Metastable Systems under Pressure

Metastable Systems under Pressure

“environmental” researchers could focus on metastability & pressure/negative pressures issues during brainstorming discussions in the inspiring surrounding The ARW NATO “Metastable Systems under Pressure: Platform for Ukraine created a ...

Author: Sylwester Rzoska

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048134069

Category: Science

Page: 430

View: 258

recently discovered advantages of amorphous forms of medicines/pharmaceutical products which focused a significant part of industry-related efforts on the GFA (Glass Forming Ability) and the glass temperature (T) versus pressure g dependences. 1 b ? 0 ? ? o ? P ? Pg P ? Pg 0 ? ? ? ? T (P ) = F (P )D (P ) =T 1 + exp ? g g ? 0 ? ? ? ? c + Pg ? ? ? ? 400 1 b 0 o ? ? ? ? P ? P P ? P g g 0 ? ? ? ? T (P ) = F (P )D (P ) =T 1 + exp ? g g 0 ? ? ? ? c ? + P max g ? ? ? ? T ~7 GPa g max P ~ 304 K Liquid g 300 1 HS glass 0 200 -1 mSG ?=0. 044 Liquid -2 100 -3 glass ?=0. 12 -1. 2 -0. 9 -0. 6 -0. 3 0. 0 log T 10 scaled -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 P (GPa) g 19 Figure 1. T he pressure evolution of the glass temperature in gl Th ye s cerol ol . id curve shows the parameterization of experimental data via the novel, modifie d Glat Sizm elon type equation, given in the Figure.
Categories: Science

Soft Matter Systems for Biomedical Applications

Soft Matter Systems for Biomedical Applications

Franzese G, Stanley HE (2005) The metastable liquid-liquid phase transition: From water to colloids and liquid metals. ... Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Metastable Systems under Pressure: Platform for New ...

Author: Leonid Bulavin

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030809249

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 296

This book addresses new challenges in soft matter and colloids. It presents timely reports on colloidal self-assembly, soft matters from liquid crystals, nanoparticles in liquid crystals, hydrocolloids, hybrid nanosystems, nanosuspensions, and dispersion of nanoparticles in different media, soft matter processing and modern experiments related with soft matters.
Categories: Science

Transport and Reactivity of Solutions in Confined Hydrosystems

Transport and Reactivity of Solutions in Confined Hydrosystems

J Chem Phys 133:174507 El Mekki M, Ramboz C, Perdereau L, Shmulovich KI, Mercury L (2009) In: Rzoska SJ, Drozd Rzoska A, et Mazur V (eds) Metastable systems under pressure, NATO science for peace and security series A, chemistry and ...

Author: Lionel Mercury

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9789400775343

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 381

The present work reflects a multi-disciplinary effort to address the topic of confined hydrosystems developed with a cross-fertilization panel of physics, chemists, biologists, soil and earth scientists. Confined hydrosystems include all situations in natural settings wherein the extent of the liquid phase is limited so that the solid-liquid and/or liquid-air interfaces may be critical to the properties of the whole system. Primarily, this so-called “residual” solution is occluded in pores/channels in such a way that decreases its tendency to evaporation, and makes it long-lasting in arid (Earth deserts) and hyper-arid (Mars soils) areas. The associated physics is available from domains like capillarity, adsorption and wetting, and surface forces. However, many processes are still to understand due to the close relationship between local structure and matter properties, the subtle interplay between the host and the guest, the complex intermingling among static reactivity and migration pathway. Expert contributors from Israel, Russia, Europe and US discuss the behaviour of water and aqueous solutes at different scale, from the nanometric range of carbon nanotubes and nanofluidics to the regional scale of aquifers reactive flow in sedimentary basins. This scientific scope allowed the group of participants with very different background to tackle the confinement topic at different scales. The book is organized according to four sections that include: i) flow, from nano- to mega-scale; ii) ions, hydration and transport; iii) in-pores/channels cavitation; iv) crystallization under confinement. Most of contributions relates to experimental works at different resolution, interpreted through classic thermodynamics and intermolecular forces. Simulation techniques are used to explore the atomic scale of interfaces and the migration in the thinnest angstrom-wide channels.
Categories: Science

Nanostructured Materials by High Pressure Severe Plastic Deformation

Nanostructured Materials by High Pressure Severe Plastic Deformation

Influence of pressure on deformation behavior of materials Increasing the plasticity of solids under pressure has been ... martensitic transformations during the deformation of metastable system under high pressure also favor the DSH.

Author: Yuntian T. Zhu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402039232

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 312

View: 990

Recently, it was reported that nanostructured materials processed under high pressure by HPT and ECAP have an extraordinary combination of both high strength and high ductility, which are two desirable, but rarely co-existing properties. These findings indicate that high-pressure is a critical factor that can be employed to process nanostructured materials with superior mechanical, and possibly also physical, properties. It is the objective of this workshop to review our current knowledge, identify issues for future research, and discuss future directions on the processing and properties of nanostructured materials via SPD techniques, with a special emphasis on high-pressure effects. The 42 peer-reviewed papers in this book cover areas of high pressure effect on the nanostructure and properties of SPD-processed materials, fundamentals of nanostructured materials, development of high-pressure SPD technologies for commercializations, recent advances of SPD technologies as well as applications and future markets of SPD-processed nanostructured materials.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Geochemical Modeling of Groundwater Vadose and Geothermal Systems

Geochemical Modeling of Groundwater  Vadose and Geothermal Systems

The appearance of capillary water is fundamental for hydrochemical modeling in the surficial domain, because the studied capillary properties imply that ... In: S.J. Rzoska & V. Mazur (eds): Metastable systems under pressure.

Author: Jochen Bundschuh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780415668101

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 332

View: 963

Geochemical modeling is an important tool in environmental studies, and in the areas of subsurface and surface hydrology, pedology, water resources management, mining geology, geothermal resources, hydrocarbon geology, and related areas dealing with the exploration and extraction of natural resources. The book fills a gap in the literature through its discussion of geochemical modeling, which simulates the chemical and physical processes affecting the distribution of chemical species in liquid, gas, and solid phases. Geochemical modeling applies to a diversity of subsurface environments, from the vadose zone close to the Earth’s surface, down to deep-seated geothermal reservoirs. This book provides the fundamental thermodynamic concepts of liquid-gas-solid phase systems. It introduces the principal types of geochemical models, such as speciation, reaction-path or forward, inverse- and reactive-transport models, together with examples of the most common codes and the best-practices for constructing geochemical models. The physical laws describing homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, their kinetics, and the transport of reactive solutes are presented. The partial differential or algebraic equations representing these laws, and the principal numerical methods that allow approximate solutions of these equations that can provide useful solutions to model different geochemical processes, are discussed in detail. Case studies applying geochemical models in different scientific areas and environmental settings, conclude the book. The book is addressed to students, teachers, other professionals, and to the institutions involved in water, geothermal and hydrocarbon resources, mining, and environmental management. The book should prove useful to undergraduate and graduate students, postgraduates, professional geologists and geophysicists, engineers, environmental scientists, soil scientists, hydrochemists, and others interested in water and geochemistry.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

High pressure Science and Technology 1993

High pressure Science and Technology  1993

STRUCTURAL AND PHASE TRANSITIONS IN METASTABLE SYSTEMS AT DEFORMATION UNDER PRESSURE B.Efros , N.Shishkova , Ya.Beigelzimer Department of Hydrostatic Treatment of Materials Donetsk Physico - Technical Institute of the Ukrainian Academy ...

Author: S. C. Schmidt

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822018696377

Category: Condensed matter

Page: 1951

View: 513

Categories: Condensed matter

Compounds and Alloys Under High Pressure

Compounds and Alloys Under High Pressure

Yoon , W. and Perepezko , J.H. ( 1988 ) The effect of pressure on metastable phase formation in the undercooled Bi - Sn system . J. Mater . Sci . , 23 , 4300-4306 2. Bridgman , P.W. ( 1953 ) The effect of pressure on the bismuth - tin ...

Author: E. Yu Tonkov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9056990470

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 584

View: 400

This is the first book to classify and systematize the available data on the behavior of binary alloys under high pressure. Despite the fact that there is a strong correlation between temperature-composition (T-C) phase diagrams at normal pressure and three- dimensional temperature-composition-pressure (T-C-P) diagrams, many material scientists seldom refer to the (T-C-P) diagrams, just as many high pressure researchers often ignore the data obtained at normal pressure. This book aims to bridge the gap between data obtained at high pressure and that obtained at normal pressure. The most recent research covers not only elements and stoichiometric compounds, but also binary, ternary, and multicomponent alloys, and so this book covers an extended range of substances. The properties of 890 binary systems and a further 1153 pseudobinary and ternary systems are summarized, and accompanied by an extensive bibliography. The data includes information on the solubility of components in solid solutions, melting, and first- and second-order phase transformations in alloys and stoichiometric compounds.
Categories: Technology & Engineering

Crystallization as Studied by Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

Crystallization as Studied by Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy

In: Rzoska S, Drozd-Rzoska A, Mazur V (eds) Proceedings of the NATO advanced research workshop metastable systems under pressure, Odessa, Ukraine, 4–8 October 2008. Springer, pp 389–402 43. Johari GP, Schmelzer JWP (2014) Crystal ...

Author: Tiberio A. Ezquerra

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030561864

Category: Science

Page: 290

View: 509

This book presents new approaches that offer a better characterization of the interrelationship between crystalline and amorphous phases. In recent years, the use of dielectric spectroscopy has significantly improved our understanding of crystallization. The combination of modern scattering methods, using either synchrotron light or neutrons and infrared spectroscopy with dielectrics, is now helping to reveal modifications of both crystalline and amorphous phases. In turn, this yields insights into the underlying physics of the crystallization process in various materials, e.g. polymers, liquid crystals and diverse liquids. The book offers an excellent introduction to a valuable application of dielectric spectroscopy, and a helpful guide for every scientist who wants to study crystallization processes by means of dielectric spectroscopy.
Categories: Science

The Vitreous State

The Vitreous State

711 Research Workshop Metastable Systems under Pressure, Odessa, Ukraine, 4.-8. October 2008, pp. 389—402, Springer (2009) Schmelzer, J.W.P.: On the Determination of the Kinetic Pre-factor in Classical Nucleation Theory. J. Non Cryst.

Author: Ivan S. Gutzow

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642346330

Category: Science

Page: 553

View: 355

This book summarizes the experimental evidence and modern classical and theoretical approaches in understanding the vitreous state, from structural problems, over equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, to statistical physics. Glasses, and especially silicate glasses, are only the best known representatives of this particular physical state of matter. Other typical representatives include organic polymer glasses, and many other easily vitrifying organic and inorganic substances, technically important materials, amidst them vitreous water and vitrified aqueous solutions, and also many metallic alloy systems. Some of these systems only form glasses under particular conditions, e.g. through ultra-rapid cooling. This book describes the properties and the formation of both every-day technical glasses and especially of such more exotic forms of vitreous matter. It is a unique source of knowledge and new ideas for materials scientists, engineers and researchers working on condensed matter. The new edition emphasizes latest experimental findings and modern theories, explaining the kinetics of glass formation, the relaxation and stabilization of glasses and their crystallization in terms of new models, derived from the framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes. It shows how the properties of common technical glasses, window glass, or the vitreous ice kernel of comets can be used to develop a new understanding of the existence of matter in various, unusual forms. The described theories can even find application for the description of lasers and interesting unusual processes in the universe.
Categories: Science

Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems

Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems

phase always has a higher vapor pressure than the stable phase in the same temperature range. Supercooled water is a metastable phase since this phase has a higher vapor pressure in its temperature range than that of ice (a more stable ...

Author: Hummel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351436724

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 908

Written by a leading practitioner and teacher in the field of ceramic science and engineering,this outstanding text provides advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level studentswith a comprehensive, up-to-date Introduction to Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems.Building upon a concise definition of the phase rule, the book logically proceeds fromone- and two-component systems through increasingly complex systems, enabling studentsto utilize the phase rule in real applications.Unique because of its emphasis on phase diagrams, timely because of the rising importanceof ceramic applications , practical because of its pedagogical approach , Introductionto Phase Equilibria in Ceramic Systems offers end-of-chapter review problems . .. extensivereading lists . . . a solid thermodynamic foundation . .. and clear perspectives on thespecial properties of ceramics as compared to metals.This authoritative volume fills a broad gap in the literature , helping undergraduate- andgraduate-level students of ceramic engineering and materials science to approach this demandingsubject in a rational , confident fashion . In addition,Introduction to Phase Equilibriain Ceramic Systems serves as a valuable supplement to undergraduate-level metallurgyprograms.
Categories: Science