This book describes how the three subfields known as strong lensing, weak lensing, and microlensing have grown independently but become increasingly intertwined.

Author: Arthur B. Congdon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030021221

Category: Science

Page: 287

View: 192

This textbook provides an introduction to gravitational lensing, which has become an invaluable tool in modern astrophysics, with applications that range from finding planets orbiting distant stars to understanding how dark matter and dark energy conspired to form the cosmic structures we see today. Principles of Gravitational Lensing begins with Einstein’s prediction that gravity bends light, and shows how that fundamental idea has spawned a rich field of study over the past century. The gravitational deflection of light was first detected by Eddington during a solar eclipse in May 1919, launching Einstein and his theory of relativity into public view. Yet the possibility of using the phenomenon to unlock mysteries of the Universe seemed remote, given the technology of the day. Theoretical work was carried out sporadically over the next six decades, but only with the discovery of the system Q0957+561 in 1979 was gravitational lensing transformed from a curiosity of general relativity into a practical observational tool. This book describes how the three subfields known as strong lensing, weak lensing, and microlensing have grown independently but become increasingly intertwined. Drawing on their research experience, Congdon and Keeton begin with the basic physics of light bending, then present the mathematical foundations of gravitational lensing, building up to current research topics in a clear and systematic way. Relevant background material from physics and mathematics is included, making the book self-contained. The derivations and explanations are supplemented by exercises designed to help students master the theoretical concepts as well as the methods that drive current research. An extensive bibliography guides those wishing to delve more deeply into particular areas of interest. Principles of Gravitational Lensing is ideal for advanced students and seasoned researchers looking to penetrate this thriving subject and even contribute research of their own.

3.1.3 Spacetime Geometry for Gravitational Lensing The spacetime geometry for gravitational lensing is introduced as a perturbation of a Friedmann universe by a “weak field” spacetime. Spacetime ...

Author: Arlie O. Petters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461201458

Category: Science

Page: 603

View: 584

This monograph is the first to develop a mathematical theory of gravitational lensing. The theory applies to any finite number of deflector planes and highlights the distinctions between single and multiple plane lensing. Introductory material in Parts I and II present historical highlights and the astrophysical aspects of the subject. Part III employs the ideas and results of singularity theory to put gravitational lensing on a rigorous mathematical foundation.

... study gravitational lensing with a plasma medium [41]. The earlier works [38,39] are restricted within the spherical symmetry. Ono et al. have extended the Gauss–Bonnet method with the optical metric to axisymmetric spacetimes [42].

Author: Marcus C.Werner

Publisher: MDPI

ISBN: 9783039432868

Category: Mathematics

Page: 128

View: 804

The year 2019 saw the centenary of Eddington's eclipse expeditions and the corroboration of Einstein's general relativity by gravitational lensing. To mark the occasion, a Special Issue of Universe has been dedicated to the theoretical aspects of strong gravitational lensing. The articles assembled in this volume contain original research and reviews and apply a variety of mathematical techniques that have been developed to study this effect, both in 3-space and in spacetime. These include: · Mathematical properties of the standard thin lens approximation, in particular caustics; · Optical geometry, the Gauss–Bonnet method and related approaches; · Lensing in the spacetime of general relativity and modified theories; black hole shadows.

Source 1 Plane of lens Caustic Caustic m A narrow conical bundle of rays is emitted by the source on the left. In the case illustrated here, the gravitational lens has two distinct caustic surfaces (for a more complete 3-D view of the ...

Author: Hans C. Ohanian

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107012943

Category: Science

Page: 545

View: 904

This text provides a quantitative introduction to general relativity for advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

As was already mentioned, the main motivation for investigating gravitational lensing in a spacetime setting without the weak-field small-angle approximation comes from observations: There are observational situations, accessible with ...

Contrary to the case of the flat Minkowski spacetime of Special Relativity, in the presence of a gravitational field there exist however no coordinates for which the metric can be reduced globally to the Minkowski form and hence in this ...

Author: Silvia Mollerach

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814489355

Category: Science

Page: 204

View: 841

This book provides a comprehensive and self-contained exposition of gravitational lensing phenomena. It presents the up-to-date status of gravitational lensing and microlensing, covering the cosmological applications of the observed lensing by galaxies, clusters and the large scale structures, as well as the microlensing searches in the Local Group and its applications to unveil the nature of the galactic dark matter, the search for planetary objects and the distribution of faint stars in our galaxy. Gravitational Lensing and Microlensing is pitched at the level of the graduate student interested in the issues of astrophysics and cosmology, and should be useful for specialist researchers as well. Contents:Historical IntroductionThe Deflection of LightGravitational Lensing TheoryMacrolensing ResultsMicrolensing I: BasicsMicrolensing II: Beyond the Simplest Light CurveCosmology Tools Readership: Graduate students, researchers and academics in astrophysics, astronomy and cosmology. Keywords:Gravitational Lensing;Microlensing;Deflection of Light;MacrolensingReviews:“… here one can find a complete overview of all the recent revolutionary developments of gravitational lensing, with a fully self-consistent treatment of microlensing. The quality and number of didactic illustrations is high … I think that this book should not be missing in scientific libraries that are to be updated on gravitational lensing. It also provides a useful support tool for basic gravitational lensing courses. Finally it can be recommended to researchers who want a rapid overview of the field, without getting swamped into too many details.”General Relativity and Gravitation

At present a time delay of 514 days has been measured in one gravitational lens system, the double quasar 0957-#561,” and has been generally attributed to the intrinsic lens delay. For time delay measurements in gravitational lenses to ...

Author: Letelier Patricio S

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814552172

Category:

Page: 604

View: 646

Experimental Techniques in High-Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics is a compilation of outstanding technical papers and reviews of the ingenious methods developed for experimentation in modern nuclear and particle physics. This book, a second edition, provides a balanced view of the major tools and technical concepts currently in use, and elucidates the basic principles that underly the detection devices. Several of the articles in this volume have never been published, or have appeared in relatively inaccessible journals. Although the emphasis is on charged-particle tracking and calorimetry, general reviews of ionization detectors and Monte Carlo techniques are also included.This book serves as a compact source of reference for graduate students and experimenters in the fields of nuclear and particle physics, seeking information on some of the major ideas and techniques developed for modern experiments in these fields.

The quantization of spacetime and the resultant wave-like nature attributable to movement through that medium may have been the actual mechanism behind the gravitational lensing as predicted by Relativity Theory and subsequently ...

Author: David Bratina

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN: 9781458311337

Category: Science

Page:

View: 869

The extent of quantum variation from our own preconceptions regarding time and space remains uncertain. While many fault the complexity of quantum phenomena for the lack of advancement, it may well be that the real answers to quantum behavior require an insight into specific quantum distinctions that have so far eluded us. There does exist, however, a particular distinction common to nearly all quantum peculiarities...that being an apparent indifference to anthropomorphic concepts of time. This treatise will proffer that distinction as a mechanism to explain many of the bizarre quantum characteristics that have evaded our science for over a century. Classically inexplicable phenomena such as the double-slit experiment, relativistic mass, and even a theoretical construct that unifies gravitation will be considered under a time indifferent approach to otherwise inexplicable quantum behaviors.

4.2 below we use the Morse index theorem to develop a full Morse theory for light rays joining a point and a timelike curve in a globally hyperbolic spacetime and we discuss applications to gravitational lensing.

Author: Bernd G. Schmidt

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540465805

Category: Mathematics

Page: 433

View: 537

This book serves two purposes. The authors present important aspects of modern research on the mathematical structure of Einstein's field equations and they show how to extract their physical content from them by mathematically exact methods. The essays are devoted to exact solutions and to the Cauchy problem of the field equations as well as to post-Newtonian approximations that have direct physical implications. Further topics concern quantum gravity and optics in gravitational fields. The book addresses researchers in relativity and differential geometry but can also be used as additional reading material for graduate students.

Gravitational. Lensing. To a good approximation we can assume the bending of light to take place only in the neighbourhood of a massive body. The impact parameter and the closest distance are nearly the same. We can then approximate the ...

Author: Pankaj Sharan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764399719

Category: Science

Page: 355

View: 510

This is an introductory book on the general theory of relativity based partly on lectures given to students of M.Sc. Physics at my university. The book is divided into three parts. The ?rst part is a preliminary course on general relativity with minimum preparation. The second part builds the ma- ematical background and the third part deals with topics where mathematics developed in the second part is needed. The ?rst chapter gives a general background and introduction. This is f- lowed by an introduction to curvature through Gauss’ Theorema Egregium. This theorem expresses the curvature of a two-dimensional surface in terms of intrinsic quantitiesrelatedtothein?nitesimaldistancefunctiononthesurface.Thestudent isintroducedtothemetrictensor,Christo?elsymbolsandRiemanncurvaturet- sor by elementary methods in the familiar and visualizable case of two dimensions. This early introduction to geometric quantities equips a student to learn simpler topics in general relativity like the Newtonian limit, red shift, the Schwarzschild solution, precession of the perihelion and bending of light in a gravitational ?eld. Part II (chapters 5 to 10) is an introduction to Riemannian geometry as - quired by general relativity. This is done from the beginning, starting with vectors and tensors. I believe that students of physics grasp physical concepts better if they are not shaky about the mathematics involved.