With its wide breadth of data and analysis, this volume will be valuable for both scholars and students of this seemingly intractable social, legal, and political problem.
Author: Caterina Gouvis Roman
Publisher: Lexington Books
Have the nations of the world begun to converge with respect to drug policy? Which countries have remained apart from the international dialogue? Which have taken steps to forge new, more liberal policies stressing education, treatment, and alternative community-based intervention? Focusing specifically on cannabis, cocaine, and heroin, Illicit Drug Policies, Trafficking, and Use the World Over presents a brief history and analysis of the current laws and policies regarding illicit drugs_widely considered to be a growing international health threat_in twenty five different countries. With its wide breadth of data and analysis, this volume will be valuable for both scholars and students of this seemingly intractable social, legal, and political problem.
Costa Rica created its first drug laws in 1923, and by 1927 had established a national board to monitor narcotics. Beginning in 1927, the sale, ... Illicit Drug Policies, Trafficking, and Use the World Over. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, ...
Guided by a critical perspective and drawing on his own crosscultural research in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean, Singer analyzes drug-related developmental challenges around the world and assesses the impact of licit and illicit ...
Author: Merrill Singer
Publisher: Waveland Press
Category: Political Science
In a globalized world, people, ideas, organizations, and commoditiesincluding drugsflow rapidly from place to place and are tied together through the market, advanced communication systems, and rapid transportation technologies. Drug distribution and use both reflect and reinforce an exploitive political economy that has connected the West with developing nations since the rise of capitalism. Singers fast-moving, authoritative treatment examines the impact of legal and illegal drug distribution and use on relations among richer and poorer nations, in particular their influence on social and economic development in the Third World. Guided by a critical perspective and drawing on his own crosscultural research in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean, Singer analyzes drug-related developmental challenges around the world and assesses the impact of licit and illicit drug use, drug trafficking, the War on Drugs, and drug-related health consequences like HIV/AIDS.
Drug Policy and the Public Good is an objective analytical basis on which to build global drug policies. It presents the accumulated scientific knowledge on drug use in relation to policy development on a national and international level.
Author: Thomas Babor
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Illegal psychoactive substances and illicit prescription drugs are currently used on a daily basis all over the world. Affecting public health and social welfare, illicit drug use is linked to disease, disability, and social problems. Faced with an increase in usage, national and global policymakers are turning to addiction science for guidance on how to create evidence-based drug policy. Drug Policy and the Public Good is an objective analytical basis on which to build global drug policies. It presents the accumulated scientific knowledge on drug use in relation to policy development on a national and international level. By also revealing new epidemiological data on the global dimensions of drug misuse, it questions existing regulations and highlights the growing need for evidence-based, realistic, and coordinated drug policy. A critical review of cumulative scientific evidence, Drug Policy and the Public Good discusses four areas of drug policy; primary prevention programs in schools and other settings; supply reduction programs, including legal enforcement and drug interdiction; treatment interventions and harm reduction approaches; and control of the legal market through prescription drug regimes. In addition, it analyses the current state of global drug policy, and advocates improvements in the drafting of public health policy. Drug Policy and the Public Good is a global source of information and inspiration for policymakers involved in public health and social welfare. Presenting new research on illicit and prescription drug use, it is also an essential tool for academics, and a significant contribution to the translation of addiction research into effective drug policy.
This book uncovers the myths, the root causes, and the many drug-related events and delivers the urgently needed hope that much can be achieved under a new drug paradigm.
Author: Sergio Ferragut
A Silent Nightmare explores the issues surrounding illicit drugs and new drug policy options. America has struggled against illicit drugs for decades; however, drug use and abuse continue to weight heavily on the shoulders of our youth, crime associated with illicit drugs has increased dramatically, and drug traffickers and their stealth friends in the business world continue to grow richer. This book uncovers the myths, the root causes, and the many drug-related events and delivers the urgently needed hope that much can be achieved under a new drug paradigm. It is the author's intention to shed light on a new path leading towards a more rational, coherent and humane drug policy. He joins many distinguished personalities, including the late Milton Friedman, Economics Nobel Prize winner, William F. Buckley, Jr., founder of the National Review, and Walter Cronkite, award-winning journalist, who have raised their voices calling for an overhaul of the current failed drug policy.
This volume is built around the idea that drug control policy largely reflects the society in which it is found.
Author: Harold H. Traver
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Category: Social Science
Drug addiction and the illegal drug trade are recognized today as major international problems. Efforts to control trafficking and coordinate enforcement policy have until now met with only limited success. Although world opinion, led by the United States, has generally favored hard-line measures, some countries, such as Denmark and the Netherlands, strenuously resist them, while others, primarily poor Asian and South American countries, remain economically dependent on the demand for illicit drugs. Drugs, Law, and the State focuses on the conflicting cultural values and historical traditions that continue to thwart combined attempts among nations to impeded the flow of drugs. This volume is built around the idea that drug control policy largely reflects the society in which it is found. The authors analyze contrasting national policies through theories that emphasize the role of ideology, legitimacy, and history. This cultural orientation opens up new areas of research not often addressed by conventional criminology. Instead of asking why some people use illegal drugs while others do not, several chapters ask why and in what societies drug use is defined as a crime. Drugs, Law, and the State is composed of three sections. The first, âDrug Control Policy and the State,â uses the examples of Denmark, Spain, and Finland to analyze drug control policy in relation to the state as a defined interest group. Part Two, âThe Political Economy of Drugs,â considers the political-economic nexus of the drug trade primarily in Asia, and surveys the role of organized crime from an international perspective. The concluding section, âFuture Directions,â examines the current status of drug control policy in the United States and provides a set of alternative proposals in the direction of decriminalization. Drugs, Law, and the State offers original thinking and practical approaches to a multidimensional world problem. It will be of interest to policymakers, political scientists, sociologists, and law enforcement officials.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: A, Stanford University, language: English, abstract: Sultanate of Oman is a country dedicated to drug trafficking control.
Author: Francis Marete
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Category: Political Science
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: A, Stanford University, language: English, abstract: Sultanate of Oman is a country dedicated to drug trafficking control. In connection to this, the country believes that drug trafficking is an international challenge to all the societies all over the world. Therefore, it cannot be controlled in one country rather requires a collective effort nationally and internationally. Sultanate of Oman has, therefore, subscribed to the international, federal anti-drug initiative that has two major elements, including, reducing the demand for the drugs, and reducing the supply of the drugs (Craft & Howlett 2012). The biggest challenge in trying to control drug trafficking in the whole world is rising demand that is being experienced and locating the main drug traffickers, who at times are linked top officials of the government, since decisions has to be made on the best approach to be used (Nooraie 2008). This makes it even harder for the government to accomplish the primary goal of reducing the supply of illicit drugs flowing into the country. In its effort to hold the customs of the people in the country and trying to adhere to the human rights, the government of the Sultanate of Oman is unable to completely eliminate drug trafficking in the country. According to Focardi & Jonas (2008), the supporting goal that will ensure that drug trafficking is minimal is to reduce the amount of all the illicit drugs cultivated, consumed and processed in the worldwide.
In this timely work, specialists from government, academia, and the private sector debate recent U.S. foreign drug policy - its origins, its elements, its implementation, and its prospects for success.
Author: Raphael Perl
Publisher: Westview Press
Category: Political Science
Controlling illegal trafficking in narcotics is a complex challenge. Dilemmas for policy-makers abound. Despite new measures adopted by the international community that have led to tactical victories, the flow of illicit drugs into the United States continues largely unabated, and worldwide production of opium, marijuana, and coca continues to grow dramatically. In this timely work, specialists from government, academia, and the private sector debate recent U.S. foreign drug policy - its origins, its elements, its implementation, and its prospects for success. Serious conflicts between U.S. international narcotics policy and U.S. foreign policy contribute to the dilemmas inherent in curbing global drug trafficking: Interdicting drugs interrupts the free flow of goods, people, and wealth across international borders. International political and economic instabilities, especially political breakups and ethnic strife in former police states, complicate U.S. foreign drug policy. Because U.S. antidrug goals can bring political disruption and economic loss to countries where narcotics production is economically and socially entrenched, the United States must cooperate with an international antinarcotics coalition of producer, transit, and consumer nations, operating within the context of their perspectives and priorities while trying to achieve competing U.S. foreign policy goals.
Author: National Research CouncilPublish On: 2011-11-15
Illicit Drug Policies, Trafficking, and Use the World Over. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Romano, C., C. Miracco, and E.M. Difonzo. 1998. Skin and nail infections due to Fusarium oxysporum in Tuscany, Italy. Mycoses 41(9-10):433-437.
Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Technology & Engineering
The control of illicit-drug trafficking and drug use is a difficult and complex process that involves a variety of prevention, control, treatment, and law enforcement strategies. Eradication strategies for controlling illicit-drug crops are used to target the beginning of the drug-supply chain by preventing or reducing crop yields. Mycoherbicides have been proposed as an eradication tool to supplement the current methods of herbicide spraying, mechanical removal, and manual destruction of illicit-drug crops. Some people regard them as preferable to chemical herbicides for controlling illicit-drug crops because of their purported specificity to only one plant species or a few closely related species. As living microorganisms, they have the potential to provide long-term control if they can persist in the environment and affect later plantings. Research on mycoherbicides against illicit-drug crops has focused on three pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cannabis for cannabis (Cannabis sativa), F. oxysporum f.sp. erythroxyli for coca (Erythroxylum coca and E. novogranatense), and Crivellia papaveracea or Brachycladium papaveris (formerly known as Pleospora papaveracea and Dendryphion penicillatum, respectively) for opium poppy (Papaver somniferum). Feasibility of Using Mycoherbicides for Controlling Illicit Drug Crops addresses issues about the potential use of the proposed mycoherbicides: their effectiveness in eradicating their target plants; the feasibility of their large-scale industrial manufacture and delivery; their potential spread and persistence in the environment; their pathogenicity and toxicity to nontarget organisms, including other plants, fungi, animals, and humans; their potential for mutation and resulting effects on target plants and nontarget organisms; and research and development needs. On the basis of its review, the report concludes that the available data are insufficient to determine the effectiveness of the specific fungi proposed as mycoherbicides to combat illicit-drug crops or to determine their potential effects on nontarget plants, microorganisms, animals, humans, or the environment. However, the committee offers an assessment of what can and cannot be determined at the present time regarding each of the issues raised in the statement of task.
The case for an increased tax on alcohol in South Africa. South African Journal of Economics, 71(2):265–81. Roman, C.G., Ahn-Redding, H. & Simon, R.J. (2005). Illicit Drug Policies, Trafficking and Use the World Over.
Author: George Ellis
Publisher: Juta and Company (Pty) Ltd
Substance abuse is an enormous social problem in South Africa, as elsewhere. But in South Africa in particular, tik (crystal meth, or methamphetamine) and alcohol are devastating society, aggravating poverty and crime, and contributing to child abuse and gender violence. Substance Use and Abuse in South Africa has arisen out of the thriving Brain-Behaviour Initiative (BBI) at the University of Cape Town, which relates neuroscience and behavioural science to social issues. This ground-breaking book looks at the problem of substance abuse from multiple perspectives and particularly in the light of recent discoveries in brain and behavioural science, but also takes a public health view. Its focus ranges from brain imaging and dopaminergic neurocircuitry to policy and prevention, and is written by local researchers at the cutting edge.