Genomics of Pattern Recognition Receptors

Genomics of Pattern Recognition Receptors

This book offers comprehensive information on the polymorphisms of genes encoding pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).

Author: Anton G. Kutikhin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783034806886

Category: Science

Page: 185

View: 102

This book offers comprehensive information on the polymorphisms of genes encoding pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Following a short description of the general role of PRRs in the immune system, the structure and function of Toll-like and NOD-like receptors are examined in detail. The main focus is on the role of inherited variation in PRRs and their correlation to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review of all epidemiological investigations is included, and a concept of genomic risk markers for the prevention of various diseases is also discussed.
Categories: Science

Genomics of Pattern Recognition Receptors

Genomics of Pattern Recognition Receptors

This book offers comprehensive information on the polymorphisms of genes encoding pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).

Author: Anton G. Kutikhin

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3034806892

Category: Science

Page: 185

View: 278

This book offers comprehensive information on the polymorphisms of genes encoding pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Following a short description of the general role of PRRs in the immune system, the structure and function of Toll-like and NOD-like receptors are examined in detail. The main focus is on the role of inherited variation in PRRs and their correlation to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. A review of all epidemiological investigations is included, and a concept of genomic risk markers for the prevention of various diseases is also discussed.
Categories: Science

CDNA Sequences of the Caprine Gamma Delta T Cell Hybrid Co receptor and Pathogen Recognition Receptor WC1 Multigene Family

CDNA Sequences of the Caprine Gamma Delta T Cell Hybrid Co receptor and Pathogen Recognition Receptor WC1 Multigene Family

Workshop cluster 1 (WC1) molecules are exclusively expressed on the surface of gamma delta T cells and act as co-receptors and bind pathogens thus also functioning as pattern recognition receptors.

Author: Maria Solangi

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:983470859

Category:

Page:

View: 343

Workshop cluster 1 (WC1) molecules are exclusively expressed on the surface of gamma delta T cells and act as co-receptors and bind pathogens thus also functioning as pattern recognition receptors. The aim was to obtain cDNA evidence to support the recent caprine genome annotation of the WC1 multigene family conducted by a colleague. To get cDNA sequences three strategies were used. Strategy 'I' was used to obtain three clones that corresponded to WC1 SRCR domain d9 through the intracytoplasmic tail sequence. Strategy 'II' was used to obtain 6 clones. A PCR was conducted using SRCR domain b7 through the intracytoplasmic tail sequence. A third strategy obtained full-length WC1 transcripts. The three sequences that extended from SRCR domain d9 to the intracytoplasmic tail matched closely with predicted goat Gene 1 or 14. Another 3 sequences that extended from the SRCR b7 domain through SRCR domain d11 or through the intracytoplasmic tail matched with the predicted Genes 1, 2 and 14, respectively. Two additional full-length cDNA clones CH-MA-03 and 41 were completely sequenced in stages which involved a PCR amplication of the internal domains to complete the sequencing. The a1 domain of CH-MA41 was 100% similar to the annotated and predicted Gene 4 while CH-MA03 also was closest to Gene 4 with a 99% similarity. However, the intracytoplasmic tail sequence of these two cDNA clones was a Type II tail while Gene 4 had a Type I tail. Because of this difference in tails these two cDNA clones had a greater overall similarity with Genes 7 and 15 which had Type II tails. These results suggest that the genome assembly may have errors.
Categories:

Genome Research

Genome Research

LetterWidespread balancing selection and pathogen - driven selection at blood
group antigen genes Matteo Fumagalli , 1 , 2 Rachele ... and no other gene
category shows similar levels of widespread selection , with the only exception of
loci involved in antigen recognition . ... BGA genes belong to different functional
categories , including receptors , transporters , channels , adhesion molecules ,
and ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015072640819

Category: DNA polymerases

Page:

View: 365

Categories: DNA polymerases

Pattern Recognition Receptors Advances in Research and Application 2011 Edition

Pattern Recognition Receptors  Advances in Research and Application  2011 Edition

“Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been identified as pivotal sensors recognizing
microbial pattern molecules in vertebrates. Whole genome analysis of the teleost
Takifugu rubripes supports the existence of a fundamental family of TLR genes in
 ...

Author:

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 9781464927478

Category: Medical

Page: 143

View: 976

Pattern Recognition Receptors: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyBrief™ that delivers timely, authoritative, comprehensive, and specialized information about Pattern Recognition Receptors in a concise format. The editors have built Pattern Recognition Receptors: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Pattern Recognition Receptors in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Pattern Recognition Receptors: Advances in Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Categories: Medical

Syphilis

Syphilis

This book is a collection of chapters presenting the novel knowledge about the T. pallidum and some historical and up to date information about venereal disease and syphilis.

Author: Neuza Satomi Sato

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9789533075549

Category: Medical

Page: 140

View: 501

Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease was first described in 15th century, is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and occurs worldwide. This book is a collection of chapters presenting the novel knowledge about the T. pallidum and some historical and up to date information about venereal disease and syphilis. The collection of articles includes: immunological aspects recognition of T. pallidum by the pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune; the whole genome analysis of treponemes and new targets for its molecular diagnosis; some historical aspects of venereal diseases treatment; natural history of syphilis including clinical manifestation and epidemiology; a clinical aspects dealing with psychiatric manifestations of neurosyphilis; spatial and temporal patterns of primary syphilis and secondary syphilis described by the spatial and space-time scan statistics; a commonly used methods for laboratorial diagnosis, the serological response to treatment of syphilis and safety in blood transfusion. I hope this book will be useful for students and research fellows as well for the wide audience.
Categories: Medical

Genetic Diversity and Genomics of the Immune Response

Genetic Diversity and Genomics of the Immune Response

LPS initiates its biological activities through a heteromeric receptor complex
containing CD14 , TLR4 , and at least one other protein , MD - 2 . LPS binds
directly to CD14 and is crossPattern recognition receptors : Toll PRRs at the cell
linked ...

Author: Daniel E. Geroghty

Publisher:

ISBN: NWU:35557000124972

Category: Genomics

Page: 206

View: 969

Categories: Genomics

Molecular Mechanisms of Foreign RNA Recogntion and Signaling

Molecular Mechanisms of Foreign RNA Recogntion and Signaling

In this book, we highlight our current understanding of RNA sensing by innate receptors and discuss the regulatory mechanisms that normally prevent inappropriate cellular responses.

Author: Farag Bleiblo

Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing

ISBN: 3659352691

Category:

Page: 260

View: 447

Nucleic acids are not only essential genetic elements or being potential therapeutic and research tools, but sensing their molecular signatures is also an important quality control mechanism have evolved to maintain the integrity of human genome. The recent discovery of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and the extensive studies in this field have revealed that certain innate sensors recognize RNAs released from infectious agents or even from human cells to modulate specific signalling pathways. In this book, we highlight our current understanding of RNA sensing by innate receptors and discuss the regulatory mechanisms that normally prevent inappropriate cellular responses. The book features expanded coverage of the latest advances relevant to recognition of RNA by the PKR and the importance of JAK/STAT signaling in these processes. To resolve some issues related to RNA signaling, the book integrates very well formulated hypotheses with a range of basic and new powerful techniques.
Categories:

Molecular Aspects of Plant Pathogen Interaction

Molecular Aspects of Plant Pathogen Interaction

Providing a comprehensive picture of plant-pathogen interaction, the updated information included in this book is valuable for all those involved in crop improvement. The book offers an integrated overview of plant–pathogen interactions.

Author: Archana Singh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789811073717

Category: Science

Page: 351

View: 480

The book offers an integrated overview of plant–pathogen interactions. It discusses all the steps in the pathway, from the microbe–host-cell interface and the plant’s recognition of the microbe to the plant’s defense response and biochemical alterations to achieve tolerance / resistance. It also sheds light on the classes of pathogens (bacteria, fungus and viruses); effector molecules, such as PAMPs; receptor molecules like PRRs and NBS-LRR proteins; signaling components like MAPKs; regulatory molecules, such as phytohormones and miRNA; transcription factors, such as WRKY; defense-related proteins such as PR-proteins; and defensive metabolites like secondary metabolites. In addition, it examines the role of post-genomics, high-throughput technology (transcriptomics and proteomics) in studying pathogen outbreaks causing crop losses in a number of plants. Providing a comprehensive picture of plant-pathogen interaction, the updated information included in this book is valuable for all those involved in crop improvement.
Categories: Science

Nucleic Acid Detection in Anti viral Responses and Autoimmunity

Nucleic Acid Detection in Anti viral Responses and Autoimmunity

However, little is known about the DNA sensors proteins of the ISD pathway. The novel model of Trex1 autoimmunity is used to identify Trex1 interacting proteins that may be involved in ISD sensing.

Author: Rebecca Lynn Brunette

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:875010159

Category:

Page: 129

View: 238

Viruses infect all living organisms. Therefore, hosts evolved extensive means to detect and destroy viral pathogens. Pattern recognition receptors that detect viral RNA or DNA genome are important components of the innate immune response against viruses. In vertebrates, viral nucleic acid is detected by two mechanisms that both result in the production of antiviral type I IFN. The first mechanism involves toll-like receptor detection of non-cell autonomous viral nucleic acid and allows uninfected, specialized innate immune cells to initiate an adaptive immune response to eliminate infection. Second, cell intrinsic receptors allow all infected cells to detect viral infection and induce a type I IFN response. The interferon stimulatory DNA (ISD) pathway specifically detects of viral DNA genomes. Chronic activation of the ISD pathway is the cause of lethal autoimmune disease in Trex1 deficient mice and humans thereby coupling innate immune detection to initiation of autoimmunity. The ISD pathway induces type I IFN by STING-dependent activation of TBK1 and IRF3. However, little is known about the DNA sensors proteins of the ISD pathway. The novel model of Trex1 autoimmunity is used to identify Trex1 interacting proteins that may be involved in ISD sensing. Trex1 is localized to the inner nuclear membrane in addition to the endoplasmic reticulum and interacts with nuclear partners Brd7, Btf3l4, Chaf1a, Pias1, Rfc2 and Sae2. This data implies that negative regulation of the ISD pathway may occur in the nucleus and not the cytoplasm as previously thought. In addition, we identified new members and characterized the 13 members of the AIM2-like receptor (ALR) family of ISD sensors. Shown is the ALR family of nuclear proteins is highly divergent across mammals reflecting each species' unique struggle with specific viral pathogens. Discovered the ALR proteins fit into two functional categories based on their ability to interact with STING and induce type I IFN or interact with ASC to activate the IL-1[beta] inflammasome. Together our data imply nuclear detection of DNA occurs utilizing highly species-specific sensors and provides a functional framework for further study of the ISD sensors.
Categories:

Receptor like Kinases in Plants

Receptor like Kinases in Plants

This volume will focus on the roles of receptor kinases, their signaling pathways, and the ways in which these important signaling proteins are regulated.

Author: Frans Tax

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642230448

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 485

Sequencing projects have revealed the presence of at least several hundred receptor kinases in a typical plant genome. Receptor kinases are therefore the largest family of primary signal transducers in plants, and their abundance suggests an immense signaling network that we have only just begun to uncover. Recent research findings indicate that individual receptor kinases fulfill important roles in growth and development, in the recognition of pathogens and symbionts or, in a few examples, in both growth and defense. This volume will focus on the roles of receptor kinases, their signaling pathways, and the ways in which these important signaling proteins are regulated.
Categories: Science

Genetics Abstracts

Genetics Abstracts

Interest 3334 - G33 Gram - negative Bacterla - binding Protein , a ingly , an
underexpression of HLA - DM transcripts and protein Pattern Recognition
Receptor for Lipopolysaccharide was shown in peripheral blood B cells from RA
patients ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015053938455

Category: Genetics

Page:

View: 257

Categories: Genetics

The Journal of Immunology

The Journal of Immunology

... Christina Bartholdy , Allan R. Thomsen , and Søren R. Paludan2 * Viruses are
recognized by the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (
PRRs ) . For instance , HSV virions and genomic DNA are recognized by TLR2 ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: NWU:35558005704842

Category: Immunology

Page:

View: 950

Categories: Immunology

Encyclopedia of Virology

Encyclopedia of Virology

Pathogenicity see also specific infections Pathogenicity determinants,
avsunviroids 5:339–341 Pathogen-specific molecular patterns (PAMPs) 5.119s ...
reassortment 3:482 PATRIC 5:357t Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) 3:106
apoptosis 1:161 innate immunity 3:107 interferon type I 5.119s virus-mediated
immune evasion 3:108 PAV1 virus 5:421 genome 5:422 virion composition 5:422
PAV strain ...

Author: Brian W. J. Mahy

Publisher:

ISBN: UCR:31210023412586

Category: Virology

Page:

View: 514

Covers biological, molecular, and medical topics concerning viruses in animals, plants, bacteria and insects ... this new ed. has been extensively revised and updated to reflect the 50 % increase in identified and accepted viruses since 2000. Includes information on avian flu, SARS and West Nile and the ability of some viruses to be used as agents of bioterrorism.
Categories: Virology

Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity

Target Pattern Recognition in Innate Immunity

This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and ...

Author: Uday Kishore

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144190901X

Category: Medical

Page: 202

View: 326

Target pattern recognition in innate immunity is responsible for the immediate, usually protective, responses shown against invading microorganisms, and it is the principal feature of self and non-self recognition by virtue of the recognition of structures on the microbial pathogens, which are not found on host cells. This is an area that has been very actively researched, over approximately the past 12 years, and therefore this volume provides a timely comprehensive, and up to date, summary of the types and range of cell surface, intracellular, and secreted, host proteins involved in the recognition of microbial products, and of the protective mechanisms triggered as a result of the recognition events. The Toll-like receptors, first described in Drosophila and now well-characterised on human cells, provide an excellent demonstration of the wide range of different microbial products recognised by this family of receptors and of the signalling pathways which are triggered thus leading to induction of inflammatory cytokines and the activation of genes producing antimicrobial products. In addition, several cell surface proteins involved in target pattern recognition have been described on the surfaces of macrophages (macrophage mannose receptor and macrophage scavenger receptors), and on dendritic cells (DEC205), and to be involved with the uptake and clearance of whole microorganisms and polyanioic ligands. Pattern recognition is also utilised by intracellular receptors, with NOD-like receptors in the cytosol recognizing microbial molecules and activating the production of inflammatory cytokines or pathways that induce the production of inflammatory molecules. Secreted proteins, such as the pentraxins, which includes the acute phase reacting, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid protein (SAP), and the collectins (mannan binding lectin, lung surfactant protein A and D) and ficolins can also readily recruit killing and clearance systems. Indeed, the serum complement system, which is one of the major defence systems in the bloodstream, is efficiently activated by CR P on its binding to the phosphocholine groups of microbial phospholipids—and the subsequent interaction of the bound CR P with C1q—to give classical pathway activation, or MBL, or ficolin, binding to arrays of mannose or N-acetyl-glucosamine residues, respectively, on the surfaces of microorganisms—to give lectin pathway activation. Also, in addition to the activation and clearance events associated with complement activation by some of the secreted pattern recognition receptors, it is accepted that all these pattern recognition receptors can generally accelerate the uptake and clearance of microbes via phagocytic cells. In view of the growing interest in the cross-talk between innate and adaptive immunity, a thorough understanding of the initial recognition and triggering events, mediated via innate immune receptors, as addressed in this volume, is clearly very useful in helping to also fully understand the mechanisms of activation and control of the adaptive immune system—and to allow a full assessment of the relative roles played by innate immunity and adaptive immunity against a particular infection in higher organisms.
Categories: Medical

Gene Structure and Expression Patternof Mouse Toll like Receptor 3

Gene Structure and Expression Patternof Mouse Toll like Receptor 3

Cell activation via Tlr plays a pivotal role in initiation of the immune responses. Ten human and mouse Tlrs (mTlrs) have been cloned. In this study, the organization of the mTlr3 gene was examined.

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:695459822

Category:

Page:

View: 356

In mammals, Toll-like receptors (Tlrs) have been proposed as pattern recognition receptors, since they recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns. Cell activation via Tlr plays a pivotal role in initiation of the immune responses. Ten human and mouse Tlrs (mTlrs) have been cloned. In this study, the organization of the mTlr3 gene was examined. In an attempt to identify potential sites of action, the expression patterns of this gene and other mTlrs were determined, in tissues and lymphocytes at different stages of development, by Northern blot and quantitative PCR. In addition, the role of mTlrs in lymphocyte development was examined by studying by FACS the diverse T and B cell sub-populations in mice lacking functional mTlr2 and/or mTlr4 genes. The genomic structure revealed that mTlr3 has seven exons. Typical of orthologues, hTLR3 and mTlr3 show high homology in their predicted cDNA and protein sequences. The intracellular region of mTlr3 has remarkable homology with the same region of others mTlrs. However, poor homology was found amongst the extracellular domains of mTlrs. mTlr3 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in tissues, being expressed highest in spleen, kidney and lung. mTlr3 mRNA was differentially expressed in the course of T and B cell development. Special attention is drawn to the strikingly high expression of mTlr3 mRNA in marginal zone (Mz) B cells (IgMhighCD23negCD21high) in spleen. This lymphocyte sub-population represents a link between the innate and adaptive immunity. The high levels of mTlr3 expression in Mz B cells perhaps contribute to their ability to clear antigen from the blood. The average proportion of T and B cell sub-sets in primary and secondary organ lymphocytes varied little amongst mice lacking a functional mTlr2 and/or mTlr4 genes, wild type and heterozygous littermates, implying that these genes do not play a role in T nor B cell development. A unique difference was observed in the proportion of Mz B cells in spleen, which was.
Categories:

Toll and Toll Like Receptors

Toll and Toll Like Receptors

The evolution of the TLR genes and theories of immune function are covered in later sections. The remainder of this book presents work from nine groups active in the field.

Author: Tina Rich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387274454

Category: Science

Page: 218

View: 797

Toll Receptors and the Renaissance of Innate Immunity Elizabeth H. Bassett and Tina Rich Overview n the last few pages of Immunology: The Science of Self-Nonself Discrimination Jan Klein ponders on what he would study if he were to start over in the lab. ^ Dismissing the I antibody, MHC, the T-cell and parasitology, he considers instead the phylogeny of immune reactions, particularly in ancient phyla. As for a favored cell he chooses the macrophage. Describ ing it as a ^^MddchenfUr alles," (all purpose kitchen maid) Klein believed that this immunocyte still had secrets to reveal. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) biology would prove to be one of these secrets. Analyses of the evolution of these receptors (Tolls and TLRs) have also helped us to rethink immune system phylogeny. In the first part of this chapter the history of the discovery of Toll and TLR biology is described. The evolution of the TLR genes and theories of immune function are covered in later sections. The remainder of this book presents work from nine groups active in the field. In the first chapter, "The Function of Toll-Like Receptors", Zlatko Dembic sets the stage by introducing us to many of the components of the immune system and their relationships vis a vis Toll receptors. Zlatko finishes his chapter with a discussion about current immune system models and contributes his own 'integrity model'. Work from the laboratory of Nicholas Gay follows this in "Structures and Motifs Involved in Toll Signaling".
Categories: Science

The Innate Immune System

The Innate Immune System

This book fills the gap in knowledge that is needed to fully understand and appreciate the topic.

Author: Tom Monie

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780081007587

Category: Medical

Page: 228

View: 928

The Innate Immune System: A Compositional and Functional Perspective focuses on the components and functionality of the innate immune system, detailing how they work in their own right, and then progressing to cover their relevance to disease and how they interface with the adaptive response. Despite the growing appreciation of the importance of the innate immune system, many classical immunology books still focus predominantly on the adaptive immune response. Not only is this unbalanced, but it fails to reflect the growing synergy between the activation and function of the innate response and the final nature of adaptive response. This book fills the gap in knowledge that is needed to fully understand and appreciate the topic. Provides a clear, but simple picture of the main principle of innate immunity and the interlink with adaptive responses Fulfills an unmet need in the area of innate immunity Gives a constructive and progressive approach to introducing and explaining the key players in the innate immune response Introduces and explains the key players in the innate immune response with a constructive and progressive approach Presents the components of the innate response and shows how these interrelated areas connect with one another from a functional perspective Enables the reader to gradually increase their level of understanding and knowledge without the risk of becoming confused, thereby ensuring they fully comprehend the integrated signaling pathways
Categories: Medical

Syphilis

Syphilis

This book is a collection of chapters presenting the novel knowledge about the T. pallidum and some historical and up to date information about venereal disease and syphilis.

Author: Neuza Satomi Sato

Publisher: IntechOpen

ISBN: 9533075546

Category: Medical

Page: 140

View: 903

Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease was first described in 15th century, is caused by Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum and occurs worldwide. This book is a collection of chapters presenting the novel knowledge about the T. pallidum and some historical and up to date information about venereal disease and syphilis. The collection of articles includes: immunological aspects recognition of T. pallidum by the pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune; the whole genome analysis of treponemes and new targets for its molecular diagnosis; some historical aspects of venereal diseases treatment; natural history of syphilis including clinical manifestation and epidemiology; a clinical aspects dealing with psychiatric manifestations of neurosyphilis; spatial and temporal patterns of primary syphilis and secondary syphilis described by the spatial and space-time scan statistics; a commonly used methods for laboratorial diagnosis, the serological response to treatment of syphilis and safety in blood transfusion. I hope this book will be useful for students and research fellows as well for the wide audience.
Categories: Medical