Charles Raven's biography of the seventeenth-century English naturalist John Ray is one of the great works in the history of science.
Author: Charles E. Raven
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Charles Raven's biography of the seventeenth-century English naturalist John Ray is one of the great works in the history of science. The author's command of Latin (the language in which all Ray's biological works were written) and his enthusiasm for natural history enabled him to interpret superbly to the modern reader John Ray's remarkable scientific work and to rescue Ray's reputation from undeserved neglect. Raven reveals the unique influence Ray had on the development of modern science and in particular explains sympathetically the key role of Ray's last, most popular and most influential work, The Wisdom of God, which was the forerunner of the great 'Darwinian' controversies between science and religion in the nineteenth century.
[ The following notice of a recent visit to the tomb of John Ray , at Black Notley , will not perhaps be without interest to the readers of this volume . CC PILGRIMAGE TO THE TOMB OF JOHN RAY , THE NATURALIST , AT BLACK NOTLEY .
Features a brief biography of the English naturalist John Ray (1627-1705), presented by the Museum of Paleontology at the University of California at Berkeley. Discusses his theories concerning theology and nature.
NOT E. [ The following notice of a recent visit to the tomb of John Ray , at Black Notley , will not perhaps be without interest to the readers of this volume . “ PILGRIMAGE TO THE TOMB OF JOHN RAY , THE NATURALIST , AT BLACK NOTLEY .
Providing not only a word-for word transcription of the Book of Games, this volume also contains a host of interpretative material to complement the original data.
Author: David Cram
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Francis Willughby's Book of Games, published here for the first time, is a remarkable work and an invaluable resource for anyone with an interest in early modern social history. Dating from the 1660s, it was left unfinished when the writer died in 1672 at the age of 36. Nevertheless, Willughby's manuscript, even in its unpolished form is a goldmine of detail providing a snapshot of mid seventeenth century life, language and culture. The manuscript itself lists a wide variety of sports, games and pastimes, including football, hurling, card games, tennis and children's games. As well as providing rules and a description of the various games (often with accompanying sketches to explain particular points) there are numerous fascinating snippets of related information (such as the care of fighting cocks), that bring the subject to life, whilst the section on children's games is particularly poignant. Besides the intrinsic interest of the subject matter, the fact that Willughby embarked on the project from a scientific perspective adds to the value of the book. Willughby had been admitted to the Royal Society in 1661 and for a number of years prior to that had been collaborating with the naturalist John Ray. It is clear that Willughby's Book of Games was highly influenced by his scientific pursuits and was an extension of his natural history work, utilising the same skills of systematic observation, description and classification. Providing not only a word-for word transcription of the Book of Games, this volume also contains a host of interpretative material to complement the original data. As well as a biography of Willughby and a detailed description of his manuscript, a substantial glossary of games and obsolete terms is provided, together with a bibliography of Willughby's literary remains and more general reference works. Taken together, this publication provides an unparalleled resource for scholars of early modern England.
This book includes a complete translation from the Latin of the work together with the rare appendices to the Catalogue, published in 1663 and 1685, translated for the first time.
Author: John Ray
John Ray is considered the outstanding British natural historian of the 17th century. His first publication, A catalogue of plants growing around Cambridge (1660) is famous as the first British County Flora. It is a complex work, not only a botanical catalogue but also has “for the benefit of beginners” indexes of English names and of places (with lists of the rarer species of 12 areas in the county) together with chapters on the meanings of plant names and of botanical terms (hitherto untranslated). Ray’s abilities as an all-round naturalist are apparent from the numerous observations and digressions in the text. This book includes a complete translation from the Latin of the work together with the rare appendices to the Catalogue, published in 1663 and 1685, translated for the first time. The editorial commentary on the text is included in nearly 2000 footnotes which outline problems of translation, discuss the identity of some of Ray’s more problematic species, identify his cited and some of his uncited sources and detail the treatment in his later works of some of the plant variants (such as colour forms) that he regarded as species in 1660. The translation is preceded by introductory chapters which use unpublished manuscripts and recently published studies to present a new account of Ray’s time in the University of Cambridge and the possible roles of his collaborators. The work’s structure and sources are analysed, biographical portraits of the botanists cited by Ray provided together with a discussion of the problems of equating his names to modern taxa. The book ends with a vocabulary of the epithets in Ray’s Latin plant names, a gazetteer and a bibliography. As Professor Oliver Rackham comments in his foreword, other editions and commentaries on the ‘Cambridge Catalogue’ exist “but none does justice to its complexity, its discursiveness, its allusiveness, the circumstances of its writing, its vast bibliography or Ray’s other works associated with it as appendices or supplements”. Ewen and Lewis’ 1975 translation was limited to the text considered relevant to a ‘modern reader’ and excluded, for example, the chapters on technical terms and on etymology preventing a full assessment of Ray’s work. The authors both live in Cambridge and are Honorary Members of the Botanical Society of the British Isles and graduates of the University of Cambridge. Philip Oswald has a degree in Classics and Theology and Chris Preston a doctorate in Botany, thus combining John Ray’s principal interests.
Since the time of William Turner (c 1508-1568) the figure of the parson-naturalist has been conspicuous int he English Church and in English science.
Author: Patrick Armstrong
Publisher: Gracewing Publishing
Since the time of William Turner (c 1508-1568) the figure of the parson-naturalist has been conspicuous int he English Church and in English science. Clergy have made a formidable contribution to natural history in England. Gilbert White (1720-1793), the author of The Natural History of Selborne, is perhaps the best known of this distinguished company, but other notables include John Ray (1627-1705) with whom, it has been said, "the adventure of modern science begins." The brightness of the reputation of these individuals should not blind us to that great host of other luminaries who have made English natural history what it is today. There have been botanists and ornithologists, geologists and entomologists; clerical naturalists have included specialists on mollusks, sponges, fish, orchids, seaweeds and lichens.
Preface T HE publication of Canon Raven's John Ray , Naturalist by the Cambridge University Press in 1942 must have opened the eyes of many besides myself to the extraordinary qualities and endearing character of that remarkable man .
Author: Geoffrey Keynes
Category: Natural history
Entries contain physical description of the work, including a detailed description of illustrations, and a list of holding libraries. Contains facsimilies of title pages and several portraits of John Ray.
Raven, Charles E. John Ray, naturalist; his life and works. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950. ... Ray, John. 'An Account of the Dissection of a Porpess, ... having therein observ'd some things omitted by Rondeletius'.
Author: Tim Birkhead
Francis Willughby transformed the study of natural history in the mid-1600s. Using previously unexplored archives and new discoveries we show that Willughby was a polymath, a true virtuoso, who made original contributions to many different fields of endeavor.
Ray, John, Further Correspondence of John Ray, ed. R.W.T. Gunther, Ray Society Publication 114, London, 1928. (Cited as FC.) BIOGRAPHICAL WORKS CONSULTED Arber, Agnes, 'A seventeenth century naturalist, John Ray', Isis, 34: 319–24.
Author: John Considine
Category: Literary Criticism
Three major developments in English lexicography took place during the seventeenth century: the emergence of the first free standing monolingual English dictionaries; the making of new kinds of English lexicons that investigated dialect or etymology or that keyed English to invented 'philosophical' languages; and the massive expansion of bilingual lexicography, which not only placed English alongside the European vernaculars but also handled the languages of the new world. The essays in this volume discuss not only the internal history of lexicography but also its wider relationships with culture and society.
John Ray's The wisdom of God in the creation ( 1691 ) represented one of the most important and widely read works of late ... 1-49 ; Charles É . Raven , John Ray Naturalist : his life and works ( Cambridge : Cambridge University Press ...
Author: Frank M. Turner
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
A volume of essays which constitutes a major overview of the Victorian intellectual enterprise.
John Ray to Tancred Robinson, 22 October 1684, in John Ray, Philosophical Letters between the Late Learned Mr. ... See also Charles E. Raven, John Ray, Naturalist: His Life and Works (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1942), 353.
Author: Alexander Wragge-Morley
Category: Knowledge, Theory of
"The scientists affiliated with the early Royal Society of London have long been regarded as forerunners of modern empiricism, rejecting the symbolic and moral goals of Renaissance natural history in favor of plainly representing the world as it really was. Alexander Wragge-Morley challenges this interpretation by arguing that key figures such as John Ray, Robert Boyle, Nehemiah Grew, Robert Hooke, and Thomas Willis saw the study of nature as an aesthetic project. In fact, they practiced a science that depended on harnessing the embodied pleasures and pains that arise from sensory experience. Aesthetic Science reveals how judgments of taste and pleasures played a central role in the formation of consensus in scientific communities and the emergence of what we now understand as scientific objectivity"--
[formerly Wray], John«, ODNB. 4. C. E. Raven, John Ray, Naturalist: His Life and Works (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1950), p. 453. 5. Ibid., pp. 452¥3. Mandelbrote corroborates this observation, pointing out that ...
Author: Katherine Calloway
In the seventeenth century scientific discoveries called into question established Christian theology. It has been claimed that contemporary thinkers contributed to this conflict model by using the discoveries of the natural world to prove the existence of God. Calloway challenges this view by close examination of five key texts of the period.