fossils as forensic tools, and the effect of Dr Gupta's chicanery, is the principle of fossil succession. Basically stated, fossil succession means that each chunk of the ...
Author: Elisa Bergslien
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
An Introduction to Forensic Geoscience provides fundamental training in geoscience as developed through the lens of its forensic applications. It incorporates a range of topics including geophysical methods of grave detection, the mineralogy of art, identification of microfossils, and comparison of soil trace evidence samples. Each topic is introduced using core concepts that are developed with increasing complexity in order to give readers an understanding of the underlying scientific principles involved and a taste of the wide range of possible forensic uses. A variety of detailed reference tables have been compiled for the text and each chapter contains lists of references to applicable textbooks and journal articles. Examples of real criminal cases are also presented in each chapter to make the connections between theory and real world application. The goal of this book is to give readers a familiarity with the wide range of ways in which geoscience principles and geological materials can be utilized forensically. Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/bergslien/forensicgeoscience.