Grammatical Change and Linguistic Theory

Grammatical Change and Linguistic Theory

3), and (iv) — as examples of the bases of grammar formation — the role played by iconicity and markedness in the origin and transmission of language variation, and hence, indirectly, in change (sec. 4). Along the way, particularly in ...

Author: Thórhallur Eythórsson

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027291578

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 441

View: 253

This book contains 15 revised papers originally presented at a symposium at Rosendal, Norway, under the aegis of The Centre for Advanced Study (CAS) at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. The overall theme of the volume is ‘internal factors in grammatical change.’ The papers focus on fundamental questions in theoretically-based historical linguistics from a broad perspective. Several of the papers relate to grammaticalization in different ways, but are generally critical of ‘Grammaticalization Theory’. Further papers focus on the causes of syntactic change, pinpointing both extra-syntactic (exogenous) causes and – more controversially – internally driven (endogenous) causes. The volume is rounded up by contributions on morphological change ‘by itself.’ A wide range of languages is covered, including Tsova-Tush (Nakh-Dagestan), Zoque, and Athapaskan languages, in addition to Indo-European languages, both the more familiar ones and some less well-studied varieties.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Quantitative Approaches to Grammar and Grammatical Change

Quantitative Approaches to Grammar and Grammatical Change

The Paradox of Grammatical Change. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: Benjamins, 2008, p. 31–56. Firbas, Jan: On the concept of communicative dynamism in the theory of functional sentence perspective. In: Sbornik praci filosoficke fakulty ...

Author: Sam Featherston

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110401929

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 240

View: 784

The newly-emerging field of theoretically informed but simultaneously empirically based syntax is dynamic but little-represented in the literature. This volume addresses this need. While there has previously been something of a gulf between theoretical linguists in the generative tradition and those linguists who work with quantitative data types, this gap is narrowing. In the light of the empirical revolution in the study of syntax, even people whose primary concern is grammatical theory take note of processing effects and attribute certain effects to them. Correspondingly, workers focusing on the surface evidence can relate more to the concepts of the theoreticians, because the two layers of explanation have been brought into contact. And these workers too must account for the data gathered by the theoreticians. An additional innovation is the generative analysis of historical data – this is now seen as psycholinguistic theory-relevant data like any other. These papers are thus a snapshot of some of the work currently being done in evidence-based grammar, using both experimental and historical data.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Paradox of Grammatical Change

The Paradox of Grammatical Change

Recent years have seen intense debates between formal (generative) and functional linguists, particularly with respect to the relation between grammar and usage.

Author: Ulrich Detges

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027248087

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 252

View: 444

Recent years have seen intense debates between formal (generative) and functional linguists, particularly with respect to the relation between grammar and usage. This debate is directly relevant to diachronic linguistics, where one and the same phenomenon of language change can be explained from various theoretical perspectives. In this, a close look at the divergent and/or convergent evolution of a richly documented language family such as Romance promises to be useful. The basic problem for any approach to language change is what Eugenio Coseriu has termed the paradox of change: if synchronically, languages can be viewed as perfectly running systems, then there is no reason why they should change in the first place. And yet, as everyone knows, languages are changing constantly. In nine case studies, a number of renowned scholars of Romance linguistics address the explanation of grammatical change either within a broadly generative or a functional framework.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Change in English World Wide

Grammatical Change in English World Wide

The contributions to this volume apply and extend the techniques of corpus linguistics and diachronic linguistics to the challenge of describing and explaining grammatical change in varieties of English world-wide.

Author: Peter Collins

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing Company

ISBN: 9789027268907

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 488

View: 362

The contributions to this volume apply and extend the techniques of corpus linguistics and diachronic linguistics to the challenge of describing and explaining grammatical change in varieties of English world-wide. The book is divided into two parts, with ten chapters on ‘Inner Circle’ varieties such as Australian, Canadian, and Irish English, and eight on ‘Outer Circle’ varieties such as Philippine, Indian, and Nigerian English. Contributors examine a range of topics including the progressive aspect, modal auxiliaries, do-support, verb morphology, and quotatives, using a wide variety of corpus resources. Overarching research questions addressed include the following: Do diachronic tendencies observed in a particular variety converge with, diverge from, or run in parallel with, those in the parent variety? What are the possible causes of changes observed (e.g. English teaching traditions, Americanisation, internal changes in registers)? This book will appeal to linguists, particularly those interested in grammatical description, corpus linguistics and World Englishes.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Grammaticalization of Verbs Verbs as Sources of Grammatical Change

The Grammaticalization of Verbs  Verbs as Sources of Grammatical Change

Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, Free University of Berlin (Anglistik), language: English, abstract: The famous dictum, “grammars code best ...

Author: Melanie Bobik

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 9783668867321

Category: Literary Collections

Page: 113

View: 702

Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Linguistics, grade: 1,3, Free University of Berlin (Anglistik), language: English, abstract: The famous dictum, “grammars code best what speakers do most” coined by Du Bois, is a central postulate of all discourse-based approaches to grammaticalization (also known as grammaticization, grammatization). It points to the assumption that frequent repetition in discourse plays a crucial role in the development of grammatical forms, and that basicness is an inherent characteristics of most source concepts. There is only a limited number of lexical items likely to be sources for grammaticalization. Since verbs form the core element of every sentence, expressing different conditions such as states, changes and activities, they provide a rich source for grammatical targets. So how do verbs serve as a source of grammatical change? This academic paper gives answers to this question, discussing the grammaticalization of verbs, and how verbs typically evolve into prepositions, aspectual as well as quotative markers, and complementizers. Evidence is taken not only from English, but also from, i.a., Chinese, German, Spanish, French and African languages.
Categories: Literary Collections

Change in Contemporary English

Change in Contemporary English

Based on the systematic analysis of large amounts of computer-readable text, this book shows how the English language has been changing in the recent past, and discusses the linguistic and social factors that are contributing to this ...

Author: Geoffrey Leech

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521867221

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 341

View: 406

Based on the systematic analysis of large amounts of computer-readable text, this book shows how the English language has been changing in the recent past, and discusses the linguistic and social factors that are contributing to this process.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Handbook of Grammatical Evolution

Handbook of Grammatical Evolution

Change can occur, depending on the grammar change to the production choice are shown in Table 2. The dependency introduced by the current rule sets the input in a context where the position of the integer value is important, ...

Author: Conor Ryan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319787176

Category: Computers

Page: 497

View: 362

This handbook offers a comprehensive treatise on Grammatical Evolution (GE), a grammar-based Evolutionary Algorithm that employs a function to map binary strings into higher-level structures such as programs. GE's simplicity and modular nature make it a very flexible tool. Since its introduction almost twenty years ago, researchers have applied it to a vast range of problem domains, including financial modelling, parallel programming and genetics. Similarly, much work has been conducted to exploit and understand the nature of its mapping scheme, triggering additional research on everything from different grammars to alternative mappers to initialization. The book first introduces GE to the novice, providing a thorough description of GE along with historical key advances. Two sections follow, each composed of chapters from international leading researchers in the field. The first section concentrates on analysis of GE and its operation, giving valuable insight into set up and deployment. The second section consists of seven chapters describing radically different applications of GE. The contributions in this volume are beneficial to both novices and experts alike, as they detail the results and researcher experiences of applying GE to large scale and difficult problems. Topics include: • Grammar design • Bias in GE • Mapping in GE • Theory of disruption in GE · Structured GE · Geometric semantic GE · GE and semantics · Multi- and Many-core heterogeneous parallel GE · Comparing methods to creating constants in GE · Financial modelling with GE · Synthesis of parallel programs on multi-cores · Design, architecture and engineering with GE · Computational creativity and GE · GE in the prediction of glucose for diabetes · GE approaches to bioinformatics and system genomics · GE with coevolutionary algorithms in cybersecurity · Evolving behaviour trees with GE for platform games · Business analytics and GE for the prediction of patient recruitment in multicentre clinical trials
Categories: Computers

Language Contact and Grammatical Change

Language Contact and Grammatical Change

The book will be of great interest to all working in grammaticalization, language contact, and language change.

Author: Bernd Heine

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521845742

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 328

View: 422

The phenomenon of language contact, and how it affects the structure of languages, has been of great interest to linguists in recent years. This pioneering new study looks at how grammatical forms and structures evolve when speakers of two languages come into contact, and offers insight into the mechanism that induces people to transfer grammatical structures from one language to another. The book will be of great interest to all working in grammaticalization, language contact, and language change.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Change

Grammatical Change

This volume comprises a collection of papers on the theme of grammatical change that evolved out of a workshop sponsored by the Centre for Research on Language Change (The Australian National University).

Author: Rachel Hendery

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822036570166

Category: Generative grammar

Page: 201

View: 778

This volume comprises a collection of papers on the theme of grammatical change that evolved out of a workshop sponsored by the Centre for Research on Language Change (The Australian National University). The papers extend the boundaries of what has been addressed under the label of 'grammatical change' by applying theories and models of grammatical change to new evidence; by illuminating the historical relationships between grammar and other levels of linguistics; and by extending the range of languages that have been examined from the perspective of grammatical change. Languages discussed include Murriny Patha, Walpiri, Gurindji, Walmajarri, and Kayardild, Lardil, Yukulta, English, Dutch, German, Afrikaans, French, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Serbo-Croatian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Slovenian, Albanian, Greek, Old Church Slavonic, Tocharian, Mandarin, Cantonese, Quechua, Basque, and Tok Pisin
Categories: Generative grammar

Grammatical Change

Grammatical Change

This book advances research on grammatical change and shows the breadth and liveliness of the field.

Author: Dianne Jonas

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191617935

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page:

View: 477

This book advances research on grammatical change and shows the breadth and liveliness of the field. Leading international scholars report and reflect on the latest research into the nature and outcomes of all aspects of syntactic change including grammaticalization, variation, complementation, syntactic movement, determiner-phrase syntax, pronominal systems, case systems, negation, and alignment. The authors deploy a variety of generative frameworks, including minimalist and optimality theoretic, and bring these to bear on a wide range of languages: among the latter are typologically distinct examples from Germanic, Romance, Slavic, Greek, Korean and Japanese, Austronesian, Celtic, and Nahuatl. They draw on sociolinguistic evidence where appropriate. Taken as a whole, the volume provides a stimulating overview of key current issues in the investigation of the origins, nature, and outcome of syntactic change.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact

Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact

It is clear that grammaticalisation and grammatical change of various kinds has taken place in many cases, and that sometimes changes of meaning of the borrowed item must have occurred quite some time after speakers of the recipient ...

Author: Björn Wiemer

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110271973

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 684

View: 833

The volume presents new insights into two basic theoretical issues hotly debated in recent work on grammaticalization and language contact: grammatical replication and grammatical borrowability. The key issues are: How can grammatical replication be distinguished from other, superficially similar processes of contact-induced linguistic change, and under what conditions does it take place? Are there grammatical morphemes or constructions that are more easily borrowed than others, and how can language contact account for areal biases in the borrowing (vs. calquing) of grammatical formatives? The book is a major contribution to the ongoing theoretical discussion concerning the relationship between grammaticalization and language contact on a broad empirical basis.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Challenging Change

Challenging Change

Contact-induced grammatical change, i.e. replication, is very common, and some structures are more likely to be replicated, as shown in (5). The future tense is one of them and they are indeed often replicated.

Author: Biljana Mišić Ilić

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 9781443839525

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 350

View: 237

This book, Challenging Change: Literary and Linguistic Responses, is a collection of twenty-three articles which examine change – understood in the broadest sense – as the need of the modern man to redefine, revise, deconstruct and reconstruct previous theories, histories, moralities, social relationships, forms of language and language use. In these times of great change, when the only constant seems to be change itself, the authors of these essays respond to the challenge and approach the notion of change from the perspectives of literary studies and linguistics. The book opens with an introductory overview, followed by twenty-three articles divided into two sections. The authors of the articles come from Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, the United States, Canada, Japan, and Norway.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Rhythmic Grammar

Rhythmic Grammar

This groundbreaking book highlights a phonological preference, the Principle of Rhythmic Alternation, as a factor in grammatical variation and change in English from the early modern period to the present.

Author: Julia Schlüter

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110219265

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 404

View: 263

This groundbreaking book highlights a phonological preference, the Principle of Rhythmic Alternation, as a factor in grammatical variation and change in English from the early modern period to the present. Though frequently overlooked in earlier research, the phonetically motivated avoidance of adjacent stresses is shown to exert an influence on a wide variety of phenomena in morphology and syntax. Based on in-depth analyses of extensive electronic databases, the book presents 20 exemplary studies from different structural categories. Among them are much-debated as well as novel issues, including the double comparative worser, 'predicative only' a- adjectives, variant past participles, the placement of the degree modifier quite, the order of conjuncts in binomials, the negation of attributive adjectives and sentence adverbs, variable adverbial marking, the use or omission of the infinitive marker, and the a- prefix before - ing forms. The studies provide qualitative and quantitative evidence of the importance of rhythmic alternation in synchronic variation as well as diachronic change, without neglecting interactions with a set of competing functional tendencies. Thus, the book contributes essential aspects to the description and explanation of the phenomena considered, calling for a fundamental revision of current thinking about the interface between phonology and morphosyntax. In addition, the empirical findings are brought to bear on theoretical discussions of more general interest, yielding a critical assessment of the merits and limitations of two nonmodular linguistic theories: Optimality Theory and spreading activation models. The latter type is developed into a comprehensive conception integrating functional factors such as the Principle of Rhythmic Alternation in an overarching framework for language variation and change. The wide range of subject areas covered makes the volume essential reading and a source of inspiration for linguists with interests as diverse as the phonology-morphosyntax interface, English grammar, the history of English, functional linguistics, Optimality Theory, as well as neuro- and psycholinguistics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Gender

Grammatical Gender

In conclusion, it can be said that social and political upheavals do not initiate linguistic change. ... the language mainly of uneducated people the Norman Conquest made it easier for grammatical changes to go forward unchecked”.

Author: Muhammad Hasan Ibrahim

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110905397

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 113

View: 519

Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Research Methods in Language Variation and Change

Research Methods in Language Variation and Change

A drop in the frequency of upon in written material, for example, could be a reflection of a late stage in the grammatical change, with the new form 'arriving' in formal registers. Or it could be a case of style change on the text and ...

Author: Manfred Krug

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107469846

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 480

View: 530

Methodological know-how has become one of the key qualifications in contemporary linguistics, which has a strong empirical focus. Containing 23 chapters, each devoted to a different research method, this volume brings together the expertise and insight of a range of established practitioners. The chapters are arranged in three parts, devoted to three different stages of empirical research: data collection, analysis and evaluation. In addition to detailed step-by-step introductions and illustrative case studies focusing on variation and change in English, each chapter addresses the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology and concludes with suggestions for further reading. This systematic, state-of-the-art survey is ideal for both novice researchers and professionals interested in extending their methodological repertoires. The book also has a companion website which provides readers with further information, links, resources, demonstrations, exercises and case studies related to each chapter.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Constituent Order in Functional Grammar

Constituent Order in Functional Grammar

Consequently , there seems little hope of arriving at a deductive - nomological theory of change as favoured by Lass ( 1980 ) ... which may plausibly be regarded as having contributed to the aetiology of grammatical changes in English .

Author: John H. Connolly

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311013389X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 206

View: 883

Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Complexity in Academic English

Grammatical Complexity in Academic English

This work establishes that academic writing is structurally compressed (rather than elaborated); that it is often not explicit in the expression of meaning; and that scientific academic writing has been the locus of some of the most ...

Author: Douglas Biber

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316462409

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page:

View: 447

Grammatical Complexity in Academic English uses corpus-based analyses to challenge a number of dominant stereotypes and assumptions within linguistics. Biber and Gray tackle the nature of grammatical complexity, demonstrating that embedded phrasal structures are as important as embedded dependent clauses. The authors also overturn ingrained assumptions about linguistic change, showing that grammatical change occurs in writing as well as speech. This work establishes that academic writing is structurally compressed (rather than elaborated); that it is often not explicit in the expression of meaning; and that scientific academic writing has been the locus of some of the most important grammatical changes in English over the past 200 years (rather than being conservative and resistant to change). Supported throughout with textual evidence, this work is essential reading for discourse analysts, sociolinguists, applied linguists, as well as descriptive linguists and historical linguists.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Connecting Grammaticalisation

Connecting Grammaticalisation

The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms.

Author: Jens Nørgård-Sørensen

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027284136

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 347

View: 425

This monograph presents a view on grammaticalisation radically different from standard views centering around the cline of grammaticality. Grammar is seen as a complex sign system, and, as a consequence, grammatical change always comprises semantic change. What unites morphology, topology (word order), constructional syntax and other grammatical subsystems is their paradigmatic organisation. The traditional concept of an inflexional paradigm is generalised as the structuring principle of grammar. Grammatical change involves paradigmatic restructuring, and in the process of grammatical change morphological, topological and constructional paradigms often connect to form complex paradigms. The book introduces the concept of connecting grammaticalisation to describe the formation, restructuring and dismantling of such complex paradigms. Drawing primarily on data from Germanic, Romance and Slavic languages, the book offers both a broad general discussion of theoretical issues (part one) and three case studies (part two).
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Grammatical Change in Indo European Languages

Grammatical Change in Indo European Languages

The product of a group of scholars who have been working on new directions in Historical Linguistics, this book is focused on questions of grammatical change, and the central issue of grammaticalization in Indo-European languages.

Author: Vít Bubeník

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027248213

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 262

View: 611

The product of a group of scholars who have been working on new directions in Historical Linguistics, this book is focused on questions of grammatical change, and the central issue of grammaticalization in Indo-European languages. Several studies examine particular problems in specific languages, but often with implications for the IE phylum as a whole. Given the historical scope of the data (over a period of four millennia) long range grammatical changes such as the development of gender differences, strategies of definiteness, the prepositional phrase, or of the syntax of the verbal diathesis and aspect, are also treated. The shifting relevance of morphology to syntax, and syntax to morphology, a central motif of this research, has provoked lively debate in the discipline of Historical Linguistics.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

An Old English Grammar

An Old English Grammar

Grammatical change . Those verbs whose present stem ends in a surd spirant regularly experience grammatical change in the 3d and 4th stem : céosan , céas , curon , coren ( 384 ) ; líðan , láð , lidon , liden ( 382 ) ; téon , téah ...

Author: Eduard Sievers

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015011497065

Category: English language

Page: 273

View: 199

Categories: English language