Hubble s Universe

Hubble s Universe

One of the leading lights in this dramatic change in astronomers ' image of the
Universe was the American observer Edwin Hubble , who showed not only that
the Universe is much bigger than previous generations had thought , but that it is
 ...

Author: Simon Goodwin

Publisher: Studio

ISBN: UOM:49015002474840

Category: Science

Page: 127

View: 769

A gallery of the most significant photographs of space as taken by the Hubble telescope explains what Hubble's achievements can tell us about the universe, its origins, and its future. Astronomy Bk Club, Lib of Science Bk Club, & Natural Science Bk Club.
Categories: Science

The Pervasive Hubble Expansion of the Universe

The Pervasive Hubble Expansion of the Universe

By equation (I.1) each expanding coordinate point remains coincident with a fluid
element of R. The galaxies of the universe which follow Hubble's law are at rest
relative to the contiguous expanding coordinates, x*(t)'s. Velocities relative to the
 ...

Author: Leif Rongved

Publisher: Dorrance Publishing

ISBN: 9781434991713

Category: Science

Page: 56

View: 681

Categories: Science

Edwin Hubble The Discoverer of the Big Bang Universe

Edwin Hubble  The Discoverer of the Big Bang Universe

believe that the red - shift is caused by the expansion of the universe . Ageing of
quanta would be different in different spectral ranges and would produce blurring
of the images of distant galaxies and other phenomena which are not observed ...

Author: Alexander S. Sharov

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521416175

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 187

View: 520

This book is the first complete account of the scientific life and work of Edwin Hubble, whose discoveries firmly established the United States as the leading nation in observational astronomy. One of the outstanding astronomers of the twentieth century, Hubble discovered the expansion of the Universe. He opened the world of galaxies for science when he showed that spiral nebulae beyond the Milky Way are galaxies extending to the limits of the Universe, and participating in a general expansion of the cosmos. The exploding Universe of Hubble, now termed the Big Bang, determined the origin of the elements, of galaxies and of the stars. The second part of the book describes the fundamental discoveries on the nature of the Universe made subsequently, and thus sets his achievements in context. Written by two prominent astronomers who have built on Hubble's work, this book is a classic of science, setting out the thrilling story of the exploding Universe.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

The Origins of the Universe for Dummies

The Origins of the Universe for Dummies

Expanding. Hubble's. vision. of. the. universe. For most astronomers, coming up
with one flash of inspiration during their professional lives would be enough, but
not Hubble. His most far-reaching discoveries were still to come. Hubble's ...

Author: Stephen Pincock

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119998198

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 658

Do you want to learn about the physical origin of the Universe, but don’t have the rest of eternity to read up on it? Do you want to know what scientists know about where you and your planet came from, but without the science blinding you? ‘Course you do – and who better than For Dummies to tackle the biggest, strangest and most wonderful question there is! The Origins of the Universe For Dummies covers: Early ideas about our universe Modern cosmology Big Bang theory Dark matter and gravity Galaxies and solar systems Life on earth Finding life elsewhere The Universe’s forecast
Categories: Science

The Farthest Things in the Universe

The Farthest Things in the Universe

Indeed , from the rate the Universe is expanding ( as measured by Hubble's
constant , for example ) , we can figure out how fast the Universe would be
contracting , and when it would all be together at infinite density . Thus we can
calculate the ...

Author: Jay M. Pasachoff

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521469317

Category: Science

Page: 104

View: 193

This book, first published in 1994, examines the excitement and challenge of studying the most distant and powerful objects.
Categories: Science

Hubble and the Big Bang

Hubble and the Big Bang

... decreases and the wavelength increases , making the light appear toward the
red end of the spectrum , called redshift ( red wavelengths are the longer
wavelengths of the spectrum ) . Knowing that the universe is expanding , Hubble
was ...

Author: Paul Kupperberg

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN: 1404203079

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 64

View: 188

Presents the life of the American astronomer, discussing his childhood and education, his discoveries about distant galaxies and the expansion of the universe, and his contribution to the big bang theory.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

The Glass Universe

The Glass Universe

Rather than situate the variables within the nebula, as Hubble claimed, Shapley
allowed only that they lay in that ... Shapley had never much liked Hubble. ...
Indeed, Hubble's Cepheids populated the cosmos with multiple "island universes
.

Author: Dava Sobel

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9780698148697

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 478

New from #1 New York Times bestselling author Dava Sobel, the "inspiring" (People), little-known true story of women's landmark contributions to astronomy "A joy to read.” —The Wall Street Journal Named one of the best books of the year by NPR, The Economist, Smithsonian, Nature, and NPR's Science Friday Nominated for the PEN/E.O. Wilson Literary Science Writing Award In the mid-nineteenth century, the Harvard College Observatory began employing women as calculators, or “human computers,” to interpret the observations their male counterparts made via telescope each night. At the outset this group included the wives, sisters, and daughters of the resident astronomers, but soon the female corps included graduates of the new women's colleges—Vassar, Wellesley, and Smith. As photography transformed the practice of astronomy, the ladies turned from computation to studying the stars captured nightly on glass photographic plates. The “glass universe” of half a million plates that Harvard amassed over the ensuing decades—through the generous support of Mrs. Anna Palmer Draper, the widow of a pioneer in stellar photography—enabled the women to make extraordinary discoveries that attracted worldwide acclaim. They helped discern what stars were made of, divided the stars into meaningful categories for further research, and found a way to measure distances across space by starlight. Their ranks included Williamina Fleming, a Scottish woman originally hired as a maid who went on to identify ten novae and more than three hundred variable stars; Annie Jump Cannon, who designed a stellar classification system that was adopted by astronomers the world over and is still in use; and Dr. Cecilia Helena Payne, who in 1956 became the first ever woman professor of astronomy at Harvard—and Harvard’s first female department chair. Elegantly written and enriched by excerpts from letters, diaries, and memoirs, The Glass Universe is the hidden history of the women whose contributions to the burgeoning field of astronomy forever changed our understanding of the stars and our place in the universe.
Categories: Science

The Extravagant Universe

The Extravagant Universe

If everyone sees the same universe we do, just from different locations, that's
sufficient to make Hubble's law into a recipe for an expanding universe. Start with
one dimension—a long, stretchy rubber band. If you glue a little button on the ...

Author: Robert P. Kirshner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691173184

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 541

The Extravagant Universe tells the story of a remarkable adventure of scientific discovery. One of the world's leading astronomers, Robert Kirshner, takes readers inside a lively research team on the quest that led them to an extraordinary cosmological discovery: the expansion of the universe is accelerating under the influence of a dark energy that makes space itself expand. In addition to sharing the story of this exciting discovery, Kirshner also brings the science up-to-date in a new epilogue. He explains how the idea of an accelerating universe--once a daring interpretation of sketchy data--is now the standard assumption in cosmology today. This measurement of dark energy--a quality of space itself that causes cosmic acceleration--points to a gaping hole in our understanding of fundamental physics. In 1917, Einstein proposed the "cosmological constant" to explain a static universe. When observations proved that the universe was expanding, he cast this early form of dark energy aside. But recent observations described first-hand in this book show that the cosmological constant--or something just like it--dominates the universe's mass and energy budget and determines its fate and shape. Warned by Einstein's blunder, and contradicted by the initial results of a competing research team, Kirshner and his colleagues were reluctant to accept their own result. But, convinced by evidence built on their hard-earned understanding of exploding stars, they announced their conclusion that the universe is accelerating in February 1998. Other lines of inquiry and parallel supernova research now support a new synthesis of a cosmos dominated by dark energy but also containing several forms of dark matter. We live in an extravagant universe with a surprising number of essential ingredients: the real universe we measure is not the simplest one we could imagine.
Categories: Science

A Journey through the Universe

A Journey through the Universe

Hubble & Humason (1931) Hubble's data (1929) 1000 500 0 20,000 15,000
10,000 5000 0 1 2 10 20 30 R ... Distance (Mpc) 10 km Start 20 km 10 km 20 km
After 1 hour Figure 19.6 A schematic of an expanding one-dimensional universe.

Author: Ian Morison

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107073463

Category: Science

Page: 365

View: 787

A comprehensive, up-to-date survey of our knowledge of the Universe beyond Earth, for general readers and astronomy enthusiasts.
Categories: Science

The Creation of the Universe

The Creation of the Universe

Such “galactic counts” have been made by Hubble, who found, in contradiction to
the conclusions we reached in the previous section, that the space of the
universe is curving in, and very fast indeed. However, Hubble's result depends
entirely ...

Author: George Gamow

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486165486

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 497

Lively and authoritative, this survey by a renowned physicist explains the formation of the galaxies and defines the concept of an ever-expanding universe in simple terms. 1961 edition. 40 figures.
Categories: Science

Masters of the Universe

Masters of the Universe

Interview conducted at Hubble's house on Woodstock Road, San Marino,
California, on 8 December 1951. Language: English. In 1942 I attained United
States citizenship, and the following year I was requested to join a development
project at ...

Author: Helge Kragh

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198722892

Category: Science

Page: 285

View: 745

Masters of the Universe tells the fascinating story of how our modern picture of the universe came into being. It uses an unusual format - a series of fictitious interviews with leading astronomers and physicists of the time, including giants such as Albert Einstein, Edwin Hubble, and George Gamow. The interviews are the product of the author's imagination, but are solidly based on historical facts and supplemented with careful annotations and referencesto the literature. By following the interviews the reader gets a lively and "almost authentic" impression of the problems that faced this early generation of cosmologists. They will learn not only about thebasic content of these new cosmological ideas, but also about their contexts and the times in which they were discussed.
Categories: Science

Violent Phenomena in the Universe

Violent Phenomena in the Universe

Here H is a constant known as Hubble's constant. It measures the increase in the
recession velocity v per unit distance. Hubble's original estimate in 1929 was that
the velocity increases by about 160 km per second for every million light years ...

Author: Jayant V. Narlikar

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486152318

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 149

Acclaimed by Nature as "excellent and uncompromising," this reader-friendly book explores exploding stars, black holes, and the Big Bang. Clear and lively, it conveys the excitement of modern cosmology. 1982 edition.
Categories: Science

Chasing Hubble s Shadows

Chasing Hubble s Shadows

In order to understand what are the earliest building blocks of galaxies like our
own, one must detect and identify “first light” sources, i.e., emission from the first
objects in the Universe to undergo star formation. —Nino Panagia, “Detecting ...

Author: Jeff Kanipe

Publisher: Hill and Wang

ISBN: 9780374707224

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 242

Chasing Hubble's Shadows is an account of the continuing efforts of astronomers to probe the outermost limits of the observable universe. The book derives its title from something the great American astronomer Edwin Hubble once wrote: "Eventually, we reach the dim boundary—the utmost limits of our telescopes. There, we measure shadows, and we search among ghostly errors of measurement for landmarks that are scarcely more substantial." The quest for Hubble's "shadows"—those unimaginably distant, wispy traces of stars and galaxies that formed within the first few hundred million years after the Big Bang—takes us back, in effect, to the beginning of time as we are able to perceive it, when the first discrete stellar objects appeared out of what has lately come to be known as the "cosmic dark age." The information that is being gleaned from these dim sources—chiefly with the aid of Hubble's namesake, the Hubble Space Telescope—promises to yield clues to many cosmic puzzles, including the nature of the mysterious "dark energy" that is now believed to pervade all of space.
Categories: Science

Gravity Black Holes and the Very Early Universe

Gravity  Black Holes  and the Very Early Universe

It was many years after Hubble's discovery that a reliable Big Bang theory was
developed. The main reason for this was that the physics of the processes going
on at the high energies involved at the early stages of the universe was not
known ...

Author: Tai L. Chow

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387736310

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 415

Here it is, in a nutshell: the history of one genius’s most crucial work – discoveries that were to change the face of modern physics. In the early 1900s, Albert Einstein formulated two theories that would forever change the landscape of physics: the Special Theory of Relativity and the General Theory of Relativity. Respected American academic Professor Tai Chow tells us the story of these discoveries. He details the basic ideas of Einstein, including his law of gravitation. Deftly employing his inimitable writing style, he goes on to explain the physics behind black holes, weaving into his account an explanation of the structure of the universe and the science of cosmology.
Categories: Science

The Universe

The Universe

An improved Cepheid period-luminosity relationship accounts for much of the
dierence between the current estimate and Hubble's.) Within a few years of this
pathbreaking research, Hubble decided to tackle one of the outstanding puzzles
 ...

Author: Erik Gregersen Associate Editor, Astronomy and Space Exploration

Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc

ISBN: 9781615300266

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 224

View: 304

Outlines the history of astronomy, from the earliest conceptions of the universe to the Copernican revolution, profiles famous astronomers, and discusses recent contributions to the field.
Categories: Juvenile Nonfiction

Our Universe Infinite and Eternal

Our Universe Infinite and Eternal

This data and the Hubble line fits to it are the reality to which we give our greatest
attention. Fit of the Infinite Closed Universe to Hubble Line In the 1970's,
Sandage plotted a series of Hubble diagrams using the brightest galaxy in a
galaxy ...

Author: Barry Bruce

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 9781612331607

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 831

The field equations of Einstein's General Relativity are solved for an infinite universe with uniform density. One of the three solutions, the Infinite Universe of Einstein and Newton, fits all the data for the Hubble diagram better than the Big Bang. Next, using general relativity and the physics that evolved from Newton, the force of gravity between two massive point particles is found. Utilizing this force and the Infinite Universe of Einstein and Newton model, the net force of gravity on a point particle in arbitrary motion, due the uniform mass distribution of the universe, is calculated by integration. This net force of gravity is found to be equal to the Force of Inertia. These calculations explain Newton's First Law, Newton's Second Law, and the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass. The middle of the book deals with the development of quantum mechanics. Here it is shown that hidden within the classical mechanics of particles there is the phase of a wave, associated with a particle, that moves at the speed of a de Broglie wave. The form of the phase of the wave is developed. Making use of the form of the phase, the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for a particle is setup to be solved using an integrating factor. The resulting equation is manipulated directly into the form of the Schrodinger equation. This development requires that the particle Hamilton-Jacobi equation has a solution whenever the Schrodinger equation has a solution and vice versa. The classical wave function is then shown to have exactly the same mathematical properties as the quantum mechanical wave function, including the fact that the absolute value squared of the classical wave function has the mathematical properties of a probability density. However, the interpretation that this is a probability density for the particle is shown not to hold. Lastly, the missing matter problem is resolved by showing that the dynamics and the mass of a spiral galaxy are better and more naturally explained by using ordinary physics with ordinary interacting matter than they are by postulating and using exotic weakly interacting dark matter.
Categories: Science

Through the Eyes of Hubble

Through the Eyes of Hubble

The Space Telescope is named after Edwin P. Hubble (1889-1953), the greatest
observational astronomer of the 20th century. In 1923 Hubble became the first
astronomer to prove that there were other galaxies in the universe besides our ...

Author: R Naeye

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0750304847

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 929

Robert Naeye is renowned for his lucid contributions to Astronomy, the world's biggest selling astronomy magazine. In Through the Eyes of Hubble: The Birth, Life and Violent Death of Stars, he uses 100 striking color images from the Hubble Space Telescope to illuminate the mind-stretching story of how stars are born, live, and die. Although focusing on astrophysics, the account is compelling, equation free, and accessible to everyone. In addition, there are eight beautiful paintings to appreciate, including works by the most famous living space artist, Michael Carroll.
Categories: Science

The Infinite Universe of Einstein and Newton

The Infinite Universe of Einstein and Newton

Could it be, I wondered, that possibly people wanted so badly the data to ̄t
Hubble's Law that unconsciously they had taken it in a manner that gave them
what they wanted? It just didn't seem reasonable that with any such collective
wish it ...

Author: Barry Bruce

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1581124104

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 116

View: 342

After developing his Law of Gravitation, Newton came to believe that the Universe was infinite and homogeneous on a large scale. Einstein's original intuition was similar to Newton's in that he thought our Universe was static, infinite, isotropic and homogeneous. The field equations of Einstein's general relativity are solved for this universe. One of the three solutions found, the "infinite closed universe", traps light within a finite portion of the universe. This infinite closed universe model is shown to fit all the data of the Hubble diagram better than the Big Bang, and it fits the recent supernova data without having to postulate mysterious dark energy. Using general relativity and the physics which evolved from Newton, the author finds the force of gravity between two point particles. Utilizing this force and the infinite closed universe model, the net force of gravity on a point particle, in arbitrary motion, due to the uniform mass distribution of the universe is calculated by an integration. This net force of gravity is found to be equal to the force of inertia. These calculations explain Newton's First Law, Newton's Second Law, and the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass. In addition, by the extension of Einstein's general relativity to two-body interactions Newton's Third Law is elicited. These results show that the cosmological redshift and the physics that we know are likely the result of the uniform mass distribution of our infinite closed universe and gravity alone.
Categories: Biography & Autobiography

Introduction to Cosmology

Introduction to Cosmology

1.4 Hubble's Law In the 1920s Hubble measured the spectra of 18 spiral galaxies
with a reasonably well - known ... The message of Hubble's law is that the
Universe is expanding , and this general expansion is called the Hubble flow .

Author: Matts Roos

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047084910X

Category: Science

Page: 279

View: 351

Only an elementary knowledge of physics is required for this textbook which takes a non-mathematical approach to this interdisciplinary subject. This edition reflects recent significant advances in the field.
Categories: Science