This report describes how the Israel Defense Force fought an adaptive hybrid adversary in a dense urban setting under intense public scrutiny during its wars in Gaza and draws lessons from the Israeli experience for the U.S. Army and the ...
Author: Raphael S. Cohen
This report describes how the Israel Defense Force fought an adaptive hybrid adversary in a dense urban setting under intense public scrutiny during its wars in Gaza and draws lessons from the Israeli experience for the U.S. Army and the joint force.
It is a monument to Gaza's martyrs and a scorching accusation against their tormenters"--Provided by publisher. "This is the voice I listen for, when I want to learn the deepest reality about Jews, Zionists, Israelis, and Palestinians.
Author: Norman Finkelstein
Publisher: Univ of California Press
"Gaza is among the most densely populated places in the world. Two-thirds of its inhabitants are refugees, and more than half the population is under eighteen years of age. Since Israel occupied Gaza in 1967, it has systematically de-developed the economy. After Hamas won democratic elections in 2006, Israel intensified its blockade of Gaza, and after Hamas consolidated its control of the territory in 2007, Israel tightened its illegal siege another notch. In the meantime, Israel has launched no less than eight military operations against Gaza--culminating in Operation Cast Lead in 2008-9 and Operation Protective Edge in 2014--that left behind over three million tons of rubble. Recent UN reports predict that Gaza will be unlivable by 2020. Norman G. Finkelstein presents a meticulously researched and devastating inquest into Israel's actions of the last decade. He argues that although Israel justified its blockade and violent assaults in the name of self-defense, in fact these actions were cynical exercises of brutal power against an essentially defenseless civilian population. Based on hundreds of human rights reports, the book scrutinizes multifarious violations of international law Israel committed both during its operations and in the course of its decade-long siege of Gaza. It is a monument to Gaza's martyrs and a scorching accusation against their tormenters"--Provided by publisher.
Author: Norman G. FinkelsteinPublish On: 2015-01-15
After the 2008-9 assault Israel’s then-foreign minister, Tzipi Livni, boasted, “Israel demonstrated real hooliganism during the course of the recent operation, which I demanded.” However, as Norman G. Finkelstein sets out in this ...
Author: Norman G. Finkelstein
Publisher: OR Books
In the past five years Israel has mounted three major assaults on the 1.8 million Palestinians trapped behind its blockade of the Gaza Strip. Taken together, Operation Cast Lead (2008-9), Operation Pillar of Defense (2012), and Operation Protective Edge (2014), have resulted in the deaths of some 3,700 Palestinians. Meanwhile, a total of 90 Israelis were killed in the invasions. On the face of it, this succession of vastly disproportionate attacks has often seemed frenzied and pathological. Senior Israeli politicians have not discouraged such perceptions, indeed they have actively encouraged them. After the 2008-9 assault Israel’s then-foreign minister, Tzipi Livni, boasted, “Israel demonstrated real hooliganism during the course of the recent operation, which I demanded.” However, as Norman G. Finkelstein sets out in this concise, paradigm-shifting new book, a closer examination of Israel’s motives reveals a state whose repeated recourse to savage war is far from irrational. Rather, Israel’s attacks have been designed to sabotage the possibility of a compromise peace with the Palestinians, even on terms that are favorable to it. Looking also at machinations around the 2009 UN sponsored Goldstone report and Turkey’s forlorn attempt to seek redress in the UN for the killing of its citizens in the 2010 attack on the Gaza freedom flotilla, Finkelstein documents how Israel has repeatedly eluded accountability for what are now widely recognized as war crimes. Further, he shows that, though neither side can claim clear victory in these conflicts, the ensuing stalemate remains much more tolerable for Israelis than for the beleaguered citizens of Gaza. A strategy of mass non-violent protest might, he contends, hold more promise for a Palestinian victory than military resistance, however brave.
With its multidisciplinary approach and original analysis of the Israel/Gaza situation, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of Middle East studies and the Arab-Israeli conflict, as well as security studies and ...
Author: Marouf Hasian Jr
Category: Political Science
Civilians in Gaza and Israel are caught up in complex, violent situations that have overstepped conventional battle lines. Both sides of the conflict have found ways to legitimate the use of violence, and continually swap accusations of violations of domestic and international humanitarian laws. Israel’s Military Operations in Gaza provides an ideological critique of the legal, military, and social media texts that have been used to legitimate historical incursions into the Gaza, with special focus on Operation Protective Edge. It argues that both the Palestinians and the Israelis have deployed various forms of ‘telegenic’ warfare. They have each used argumentative rhetorics based on competing interpretations of events, and are locked in a battle to convince international audiences and domestic constituencies of the righteousness of their causes. This critical genealogical study analyses a range of texts and images, from selfies circulated near the Gaza border to judicial opinions produced by the High Court of Israel. With its multidisciplinary approach and original analysis of the Israel/Gaza situation, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of Middle East studies and the Arab-Israeli conflict, as well as security studies and communication studies.
This book goes behind the scenes to analyze the thinking at the time, from the Israel side, on Strategy and Tactics, Comparing Operations Cast Lead, Pillar of Defense and Protective Edge, Missile and Rocket Warfare and Protection, The ...
Author: Glen Segell
Israel, Gaza and Hamas 2014: Operation Protective Edge in numbers: 50 days of fighting; 4,258 rockets fired at Israel; 735 Iron Dome interceptions; 5,226 air strikes; 32 tunnels destroyed; 74 dead on the Israeli side; and some 2,200 dead on the Palestinian side. The historical chronology of the accumulation of these on a daily basis can be reaped from on-line newspaper sources. This book goes behind the scenes to analyze the thinking at the time, from the Israel side, on Strategy and Tactics, Comparing Operations Cast Lead, Pillar of Defense and Protective Edge, Missile and Rocket Warfare and Protection, The Tunnels and the Cyber, Legal Issues and Demilitarization, Deterrence and Leverage, Intra-Palestinian Processes, The Civilian Front and Public Opinion and Beyond the Military Front. The goal of victory in a war is the destruction of the enemy's army. This volume concludes that in Operation Protective Edge neither side achieved victory in this sense. The 50 days of fighting didn't resolve the Israel-Palestinian impasse. The door is open for a future Israel, Gaza and Hamas armed conflict. The ball is in the court of the counselors.
The European Union (EU) has played an important, yet inconsistent role in the Israel-Palestine conflict since the1980 Venice Declaration.
Author: Hugh O'Donnell
The European Union (EU) has played an important, yet inconsistent role in the Israel-Palestine conflict since the1980 Venice Declaration. This paper analyses how the EU’s role as a mediator has changed more recently in the Israel-Gaza conflict. Specifically, it examines how the ‘Concept on Strengthening EU Mediation and Dialogue Capacities’ adopted in 2009 and the creation of the European External Action Service and the High Representative by the Lisbon Treaty have changed the EU’s resources and strategies as a mediator as well as how these developments improved cooperation and coordination with other mediators. This analysis is done through a comparison of the EU’s role in the Israeli Operation Cast Lead in 2008/2009 and Operation Protective Edge in 2014. It is argued that the aforementioned changes made the EU a more capable mediator and facilitated internal coordination. However, these changes did not create more resources for the EU as a mediator, rather they changed how the EU used its resources.
This book applies the concept of mediatization to the contemporary dynamic between war, media and society, with a focus on the Israel Defence Forces (IDF).
Author: Michal Shavit
This book applies the concept of mediatization to the contemporary dynamic between war, media and society, with a focus on the Israel Defence Forces (IDF). Since the beginning of the 21st century the IDF has undergone an intensive process of mediatization that has transformed the media into an interpretative grid for many of its military activities and increasingly utilized media to garner public support and construct civilian perceptions of conflict and security through media activity and strategy. This process can be divided into four distinct chronological phases in accordance with the operational challenges confronted by the IDF during this period, from the Al-Aqsa Intifada of 2000, through Israeli unilateral disengagement from Gaza in 2005, and the second Lebanon war of 2006, to the series of Gaza confrontations of 2008-2014. The work shows how the IDF’s media policy evolved from a narrow perception of its role, and separation between operational and media actions to a cohesive and coherently articulated media strategy that is increasingly intertwined with military action and operational strategy and a vital component of strategic military aims and objectives. This strategic stance has led the IDF to adopt a global media perspective using the most advanced new media platforms, designed to influence public opinion and improve national narratives, both in Israel and the international community. By applying the concept of mediatization to the Israeli case, this book fills a research lacuna and offers a new prism for the study of media-military relations in contemporary conflicts. The book will be of much interest to students of civil-military relations, strategic studies, Middle Eastern Studies, media and communication studies, sociology and IR, in general.
Reporting the Middle East: Challenges and Chances aims to show that the media arena is a key element in understanding the Middle East conflict.
Author: Caspi Dan
Publisher: World Scientific
Category: Social Science
Numerous studies address the flow of information between nations and states — especially in the era of globalization — and its contribution to the development of relations across physical borders. By contrast, little attention has been paid to the circumstances under which parties in conflict initiate and build barriers to free flow of information. The conflict in the Middle East may serve as a test bed of controlled disruption of information flow, as covered in Reporting the Middle East: Challenges and Chances. Two parallel types of confrontations appear to take place in the Middle East: the actual physical conflict, and the "war of words," conducted via the media, with each side firing its own verbal missiles. Reporting the Middle East: Challenges and Chances aims to show that the media arena is a key element in understanding the Middle East conflict. Media coverage of Middle Eastern affairs remains critical, if only because of its power in determining sources of information, setting decision makers' agendas, and influencing management of the physical confrontation. Contents: DedicationList of ContributorsIntroduction — Conflict Mediatization in the Middle East (Dan Caspi and Daniel Rubinstein)Another View of the Information Wall in the Israeli-Arab Conflict (Dan Caspi and Daniel Rubinstein)A Comparative Study of the Syrian Crisis Coverage in Greek and Spanish Traditional and New Media (Pablo Sapag Muñoz de la Peña and Nikos Panagiotou)New Content, New Challenges: UGC Use and Challenges Faced by BBC News Journalists Covering Events in Syria (Lisette Johnston)Wartime Changes in News Consumption Patterns among Israeli WhatsApp Users: Operation Protective Edge as a Case Study (Ruth Avidar, Yaron Ariel and Vered Elishar-Malka)Operation Cast Lead Viewed through Blogs and the Print Press by the Arab Society in Israel (Hama Abu-Kishk)"It's Their Fault There's No Chance of Peace" Key Trends in Israeli Coverage of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (Hagar Lahav)Competing Trends in the Arab Press in Israel: From Print to the Internet (Mustafa Kabha and Dan Caspi)Making an Icon: The Al-Dura Conspiracy (Charles Enderlin) Readership: Students and academics studying political communications, media and communications; students and academics specialising in Middle Eastern politics. Keywords: Middle East;Mass Communication;Political Communication;Mass Media;Media Institutions;Ethnic Media;Public Opinion and PropagandaReview: Key Features: This book offers a close analysis of the circumstances in which barriers to free flow of information is initiated and built in the context of media coverage in the Middle East, something that is missing from the numerous similar studiesA large area of focus is also on news coverage through developments in the use of new media and social media such as WhatsApp and blogsConsidering the increasing use of "alternative facts" and "fake news," this book can shed some light on how the media arena is a key player in controlling today's information flow
The future of the M1 Abrams tank is uncertain. With current fiscal constraints and the requirement for expeditionary maneuver, the U.S. Army is under pressure to demonstrate the need for its main battle tank. The purpose of this study is to inform the future role of the M1 Abrams tank by analyzing hybrid threat trends, understanding U.S. Army force structure challenges, and determining the relevancy of combined arms maneuver in the future operating environment. The study analyzes the Israeli Defense Force and its employment of the Merkava tank during Operation Cast Lead and Operation Protective Edge to develop insights and lessons learned. Drawing from these lessons, the study argues that the capabilities of the main battle tank are more critical and relevant in a hybrid environment than was seen in the past thirteen years of combat in Iraq and Afghanistan. The study concludes that the role of the M1 Abrams tank in the U.S. Army of 2015-2025 is to provide a mobile and survivable precision firepower platform to execute effective combined arms operations against a sophisticated hybrid threat with anti-tank guided missile capabilities in order to seize and hold terrain, mass discretionary fires, and destroy the enemy threat. ACRONYMS * CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION * Hybrid Threat * U.S. Army Force Structure * CAM * M1 Abrams Tank * Problem Statement * IDF and the Merkava Main Battle Tank * 2006 Lebanon War * Operations Cast Lead and Protective Edge * IDF Merkava Main Battle Tank * Research Questions, Assumptions, Scope, and Limitations * Conclusion * CHAPTER 2 - LITERATURE REVIEW: M1 ABRAMS TANK * Arguments for the M1 Abrams Tank * Arguments against the M1 Abrams Tank * Conclusion * CHAPTER 3 - LITERATURE REVIEW: SECOND LEBANON WAR * Conclusion * CHAPTER 4 - METHODOLOGY * Operational Assessment and Insights * IDF Merkava Main Battle Tank * CHAPTER 5 - OPERATION CAST LEAD * Hybrid Threat * Terrain * Hamas * Force Structure * Combined Arms Maneuver * Ground Campaign * Main Battle Tank * Operational Assessment and Insights * Conclusion * CHAPTER 6 - OPERATION PROTECTIVE EDGE * Hybrid Threat * Force Structure * Combined Arms Maneuver * Ground Campaign * Main Battle Tank * Modernization * Merkava Utilization and Performance * Operational Assessment and Insights * Conclusion The chapters are organized to analyze the role of the main battle tank in the proper analytic context established at the beginning of the chapter. Chapter 2 provides a literature review of the current debates arguing for and against the M1 Abrams tank in the U.S. Army force structure. Chapter 3 presents a detailed overview of the 2006 Lebanon War to provide context for the IDF's ensuing conflicts in the Gaza Strip. Chapter 4 describes the methodology by which the case studies are analyzed and presents hypotheses to inform the problem statement. Chapters 5 and 6 analyze Operation Cast Lead and Operation Protective Edge and provide an in-depth look at Hamas preparation and tactics, IDF force structure, execution of CAM, and the tactical role of the Merkava tank. At the end of each case study, the chapters provide an overall assessment of the operation and present lessons learned for the U.S. Army. The final chapter of the study offers insights and recommendations for the U.S. Army and submits several areas for further research.