From Emperors to Shahs to Ayatollahs, Hashim's revealing book explores how Iran has sought to defend itself and project power.
Author: Ahmed S. Hashim
Publisher: Hurst & Company
Category: Political Science
This book traces the long history of Iran's wars, and the evolution of the Islamic Republic's military trajectory since 1979. Ahmed Hashim draws on Farsi, Arabic and European sources to explore Iran's efforts to create modern armed forces, the devastating Iran-Iraq War (1980-8), and Tehran's evolving fighting capabilities in Syria and Iraq. This analysis offers clues as to how Iran may fare--directly or by proxy--in future confrontations with its enemies, including the US and Israel. Above all, Iranian Ways of War addresses how Iran fights, and why. It offers a corrective to prevailing narratives about its bellicose character and alleged mischief-making throughout the Middle East and beyond. Hashim unpacks with nuance Iran's milestone agreement to curb its nuclear weapons development, within the context of an unstable regional environment that is full of myriad enemies and complicating historical factors affecting Iranian decision-makers' psyches. A long history of confrontation with America, and the feeling of perceived victimhood as a Shia entity in an overwhelmingly Sunni Middle East, have primed Iran for war.
After the Persian Gulf War, the problems encountered by the United States and UN in verifying that Iraqnolonger had weapons ofmass destruction only served to reinforceIran's conviction thatitneededsuch weapons to ensure itsown ...
Author: Lawrence Sondhaus
A much-needed survey and synopsis of literature on strategic culture and ways of war. It clearly shows how national strategies and approaches to warfare are, to a significant extent, culturally determined. The concept of national ‘ways of war’ dates from the 1930s, when Basil H. Liddell Hart theorized that there was a ‘British Way in Warfare’. The concept of "strategic culture" dates from the 1970s, when Jack Snyder introduced it to explain why leaders of the Soviet Union did not behave according to rational choice theory. These ideas have gained wide acceptance among historians of international politics and warfare, and remain controversial for political scientists seeking general or universal theoretical understanding of such subjects. Because political scientists have focused on strategic culture and historians on ways of war, this work will greatly benefit both audiences and provide each with valuable exposure to the ideas of the other.
This book is a fascinating critical examination of the characteristics and development of the armed forces in Iran, their role under the Shah and their re-creation in the war against Iraq as the fighting forces of Islam.
Author: Sepehr Zabir
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
This book is a fascinating critical examination of the characteristics and development of the armed forces in Iran, their role under the Shah and their re-creation in the war against Iraq as the fighting forces of Islam. The author examines the contradictory accounts, including the Shah’s own Answer to History, as well as newly available accounts by highly placed ex-officials, and interviews with exiled army officers. He examines in detail the apparent shift of allegiance within the forces from the Shah to Imam and the ways in which this was accomplished. Major Iranian offensives, changing strategies from human wave assault to the Tankers War, and the delicate balance between the regular Army and the Revolutionary Guards, are also extensively examined. The book concludes with an analysis of the potential role of the armed forces in a succession crisis.
An Israeli attack could have started a long confrontation with Iran, with frequent mutual attacks, perhaps once a week or once a month. It would have been a war of attrition, obviously a painful and disturbing situation for Israel, ...
Author: Ehud Eilam
Israel has fought many wars since its founding in 1948, from conventional military conflicts with Arab forces to irregular clashes with guerrilla and terror groups. A study of these confrontations reveals strategic and military patterns. Written by a former member of the Israel Defense Forces, this book compares the wars fought in Lebanon against the Palestine Liberation Organization (1982) and against Hezbollah (2006), and in the Gaza Strip (1956, 1967, 2008–2009 and 2014). The author draws similarities between Israel and Western nations—mainly the United States and Britain—in their waging of conventional and irregular warfare, and offers a comparison of the Vietnam War to Israel’s struggle with Hezbollah in the 1990s.
The answers to these questions are based on the findings drawn from a hypothetical--but not unrealistic--expert-level crisis simulation of a potential confrontation between the United States and Iran in 2017 and from historical cases ...
Author: J. Matthew McInnis
Category: Crisis management
Iran’s military capabilities and perceptions of its threat environment can and will change. In thinking through a post-JCPOA world—with loosened arms embargoes and realigned political realities—the United States needs to consider more deeply how and why Iran would use military force. This report attempts to answer some essential questions about how the Islamic Republic views the nature of war: how it starts, escalates, ends, and is prevented in the first place. The answers to these questions are based on the findings drawn from a hypothetical—but not unrealistic—expert-level crisis simulation of a potential confrontation between the United States and Iran in 2017 and from historical cases studies of major conventional and unconventional Iranian military actions since the Iran-Iraq War.
In "The Longest War," Dilip Hiro describes the causes and courses of the Iran-Iraq military conflict and its effect on the two antagonists, as well as the rest of the world.
Author: Dilip Hiro
In "The Longest War," Dilip Hiro describes the causes and courses of the Iran-Iraq military conflict and its effect on the two antagonists, as well as the rest of the world. He reveals the intricate twists and turns of international diplomacy and the "realpolitik" behind the rhetoric, providing a comprehensive and admirably balanced account of the political and military aspects of the "longest war."
The role of the U.S. in the region and how U.S. policy has affected the two states are also considered. This book provides a basis for understanding the background of a tumultuous relationship that is entering a new era.
Author: L. Potter
Category: Social Science
Iraq and Iran are the two most important states in the Gulf region, given their population size, military strength, and the potential threat they pose to other states in the region. This book enhances our understanding of the troubled relationship between Iran and Iraq, placing it in historical context, examining the rapid deterioration leading to the eight-year war that started in 1980 and the effects of that trauma, and exploring the ongoing issues that currently bedevil bilateral relations. The authors cover such central issues as how each side has sought to use opposition groups in the other state to weaken it, ethnic divisions, the role of outside states (especially the United States), and a fascinating account of how the war affected a generation of Iraqis and Iranians. The role of the U.S. in the region and how U.S. policy has affected the two states are also considered. This book provides a basis for understanding the background of a tumultuous relationship that is entering a new era.
The iraq-iran War proved that the iraqi military could fight to at least a stalemate, and the iraqi military had defended against multiple offensives by the iranian Army for eight years while being dispersed across a much larger ...
Author: Brian D. Laslie
Publisher: University Press of Kentucky
On December 18, 1972, more than one hundred U.S. B-52 bombers flew over North Vietnam to initiate Operation Linebacker II. During the next eleven days, sixteen of these planes were shot down and another four suffered heavy damage. These losses soon proved so devastating that Strategic Air Command was ordered to halt the bombing. The U.S. Air Force's poor performance in this and other operations during Vietnam was partly due to the fact that they had trained their pilots according to methods devised during World War II and the Korean War, when strategic bombers attacking targets were expected to take heavy losses. Warfare had changed by the 1960s, but the USAF had not adapted. Between 1972 and 1991, however, the Air Force dramatically changed its doctrines and began to overhaul the way it trained pilots through the introduction of a groundbreaking new training program called "Red Flag." In The Air Force Way of War, Brian D. Laslie examines the revolution in pilot instruction that Red Flag brought about after Vietnam. The program's new instruction methods were dubbed "realistic" because they prepared pilots for real-life situations better than the simple cockpit simulations of the past, and students gained proficiency on primary and secondary missions instead of superficially training for numerous possible scenarios. In addition to discussing the program's methods, Laslie analyzes the way its graduates actually functioned in combat during the 1980s and '90s in places such as Grenada, Panama, Libya, and Iraq. Military historians have traditionally emphasized the primacy of technological developments during this period and have overlooked the vital importance of advances in training, but Laslie's unprecedented study of Red Flag addresses this oversight through its examination of the seminal program.
Pierre Razoux offers an unflinching look at a conflict seared into the region’s collective memory but little understood in the West.
Author: Pierre Razoux
Publisher: Harvard University Press
From 1980 to 1988 Iran and Iraq fought the longest conventional war of the century. It included tragic slaughter of child soldiers, use of chemical weapons, striking of civilian shipping, and destruction of cities. Pierre Razoux offers an unflinching look at a conflict seared into the region’s collective memory but little understood in the West.