From Turbulence to Climate

From Turbulence to Climate

Atmospheric turbulence. Many flows occuring in nature and in engineering
applications are turbulent; except possibly in very stable conditions, the
atmospheric boundary layer is inherently turbulent. It should be noted that
turbulence is not a ...

Author: Martin Beniston

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642587870

Category: Science

Page: 329

View: 940

This volume covers aspects of numerical modeling of the atmosphere and climate from the microscales of turbulence to the very large scales associated with climate and climatic change. Each of the three major spatio-temporal scales of the atmosphere, namely, the microscale, the mesoscale, and the macroscale is addressed through a hierarchy of models. Results of model simulations are illustrated throughout the text, with many of these examples based on the author's original research work. For each type of model discussed here, the theoretical background, including governing equation sets, simplifying assumptions, and advantages and limits of the models, is provided. The topic of coupled, or nested, modeling systems as a promising approach to air pllution embedded in regional atmospheric flows, as well as to the regional atmospheric response to global climate forcings, is also addressed. An attempt is made throughout the book to highlight the highly interdisciplinary nature of atmospheric modeling, particularly in those sections dealing with climatic change issues.
Categories: Science

Chaotic Climate Dynamics

Chaotic Climate Dynamics

6.1 Nonlinear variability of weather and climate Turbulence, namely, irregular
fluctuations in space and time characterize fluid flows in general and atmospheric
flows in particular. The irregular, i.e nonlinear space-time fluctuations on all
scales ...

Author: A. Selvam

Publisher: Luniver Press

ISBN: 9781905986071

Category: Atmospheric physics

Page: 156

View: 99

Atmosphere is a chaotic system. As such it is inherently unpredictable. The book applies chaos theory to understand and predict climate systems. Author presents a cell dynamical system model for turbulent fluid flows. The model envisages the irregular space-time fluctuations of the atmospheric flow pattern generated as a consequence of the superimposition of a continuum of eddies. The natural space-time variability is quantified in terms of the universal inverse power-law form of the statistical normal distribution. A range of possible applications of the cell dynamical system model for weather and climate system is discussed. The book provides a comprehensive reference material for scientists and academicians working in the field of atmospheric sciences and related topics.
Categories: Atmospheric physics

Weather and Climate as Related to Military Operations in France

Weather and Climate as Related to Military Operations in France

storms and heavy turbulence arising from convectively unstable maritime tropical
air will be encountered along northward - moving warm fronts and in the
following warm sector . C type : Moderate turbulence to great heights will
accompany ...

Author: United States. Army Air Forces. Weather Division

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105026306709

Category:

Page: 148

View: 624

Categories:

Climate Futures

Climate Futures

Underground oil drilling and leaking pipelines make the turbulent waters dirty as
well. Given that many occupants in the canoes can actually see the water,
because the canoes are lower in height, those occupants have a good sense of
how ...

Author: Kum-Kum Bhavnani

Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.

ISBN: 9781786997852

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 302

Approaching the issues of climate change and climate justice from a range of diverse perspectives including those of culture, gender, indigeneity, race, and sexuality, as well as challenging colonial histories and capitalist presents, Climate Futures boldly addresses the apparent inevitability of climate chaos. Seeking better explanations of the underlying causes and consequences of climate change, and mapping strategies toward a better future, or at a minimum, the most likely best-case world that we can get to, this book envisions planetary social movements robust enough to spark the necessary changes needed to achieve deeply sustainable and just economic, social, and political policies and practices. Bringing together insights from interdisciplinary scholars, policymakers, creatives and activists, Climate Futures argues for the need to get past us-and-them divides and acknowledge how lives of creatures far and near, human and non-human, are interconnected.
Categories: Social Science

The Climate Near the Ground

The Climate Near the Ground

The first type of flow is called laminar and the second turbulent. ... at the surface,
motion in the air is nearly always turbulent. ... Turbulence may be visualized
when one tries to follow the path of a snowflake in the wind, when the smoke from
a ...

Author: Rudolf Geiger

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0742518574

Category: Social Science

Page: 584

View: 512

This revised and updated edition of Rudolf Geiger's classic text provides a clear and vivid description of the surface microclimate, its physical basis, and its interactions with the biosphere. The book explains the principles of microclimatology and illustrates how they apply to a wide array of subfields. Those new to the field will find it especially valuable as a guide to understanding and quantifying the vast and ever-increasing literature on the subject. Designed as an introductory text for students in environmental science, this book will also be an essential reference for scientists seeking a clear understanding of the nature and physical basis of the climate near the ground, and its interactions with the biosphere.
Categories: Social Science

Turbulent Flow Computation

Turbulent Flow Computation

Chapter 8 FORWARD-IN-TIME DIFFERENCING FOR FLUIDS: SIMULATION OF
GEOPHYSICAL TURBULENCE Piotr K. ... Introduction 279 Prediction of the
Earth's climate and weather is difficult in large part due to the ubiquity of
turbulence in ...

Author: D. Drikakis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402005237

Category: Science

Page: 376

View: 908

In various branches of fluid mechanics, our understanding is inhibited by the presence of turbulence. Although many experimental and theoretical studies have significantly helped to increase our physical understanding, a comp- hensive and predictive theory of turbulent flows has not yet been established. Therefore, the prediction of turbulent flow relies heavily on simulation stra- gies. The development of reliable methods for turbulent flow computation will have a significant impact on a variety of technological advancements. These range from aircraft and car design, to turbomachinery, combustors, and process engineering. Moreover, simulation approaches are important in materials - sign, prediction of biologically relevant flows, and also significantly contribute to the understanding of environmental processes including weather and climate forecasting. The material that is compiled in this book presents a coherent account of contemporary computational approaches for turbulent flows. It aims to p- vide the reader with information about the current state of the art as well as to stimulate directions for future research and development. The book puts part- ular emphasis on computational methods for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows as well as on methods for analysing and quantifying nume- cal errors in turbulent flow computations. In addition, it presents turbulence modelling approaches in the context of large eddy simulation, and unfolds the challenges in the field of simulations for multiphase flows and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) of engineering flows in complex geometries. Apart from reviewing main research developments, new material is also included in many of the chapters.
Categories: Science

Atmosphere Clouds and Climate

Atmosphere  Clouds  and Climate

Despite their relatively small size, cumulus clouds are major players in the
energy budget of the global climate system. But the story starts in the boundary
layer. TURBULENT MIXING in chapter 1, the boundary layer was described as
turbulent ...

Author: David Randall

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691143750

Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 137

The atmosphere is critical to climate change. It can amplify shifts in the climate system, and also mitigate them. This primer offers a short, reader-friendly introduction to these atmospheric processes and how they work, written by a leading expert on the subject. Giving readers an overview of key atmospheric processes, David Randall looks at how our climate system receives energy from the sun and sheds it by emitting infrared radiation back into space. The atmosphere regulates these radiative energy flows and transports energy through weather systems such as thunderstorms, monsoons, hurricanes, and winter storms. Randall explains how these processes work, and also how precipitation, cloud formation, and other phase changes of water strongly influence weather and climate. He discusses how atmospheric feedbacks affect climate change, how the large-scale atmospheric circulation works, how predicting the weather and the climate are fundamentally different challenges, and much more. This is the ideal introduction for students and nonspecialists. No prior experience in atmospheric science is needed, only basic college physics. Authoritative and concise, Atmosphere, Clouds, and Climate features a glossary of terms, suggestions for further reading, and easy-to-follow explanations of a few key equations. This accessible primer is the essential introduction to atmospheric processes and the vital role they play in our climate system.
Categories: Science

The Weather and Climate

The Weather and Climate

Classical turbulence, modern evidence To close the circle, we could mention that
it is. 2.1 Richardson's dreams and the emergence of the laws of turbulence
Complexity or simplicity? 2.1.1 Numerical weather prediction and statistical
theories ...

Author: Shaun Lovejoy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139619769

Category: Science

Page:

View: 571

Advances in nonlinear dynamics, especially modern multifractal cascade models, allow us to investigate the weather and climate at unprecedented levels of accuracy. Using new stochastic modelling and data analysis techniques, this book provides an overview of the nonclassical, multifractal statistics. By generalizing the classical turbulence laws, emergent higher-level laws of atmospheric dynamics are obtained and are empirically validated over time-scales of seconds to decades and length-scales of millimetres to the size of the planet. In generalizing the notion of scale, atmospheric complexity is reduced to a manageable scale-invariant hierarchy of processes, thus providing a new perspective for modelling and understanding the atmosphere. This synthesis of state-of-the-art data and nonlinear dynamics is systematically compared with other analyses and global circulation model outputs. This is an important resource for atmospheric science researchers new to multifractal theory and is also valuable for graduate students in atmospheric dynamics and physics, meteorology, oceanography and climatology.
Categories: Science

Climate Ocean Interaction

Climate Ocean Interaction

In Small-Scale Turbulence and Mixing in the Ocean. J. C. H. Nihoul and B. M.
Jamart (eds.) ... Luek, R. G., W. R. Crawford and T. R. Osborn, 1983: Turbulent
dissipation over the continental slope off Vancouver Island. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,
13 ...

Author: M.E. Schlesinger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400920934

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 624

Preface This book is the culmination of a workshop jointly organized by NATO and CEC on Climate-Ocean Interaction which was held at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford University during 26-30 September 1988. The objective of the ARW was to assess the current status of research on climate-ocean interaction, with a major focus on the development of coupled atmosphere-ocean-ice models and their application in the study of past, present and possible future climates. This book contains 16 chapters divided into four parts: Introduction; Observations of the Climate of the Ocean; Modelling the Atmospheric, Oceanic and Sea Ice Components of the Climatic System; and Simulating the Variability of Climate on Short, Medium and Long Time Scales. A fifth part contains the reports of the five Working Groups on: Climate Observations, Modelling, ENSO Modelling and Prediction, Climate-Ocean Interaction on TIme Scales of Decades to Centuries, and Impact of Paleoclimatic Proxy Data on Climate Modelling. Preface ix Acknowledgements I thank Howard Cattle and Neil Wells for their guidance and assistance as members of the Workshop Organizing Committee. I particularly thank Michael Davey for all his efforts as Local Organizer to make the ARW a success. I also thank the staff of Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford University, for their help with the arrangements for the ARW.
Categories: Science

A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling

A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling

His research focuses on the interactions of atmospheric turbulence and
convection, clouds and climate, and includes observational analyses, cloud-
scale modeling, and climate model development. He teaches classes on weather
, ...

Author: Committee on a National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309259781

Category: Science

Page: 265

View: 207

As climate change has pushed climate patterns outside of historic norms, the need for detailed projections is growing across all sectors, including agriculture, insurance, and emergency preparedness planning. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling emphasizes the needs for climate models to evolve substantially in order to deliver climate projections at the scale and level of detail desired by decision makers, this report finds. Despite much recent progress in developing reliable climate models, there are still efficiencies to be gained across the large and diverse U.S. climate modeling community. Evolving to a more unified climate modeling enterprise-in particular by developing a common software infrastructure shared by all climate researchers and holding an annual climate modeling forum-could help speed progress. Throughout this report, several recommendations and guidelines are outlined to accelerate progress in climate modeling. The U.S. supports several climate models, each conceptually similar but with components assembled with slightly different software and data output standards. If all U.S. climate models employed a single software system, it could simplify testing and migration to new computing hardware, and allow scientists to compare and interchange climate model components, such as land surface or ocean models. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling recommends an annual U.S. climate modeling forum be held to help bring the nation's diverse modeling communities together with the users of climate data. This would provide climate model data users with an opportunity to learn more about the strengths and limitations of models and provide input to modelers on their needs and provide a venue for discussions of priorities for the national modeling enterprise, and bring disparate climate science communities together to design common modeling experiments. In addition, A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling explains that U.S. climate modelers will need to address an expanding breadth of scientific problems while striving to make predictions and projections more accurate. Progress toward this goal can be made through a combination of increasing model resolution, advances in observations, improved model physics, and more complete representations of the Earth system. To address the computing needs of the climate modeling community, the report suggests a two-pronged approach that involves the continued use and upgrading of existing climate-dedicated computing resources at modeling centers, together with research on how to effectively exploit the more complex computer hardware systems expected over the next 10 to 20 years.
Categories: Science

Wind Climate in Cities

Wind Climate in Cities

The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.

Author: Jack E. Cermak

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401736862

Category: Science

Page: 772

View: 500

If one surveys the development of wind engineering, one comes to the conclusion that the challenge of urban climatology is one of the most important remaining tasks for the wind engineers. But what distinguishes wind engineering in urban areas from conventional wind engineering? Principally, the fact that the effects studied are usually unique to a particular situation, requiring consideration of the surroundings of the buildings. In the past, modelling criteria have been developed that make it possible to solve environmental problems with great confidence, and studies validated the models: at least in a neutrally stratified atmosphere. The approach adopted in the book is that of applied fluid mechanics, since this forms the basis for the evaluation of the urban wind field. Variables for air quality or loads are problem specific, or even random, and methods for studying them are based on risk analysis, which is also presented. Criteria are developed for a systematic approach to urban wind engineering problems, including parameter studies. The five sections of the book are: Fundamentals of urban boundary layer and dispersion; Forces on complex structures in built-up areas; Air pollution in cities; Numerical solution techniques; and Posters. A subject index is included.
Categories: Science

Entropy Production of the Earth System

Entropy Production of the Earth System

These expressions show that the Earth's climate system correspond to state of maximum entropy production due to the dissipation of heat from turbulent fluids. This was applied to the long-term mean of the global climate by Garth Paltridge.

Author: Suanne Oh

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:951144462

Category:

Page: 47

View: 892

Thermodynamic aspects of the long-term mean properties of the global climate system and turbulent fluid systems are reviewed. The necessary background material of thermodynamics and the climate system are introduced. General expressions are found for the rate of entropy production for a fluid system undergoing turbulence. These expressions show that the Earth's climate system correspond to state of maximum entropy production due to the dissipation of heat from turbulent fluids. This was applied to the long-term mean of the global climate by Garth Paltridge. The Earth's climate is driven and maintained by radiation exchanges with space. The absorption of solar radiation is the main source of entropy production; however, this appears to be irrelevant to the maximized properties associated with turbulence. The results tend to support the hypothesis of the maximum entropy production that include a large range of nonlinear fluid systems.
Categories:

Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change

Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change

The roughness of the land surface affects the flow of air, which can become very
turbulent near the surface. Since climate models have reached a new generation
of sophistication, the type and scope of variables employed in models have also
 ...

Author: S. George Philander

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 9781452265889

Category: Nature

Page: 1552

View: 646

2008 Best Reference, Library Journal "The impact of global warming is rapidly evolving. This valuable resource provides an excellent historical overview and framework of this topic and serves as a general resource for geography, oceanography, biology, climatology, history, and many other subjects. A useful reference for a wide audience of business professionals and government officials as well as for the general public; essential for both academic and public libraries." —Library Journal "This is a useful set because of the individual country entries as well as the general-audience language . . ." — Booklist (Starred Review) The Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change helps readers learn about the astonishingly intricate processes that make ours the only planet known to be habitable. These three volumes include more than 750 articles that explore major topics related to global warming and climate change—ranging geographically from the North Pole to the South Pole, and thematically from social effects to scientific causes. Key Features Contains a 4-color, 16-page insert that is a comprehensive introduction to the complexities of global warming Includes coverage of the science and history of climate change, the polarizing controversies over climate-change theories, the role of societies, the industrial and economic factors, and the sociological aspects of climate change Emphasizes the importance of the effects, responsibilities, and ethics of climate change Presents contributions from leading scholars and institutional experts in the geosciences Serves as a general resource for geography, oceanography, biology, climatology, history, and many other subjects The Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change provides a primarily nonscientific resource to understanding the complexities of climate change for academic and public libraries. READER'S GUIDE Atmospheric Sciences Climate climate and Society Climate Change, Effects Climate Feedbacks Climate Models Countries: Africa Countries: Americas Countries: Asia Countries: Europe Countries: Pacific Glaciology Government and International Agencies Institutions Studying Climate Change Oceanography Paleo-Climates People Programs And Conventions
Categories: Nature

Boreal Forest and Climate Change

Boreal Forest and Climate Change

The motion of air inside and above canopy is usually turbulent. Unstable thermal
stratification typically generates more turbulence during day and stable
stratification acts to reduce turbulence at night. The strength of energy sources
and sinks ...

Author: Pertti Hari

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402087189

Category: Science

Page: 582

View: 265

The Forest Primary Production Research Group was born in the Department of S- viculture, University of Helsinki in the early 1970s. Intensive ?eld measurements of photosynthesis and growth of forest vegetation and use of dynamic models in the interpretation of the results were characteristic of the research in the group. Electric instrumentation was based on analogue techniques and the analysis of the obtained measurements was based on self-written programs. Joint research projects with the Research Group of Environmental Physics at the Department of Physics, lead by Taisto Raunemaa (1939–2006) started in the late 1970s. The two research groups shared the same quantitative methodology, which made the co-operation fruitful. Since 1980 until the collapse of the Soviet Union the Academy of Finland and the Soviet Academy of Sciences had a co-operation program which included our team. The research groups in Tartu, Estonia, lead by Juhan Ross (1925–2002) and in Petrozawodsk, lead by Leo Kaipiainen (1932–2004) were involved on the Soviet side. We had annual ?eld measuring campaigns in Finland and in Soviet Union and research seminars. The main emphasis was on developing forest growth models. The research of Chernobyl fallout started a new era in the co-operation between forest ecologists and physicists in Helsinki. The importance of material ?uxes was realized and introduced explicitly in the theoretical thinking and measurements.
Categories: Science

Atmosphere and Climate

Atmosphere and Climate

Studies by Occultation Methods Ulrich Foelsche, Gottfried Kirchengast, Andrea
Steiner. Processing X/K Band Radio Occultation Data in Presence of Turbulence:
An Overview M. E. Gorbunov1,2 and G. Kirchengast2 1 Institute of Atmospheric ...

Author: Ulrich Foelsche

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540341215

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 732

This book presents carefully edited and peer-reviewed papers from the 2nd International Workshop on Occultations for Probing Atmosphere and Climate (OPAC-2), held in Graz, Austria. It starts with a general introductory paper and proceeds to address the full range from methodology in general via specific occultation methods (GNSS-LEO, LEO-LEO, stellar and solar) to the use of occultation data, with focus on atmospheric physics, meteorology and climate.
Categories: Science

Proceesings of the Symposium on Climate Rice

Proceesings of the Symposium on Climate   Rice

It was found that the systematic decrease of energy with increasing frequency
agrees with the negative five-third power law of the similarity theory of turbulence.
Figure 6A shows the energy spectra at 1.15 m height (above the canopy) and at ...

Author:

Publisher: IRRI

ISBN: 9789712202414

Category:

Page:

View: 618

Categories:

Potential Climate Change Effects on Great Lakes Hydrodynamics and Water Quality

Potential Climate Change Effects on Great Lakes Hydrodynamics and Water Quality

3.2 MIXED LAYER MODELS In general, there are four approaches to calculating
thermal structure (Niiler and Kraus, 1977): 1) turbulence closure models, 2)
deterministic solutions, 3) eddy diffusion models, and 4) integrated ML models.

Author: David C. L. Lam

Publisher: ASCE Publications

ISBN: 0784474680

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 232

View: 839

This report provides a state-of-the-art review of the climate change effects on lake hydrodynamics and water quality. Most of the engineering cases in this book deal with the ability of existing infrastructure to cope with extreme weather conditions. The case studies are intended to illustrate the advancement in modeling research on lake hydrodynamics, thermal stratification, pollutant transport, and water quality by highlighting the climate change aspects in the application of these techniques. Topics include climate and lake responses, lake thermodynamics, large-scale circulation, wind-waves on large lakes, great lakes ice cover, and water quality.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

The Climate of the Earth

The Climate of the Earth

though the first two or three kilometers of air are extremely turbulent. cT air is
usually a summer phenomenon only. Maritime polar air moving around the
poleward edges of the subtropical high pressure cells is typically cool, moist, and
stable ...

Author: Paul E. Lydolph

Publisher: Government Institutes

ISBN: 0865981191

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 110

To find more information about Rowman and Littlefield titles, please visit www.rowmanlittlefield.com.
Categories: Science

Air Pollution and Turbulence

Air Pollution and Turbulence

... University of Aveiro Aveiro, Portugal Gilberto Fisch Atmospheric Science
Division Institute of Aeronautics and Space São José dos Campos, Brazil Giulia
Gioia National Research Council Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate
Lecce, ...

Author: Davidson Moreira

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439858943

Category: Nature

Page: 354

View: 858

Since its discovery in early 1900, turbulence has been an interesting and complex area of study. Written by international experts, Air Pollution and Turbulence: Modeling and Applications presents advanced techniques for modeling turbulence, with a special focus on air pollution applications, including pollutant dispersion and inverse problems. The
Categories: Nature

Occultations for Probing Atmosphere and Climate

Occultations for Probing Atmosphere and Climate

vertical structures in the upper troposphere and stratosphere could be
advantageously used to detect turbulence patchesatthese altitudes. Gurvich et al.
(2000) computed the spectra of the phase fluctuations between 15 and25km for
aselected ...

Author: Gottfried Kirchengast

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783662090411

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 459

Use of occultation methodology for observing the Earth's atmosphere and climate has become so broad as to comprise solar, lunar, stellar, navigation and satellite crosslink occultation methods. The atmospheric parameters obtained extend from the fundamental variables temperature, density, pressure, water vapor, and ozone via a multitude of trace gas species to particulate species such as aerosols and cloud liquid water. Ionospheric electron density is sensed as well. The methods all share the key properties of self-calibration, high accuracy and vertical resolution, global coverage, and (if using radio signals) all-weather capability. Occultation data are thus of high value in a wide range of fields including climate monitoring and research, atmospheric physics and chemistry, operational meteorology, and other fields such as space weather and planetary science. This wide area of variants and uses of the occultation method has led to a diversi fication of the occultation-related scientific community into a range of different sub-communities, however. The 1st International Workshop on Occultations for Probing Atmosphere and Cli mate-OPAC-1- held September 16-20, 2002, in Graz, Austria, has set in ex actly at this point. OPAC-1 aimed at providing a casual forum and stimulating at mosphere fertilizing scientific discourse, co-operation initiatives, and mutual learning and support amongst members of all the different sub-communities. The workshop was attended by about 80 participants from 17 different countries who actively contributed to a scientific programme of high quality and to an excellent workshop atmosphere, which was judged by the participants to have fully met the aims expressed.
Categories: Science