Minority Jurisprudence in Islam

Minority Jurisprudence in Islam

60 The presumed opposite of ijtihad, taqlid, 'unquestioned obedience', can be
understood rather as the logical consequence of ijtihad. Taqlid as 'strict
obedience' is appropriate once one has established through the power of one's
intellect ...

Author: Susanne Olsson

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9780857727992

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 265

According to many Islamic jurists, the world is divided between dar al-Islam (the abode of Islam) and dar al-harb (the abode of war). This dual division of the world has led to a great amount of juridical discussion concerning what makes a territory part of dar al-Islam, what the status of Muslims living outside of this is, and whether they are obliged to obey Islamic jurisprudence. Susanne Olsson examines the differing understandings of dar al-Islam and dar al-harb, as well as related concepts, such as jihad and takfir. She thereby is able to explore how these concepts have been utilised, transformed and negotiated throughout history. As the subject of Muslims living in Europe is such a topical and sometimes controversial one, this book will appeal to researchers of modern Islam as integral to the Western experience.
Categories: Social Science

Defenders of Reason in Islam

Defenders of Reason in Islam

His reference is to Niklas Luhmann, Funktion der Religion (Frankfurt: Suhr Kamp,
1982 [1977]), pp. 59–61. The presumed opposite of ijtihad, taqlid, “unquestioning
obedience,” can be understood rather as the logical consequence of ijtihad.

Author: Richard C. Martin

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781786070241

Category: Religion

Page: 268

View: 778

This clearly written text explores the rational theology of Islam, the conflict between the "defenders of God" and the "defenders of reason", and the controversy's historical roots.
Categories: Religion

On Taqlid

On Taqlid

On the contrary, his criticism of the regime of taqlid is precisely that it compels
obedience to the ijtihad of certain scholars, even in matters in which there is no
way of establishing, in absolute terms, the superiority of one ijtihad over another.

Author: Abdul-Rahman Mustafa

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199937516

Category: History

Page: 242

View: 782

Abdul-Rahman Mustafa offers a deft new translation of a large extract from the book I'lam al Muwaqqi'in 'An Rabb al 'Alamin, by the thirteenth-century Islamic scholar, Ibn Qayyim al Jawziyya. The I'lam comprises an extensive discussion of the subject of taqlid, or legal imitation. It is one of the most comprehensive treatments of Islamic legal theory and even today serves as a manual for mujtahids and muftis. In the portion of the I'lam Mustafa has translated, Ibn Qayyim introduces the nature of taqlid and divides it into several categories. He then provides an account of a debate between a critic of the view that taqlid of a particular school or a scholar is a religious duty and this critic's interlocutor. Among the topics discussed are the different kinds of taqlid, the differences between taqlid and ittibi', the infallibility of religious scholars, the grounds on which one legal opinion might be preferred over another, and whether or not laymen can be expected to perform ijtihad. Ibn Qayyim's legal theory is a formidable reformulation of traditionalist Hanbalism, a legal-theological tradition that has always maintained a distinctive character in Islamic history and that is now growing more influential due to modern interest in the Wahhabi movement and in Ibn Taymiyya, whose legal and theological thought was edited and refined by his student, Ibn Qayyim. In his introduction to the translation, Mustafa critically reviews the scholarship on taqlid and outlines Ibn Qayyim's legal theory and the importance of taqlid within it. Taqlid continues to generate controversy amongst educated Muslims and particularly academics, as Salafi interpretations of Islam, which are generally 'anti-taqlid,' come into conflict with the generally 'pro-taqlid' stance of traditional schools such as the Hanafis. Mustafa's translation of a classic account of Islamic legal theory and strong critique of the dominant legal culture are timely contributions to an increasingly heated debate.
Categories: History

A Genealogy of Islamic Feminism

A Genealogy of Islamic Feminism

These latter groups are encouraged to exercise the doctrine of taqlīd (relying on
a jurist's ijtihād) confined to a specific ... total obedience as virtue.131 However,
while men continue, to a limited degree, the practical exercise of ijtihād, women's
 ...

Author: Etin Anwar

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351757041

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 801

A Genealogy of Islamic Feminism offers a new insight on the changing relationship between Islam and feminism from the colonial era in the 1900s to the early 1990s in Indonesia. The book juxtaposes both colonial and postcolonial sites to show the changes and the patterns of the encounters between Islam and feminism within the global and local nexus. Global forces include Dutch colonialism, developmentalism, transnational feminism, and the United Nations’ institutional bodies and their conferences. Local factors are comprised of women’s movements, adat (customs), nationalism, the politics underlying the imposition of Pancasila ideology and maternal virtues, and variations of Islamic revivalism. Using a genealogical approach, the book examines the multifaceted encounters between Islam and feminism and attempts to rediscover egalitarianism in the Islamic tradition—a concept which has been subjugated by hierarchical gender systems. The book also systematizes Muslim women’s encounters with Islam and feminism into five phases: emancipation, association, development, integration, and proliferation eras. Each era discusses the confluence of global and local factors which shape the changing relationship between Islam and feminism and the way in which the discursive narrative of equality is debated and contextualized, progressing from biological determinism (kodrat) to the ethico-spiritual argument. Islamic feminism contributes to the rediscovery of Islam as the source of progress, the centering of women’s agency through spiritual equality, and the reworking of the private and public spheres. This book will appeal to anyone with interest in international women’s movements, interdisciplinary studies, cultural studies, women’s studies, post-colonial studies, Islamic studies, and Asian studies.
Categories: Political Science

The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Law

The Oxford Handbook of Islamic Law

1 The antonym of ijtihad is taqlid, which has been variously defined. Often with
polemical tenor, taqlid has been defined as blind obedience, namely blind
obedience to historical legal doctrines.2 In more scholarly writings, the term often
 ...

Author: Anver M. Emon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191668265

Category: Law

Page: 1000

View: 741

This volume provides a comprehensive survey of the contemporary study of Islamic law and a critical analysis of its deficiencies. Written by outstanding senior and emerging scholars in their fields, it offers an innovative historiographical examination of the field of Islamic law and an ideal introduction to key personalities and concepts. While capturing the state of contemporary Islamic legal studies by chronicling how far the field has come, the Handbook also explains why certain debates recur and indicates fundamental gaps in our knowledge. Each chapter presents bold new avenues for research and will help readers appreciate the contested nature of key concepts and topics in Islamic law. This Handbook will be a major reference work for scholars and students of Islam and Islamic law for years to come.
Categories: Law

Muslim Education Quarterly

Muslim Education Quarterly

EDITORIAL The Islamic frame of reference : The intellectual dimension III Shari '
ah , Ijtihad and Taqtid sul . It has become a fashion nowadays to condemn taqlid
and uphold ijtihād . Taqlid means to follow ' and ijtihād means ' to obey one ' s ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B4305403

Category: Islamic education

Page:

View: 943

Categories: Islamic education

My Neighbour s Faith

My Neighbour s Faith

By the end of the ninth century, Islamic law had taken a definitive shape with the
closing of the gate of ijtihad (independent reasoning). Taqlid (unquestioning
obedience) became the norm, and there has been little development since then.

Author: John Azumah

Publisher: Hippo Books

ISBN: 9780310574620

Category: Religion

Page: 176

View: 562

Nowhere else in the world have both Islam and Christianity been more instrumental in shaping the history of a people and their way of life than in Africa. African Muslims and Christians have a lot in common, including kinship ties, shared languages and citizenship. Yet, despite the centuries of deep historical links and harmonious existence between the two religions, new challenges threaten this harmony. Conflicts involving Christians and Muslims in places like Sudan, Nigeria and Ivory Coast are common. These conflicts are fueled primarily by ignorance, stereotyping and prejudice, which in turn breed fear, suspicion and even hatred, in some cases leading to violence. My Neighbour’s Faith sheds light on the beliefs and teaching of Islam by addressing matters of contemporary importance to Christians and the wider non-Muslim audience. It presents the human face of Islam—the face of a close relative, a neighbour, a teacher and even a head of state—in a balanced and critical way that gives a credible view of Islam.
Categories: Religion

The Yemen in the 18th 19th Centuries

The Yemen in the 18th   19th Centuries

The evidence of ijtihad For the purpose of proving ijtihad sound and forbidding
taqlid , al - Shawkāni wrote his treatise entitled ... The meaning of the verse , '
Obey God , and obey the Apostle and those charged with authority among you (
ūlū ' l ...

Author: Ḥusayn ʻAbd Allāh ʻAmrī

Publisher:

ISBN: 0863720323

Category: Yemen

Page: 225

View: 428

Categories: Yemen

The Conception and Implementation of a Social Policy

The Conception and Implementation of a Social Policy

... spirit in the course of time is possible only through elimination of the spirit of
blind imitation and obedience ( taqlid ) . Ijtihad is a free , independent endeavour
aimed at obtaining a thorough and progressive understanding of Islam in all its ...

Author: Auwalu Hamisu Yadudu

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105073359270

Category: Islam and state

Page: 236

View: 729

Categories: Islam and state

Legal Reform in the Muslim World

Legal Reform in the Muslim World

The Anatomy of a Scholarly Dispute in the 19th and the Early 20th Centuries on
the Usage of Ijtihād as a Legal Tool Muneer ... 22 This attempt at distinguishing
between text - based ittibā ' and blind obedience ( taqlid ) is characteristic of ...

Author: Muneer Goolam Fareed

Publisher: Austin & Winfield Pub

ISBN: STANFORD:36105060360901

Category: Law

Page: 171

View: 346

Fareed's comparative analysis discusses the aims and processes of legal reform, based on the Ijtihad dispute by various reform movements and personalities, in light of the pressures of modernization, nationalism, colonial cultural and administrative activity. This book is an important addition to the field.
Categories: Law

Kasarinlan

Kasarinlan

S . 4 : 59 This verse is often interpreted by some ulama as not blind obedience
enjoined on individuals but obedience only so long as the ... Instead of blind
obedience of Taqlid , many Muslim scholars are emphasizing ijtihad as a means
of dealing more creatively with decision - making situations provided these ijtihad
do ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015046397520

Category: Developing countries

Page:

View: 753

Categories: Developing countries

Indonesia the Making of a Culture

Indonesia  the Making of a Culture

... the problem of ijtihad ( independent interpretation ) versus taqlid (
unquestioning obedience of ulama's advice ) in finding the bases of hukum (
judgement ) for those actions . Muhammadiyah basically advocated ijtihad and
rejected taqlid .

Author: James J. Fox

Publisher:

ISBN: IND:39000004558982

Category: Ethnology

Page: 288

View: 162

Categories: Ethnology

Indonesia Australian Perspectives

Indonesia  Australian Perspectives

... the problem of ijtihad ( independent interpretation ) versus taqlid (
unquestioning obedience of ulama's advice ) in finding the bases of hukum (
judgement ) for those actions . Muhammadiyah basically advocated ijtihad and
rejected taqlid .

Author: Australian National University. Research School of Pacific Studies

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015006578721

Category: Asia

Page: 772

View: 934

Categories: Asia

Persatuan Islam

Persatuan Islam

The Persatuan Islam's argument with the kaum tua was cerned not only with the
taqlid - ijtihād dispute , but centered ... the dispute took place within the
framework of the taqlid - ijtihād dispute . obey the messenger and those of you
who are in ...

Author: Howard M. Federspiel

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015026275126

Category: Islam

Page: 247

View: 522

Categories: Islam

Islam and the Modern Age

Islam and the Modern Age

He does not consider ijtihad simply a research , but through taqlid — the general
public involvement , bestows to it the ... the people to obey one God and to follow
His shown path , some people put forth the blind taqlid of their forefathers as an ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: IND:30000107430294

Category: Civilization, Islamic

Page:

View: 321

Categories: Civilization, Islamic

The Muslim World Book Review

The Muslim World Book Review

... to which the state could enforce the law and the degree to which its subjects
are obliged to pay obedience to the state . ... According to this theory , taqlid
dominated ijtihād in the Islamic world from the tenth century AC and this status
quo was ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCLA:L0091164681

Category: Islam

Page:

View: 833

Categories: Islam

The Future of Muslim Civilization

The Future of Muslim Civilization

This paradigm was taqlid : a tyrannical attitude of passive acceptance . Taqlid
means blind and unquestioning following and obedience . Despite the fact that
most ... The antithesis of taqlid is ijtihad , to exert the utmost effort , to struggle , to
do ...

Author: Ziauddin Sardar

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015014868569

Category: Civilization

Page: 308

View: 741

Categories: Civilization

The Islamic Quarterly

The Islamic Quarterly

13 : On the other hand , scholars who opposed Ijtihad had proof that it is not
permissible and that taqlīd should be followed . Ash - Shawkanī ( d ... Obey Allah
, and obey the Messenger , and those charged with authority among you ... ” ( 4:
50 ) .

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822041077777

Category: Civilization, Islamic

Page:

View: 415

Categories: Civilization, Islamic

Islamic Sciences

Islamic Sciences

1417 تعارض و ترجیح Ta ' aruq wa - Tarjih Clash of two principles and preference
Ijtihad wa - Taqlid Personal reasoning and obedience to authority 297 . 1418 (
اجتهاد و تقلید ) 297 . 142 - 297 , 147 Schools of Islamic jurisprudence 297 .

Author: S. Mahmood Hasan Qaisar

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015009169072

Category: Classification

Page: 58

View: 714

Categories: Classification

The Monotheists Jews Christians and Muslims in Conflict and Competition Volume II

The Monotheists  Jews  Christians  and Muslims in Conflict and Competition  Volume II

"follower" (muqallid < taqlid: obedience to authority qua authority). But whereas in
Sunni Islam ijtihad was the result of training and skill in jurisprudence, in Shiism
the mujtahid's authority was eventually linked to the infallible authority of the ...

Author: F. E. Peters

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 069112373X

Category: Religion

Page: 432

View: 280

The world's three great monotheistic religions have spent most of their historical careers in conflict or competition with each other. And yet in fact they sprung from the same spiritual roots and have been nurtured in the same historical soil. This book--an extraordinarily comprehensive and approachable comparative introduction to these religions--seeks not so much to demonstrate the truth of this thesis as to illustrate it. Frank Peters, one of the world's foremost experts on the monotheistic faiths, takes Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and after briefly tracing the roots of each, places them side by side to show both their similarities and their differences. Volume I, The Peoples of God, tells the story of the foundation and formation of the three monotheistic communities, of their visible, historical presence. Volume II, The Words and Will of God, is devoted to their inner life, the spirit that animates and regulates them. Peters takes us to where these religions live: their scriptures, laws, institutions, and intentions; how each seeks to worship God and achieve salvation; and how they deal with their own (orthodox and heterodox) and with others (the goyim, the pagans, the infidels). Throughout, he measures--but never judges--one religion against the other. The prose is supple, the method rigorous. This is a remarkably cohesive, informative, and accessible narrative reflecting a lifetime of study by a single recognized authority in all three fields. The Monotheists is a magisterial comparison, for students and general readers as well as scholars, of the parties to one of the most troubling issues of today--the fierce, sometimes productive and often destructive, competition among the world's monotheists, the siblings called Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
Categories: Religion