Permanent Establishments A Planning Primer

Permanent Establishments A Planning Primer

This book is a comprehensive review of the tax treaty concept of a `permanent establishment' from its origins in early Prussian and British tax law to its present manifestation in over 1250 bilateral income tax treaties written by two of ...

Author: John Huston

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: STANFORD:36105060079030

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 193

View: 342

This book is a comprehensive review of the tax treaty concept of a `permanent establishment' from its origins in early Prussian and British tax law to its present manifestation in over 1250 bilateral income tax treaties written by two of the leading authors on the subject. The book covers both Anglo Saxon and civil law precedent, The OECD and US model treaties used in developed country treaties and the differing approach of the UN model for developing countries. The book exhanstively deals with all aspects of the `fixed place of business' and `dependent agency' permanent establishments and the exceptions for independent agents, permitted ancilliary activities and parent subsidiary relationships. The text integrates conceptual analyses and technical discussion with relevant tax planning opportunities, appropriately highlighted or diagrammed. A number of valuable tax planning techniques are presented which have not been previously discussed in any literature.
Categories: Business & Economics

Permanent Establishments

Permanent Establishments

58a): The taxation of enterprises with permanent establishments abroad; 1996 (CDFI vol. ... Huston, J. & Williams, L., Permanent Establishments – a Planning Primer (1993); Tittle, M. B., Permanent Establishment in the United States – a ...

Author: Ekkehart Reimer

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789041190758

Category: Law

Page: 938

View: 660

Permanent Establishments (PEs) are a key facet of international taxation. They constitute the crucial threshold for the assignment of taxing rights to a jurisdiction in all cases of enterprises operating in more than one country. The issue of whether there is a PE, and how much profit should be allocated to it, is an increasingly important factor in tax planning, tax accounting, tax compliance, and related tax risk management. Groundbreaking developments have reshaped the face of the classical PE concept during the year 2017. Following action item no. 7 of the Anti-BEPS efforts of G20 and OECD, the OECD has presented the Multilateral Instrument (MLI) on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting in June 2017. Based on the MLI as well as earlier drafts, Article 5 of the OECD Model Tax Convention and the Official Commentary have been amended in November 2017. Similarly, Article 7 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on the allocation of income in PE situations is influenced by the October 2015 OECD BEPS proposals. This academically rigorous yet thoroughly practical work provides comprehensive guidance on a variety of complex PE issues. Its initial chapters analyse the latest OECD and EU developments in the context of Articles 5 and 7 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. 21 country chapters cover domestic PE issues as well as country-specific treaty developments from a practical perspective. Contributors: Fabrizio Acerbis, Maret Ansperi, Yumiko Arai, Ákos Burján, Anna Berglund, Peter Collins, Mike Cooper, David Cuellar, Veronika Daurer, Frank Feng, Mikhail Filinov, Sandra Fleurier, Jose Antonio Gonzalez, Herbert Greinecker, Søren Jesper Hansen, Lars Ellegård Holst, Mauricio Hurtado, Martin Jann, Renaud Jouffroy, David Lermer, Peter Lindblad, Iren Lipre, Jessica Ma, Anna Mallol, Dennis Matthijs, Hamish McElwee, Kunal Mehta, Osman Mollagee, Matthew Mui, Ramón Mullerat, Luis Felipe Muñoz, Stephen Nauheim, Francesco Nuzzolo, Yoshiyasu Okada, Marianne Orell, Oren Penn, Martin Poulsen, Lene Munk Rasmussen, Ekkehart Reimer, Daniel Rinke, Stefan Schmid, Mathias Schreiber, Vishal J. Shah, Smit Sheth, Tom Stuer, Maarten Temmerman, Eszter Turcsik, Hein Vermeulen, Huili Wang, Sonia Watson, Ciska Wisman, Raymond Wong & Alan Yam.
Categories: Law

Permanent Establishment

Permanent Establishment

... Recht der Internationalen Wirtschaft, 306-327 (1981) Huston, John, Williams, Lee, Permanent Establishments - a planning primer, Deventer (1993) Huston, John, Fixed Base in Tax Treaties, International Tax Journal 35-44 (1978) Huston, ...

Author: Arvid Aage Skaar

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789403520643

Category: Law

Page: 992

View: 621

A new edition of the preeminent work on the permanent establishment (PE) is a major event in tax law scholarship. Taking into account changes in judicial and administrative practice as well as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development’s (OECD’s) and the United Nation’s (UN’s) work in the three decades since the first edition, the present study brings the analysis up to date with the current internationally accepted interpretation of PE. The analysis is based on more than 720 cases from more than 20 countries, in addition to the OECD and UN model treaties and more than 630 books, articles, and official documents. The increased significance of the digital economy has rendered the traditional concept of PE inadequate for the allocation of taxing jurisdiction over the modern, mobile or digital international business. The author’s in-depth analysis explains the legal elements of the PE principle with attention to their continuing benefit and their shortcomings: criteria defining a PE- place of business, location, right of use, duration, business connection, business activity, ordinary course of business; evidence of a right of use to a place of business; business activities included in the PE concept of the tax treaties; identification of projects offshore and onshore; UN model treaty deviations from the OECD agency clause; distinction between jurisdictions with significant natural resources and countries possessing the capital, technology and know-how necessary to explore and exploit these resources; and how policies in each country may erode the PE concept. The book provides many synopses of court decisions and administrative rulings upon which the analysis is based. In addition to cases previously published in law reports and other publications, a number of unpublished decisions are included. A key word index makes it easy to find what is needed in any particular matter. The PE principle, in one version or another, is used in several thousand tax treaties in force today. This updated comprehensive study reveals the obligations imposed through the use of PE in tax treaties and will continue to be of immeasurable value to tax practitioners and scholars worldwide. In addition, the discussion of whether the notion of PE is an appropriate criterion for taxing jurisdiction in international fiscal law today provides authoritative and insightful food for thought.
Categories: Law

Dependent Agents as Permanent Establishments

Dependent Agents as Permanent Establishments

Working Party 1 was entrusted with the issues in respect of permanent establishments; see TFD/FC/2, 24 Apr. 1956, ... special emphasis on permanent establishments; J. Huston & R.L. Williams, Permanent Establishments: A Planning Primer ...

Author: Michael Lang

Publisher: Linde Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 9783709405420

Category: Law

Page: 312

View: 907

Dependent Agents as Permanent Establishments The article on business profits may be the most relevant one in tax treaties. If patterned after the OECD Model Tax Convention, this article allocates the exclusive taxing right over the profits of an enterprise to the residence country, unless the enterprise carries on business in the source country through a permanent establishment. Considering the importance of allocating taxation rights, tax authorities and courts of many countries have increasingly focused on the concept of agency permanent establishment. This book includes 12 chapters which provide an in-depth analysis of the key aspects that need to be taken into account for interpreting the concept of agency permanent establishment. It incorporates the perspectives of leading scholars and practitioners dealing with international tax cases. This book is designed to provide essential insights to academics, practitioners, tax officials and judges who deal or are interested in the field of international taxation.
Categories: Law

How Fixed Is a Permanent Establishment

How Fixed Is a Permanent Establishment

N° 20 ff. of the Commentaries of Article 5 in the 1980 UN Model; see John Huston, Lee Williams, Permanent establishments – a planning primer, Kluwer 1993, 159. N° 92 of the 2002 OECD Permanent Establishment Report and Commentaries on ...

Author: Jean Schaffner

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789041146663

Category: Law

Page: 344

View: 317

Permanent establishment is the key concept for allocating taxation rights in respect of business income, and the question ‘Is there a permanent establishment?’ is a tax treaty issue that advisers, government officials, and courts perennially confront. Based on a ‘fixed link to the ground’, the idea has become progressively more difficult to apply until, at this stage, re-evaluation has become a political necessity. If a permanent establishment may exist in the context of e-commerce, the concept of a geographical presence must be redefined. However, the question remains: Is e-commerce a sufficient reason for challenging the well-established permanent establishment nexus? Drawing on case law, administrative practice, and business decisions in numerous jurisdictions, the author discusses the permanent establishment criteria under conditions of e-commerce and the service economy. He shows that the OECD Model Convention and its commentaries already offer the basis for the evolution of the analysis of the concept, and that the preservation of permanent establishment protects and maintains the level playing field between capital importing and capital exporting economies. He examines in depth such elements as the following: ;the prevalence of commercial coherence over geographic coherence; the role of value-added tax; services permanent establishment; relevant definitions of ‘activity’ and ‘personnel’; multiple permanent establishments; supervision activity and sub-contracting; the differences between civil law and common law concepts of representation; particular treatment of the insurance sector; the ‘force of attraction’ concept; and specific exceptions (e.g., transportation, artists and sportsmen, rental income, agricultural activities, pipelines). Taking into account important distinctions between two model conventions (OECD and UN), as well as pertinent EU directives and the impact of EU law, the author proposes minor amendments to the OECD Model that adapt it to economic reality and current trends in jurisprudence and that can be implemented immediately. An appendix includes Article 5 and its commentaries as they have evolved since 1963, with the successive addenda and deletions. The author’s 20-plus years of experience as a tax lawyer lend the presentation a thoroughly practical aspect. The work addresses in more detail than any other publication the topic of profit allocation to a permanent establishment in the e-commerce world, an issue which is evolving rapidly in the current economic environment. Tax advisors, lawyers, and interested academics and policymakers will benefit from the book’s clear analysis of the conditions under which a permanent establishment not only should be preserved, but also how it is likely to be adapted in the future.
Categories: Law

Special Features of the UN Model Convention

Special Features of the UN Model Convention

Ekkehart Reimer, Permanent Establishments: A Domestic Taxation, Bilateral Tax Treaty and OECD Perspective, ... J. Huston/L. Williams, Permanent Establishments: a Planning Primer (Deventer: Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1991), p.

Author: Anna Binder

Publisher: Linde Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 9783709410400

Category: Law

Page: 664

View: 615

Detailed research on the UN Model Convention’s unique features The UN Model Convention has a significant influence on international tax treaty practice and is especially used by emerging and developing countries as a starting point for treaty negotiations. Driven by the aim to achieve consistency in the international tax treaty practice, the structure and content is, to a large extent, similar in the UN Model and the OECD Model. However, whereas the OECD has historically focused its efforts on issues mainly relevant for developed countries, the UN Tax Committee has continuously attempted to specifically take into account tax treaty policies for developing countries when drafting and amending the UN Model Convention. Compared to the OECD Model Convention, the UN Model Convention aims at giving more weight to the source principle. Popular examples are the PE definition in the UN Model which provides for a lower threshold than Article 5 of the OECD Model or Article 12A on Fees for Technical Services which has been introduced with the latest amendment of the UN Model Convention 2017 and allows for a withholding tax to be levied on payments to non-residents when the payer of the fee is a resident of that contracting State irrespective of where the services are provided. Interestingly, in the discussions of the tax challenges arising from the digitalization of the economy, the OECD and the G20 are also exploring options to allocate more taxing rights to the jurisdiction of the customer and/or user, i.e., the ‘market jurisdictions’. As this has traditionally been the focus of the UN Model Convention, its unique features and developing countries’ practices could be taken into account when exploring new nexus rules that are not constrained by the physical presence requirement. This book contains the master’s theses of the full-time LL.M. program 2018-2019 for which ‘Special Features of the UN Model Convention’ has been chosen as the general topic. With this book, the authors and editors do not aim at discussing each article of the UN Model Convention but rather focus on the unique features of the UN Model Convention, which are explored in detail. This is supplemented with an evaluation of the function and relevance of the UN Tax Committee in the international tax policy discussion and with an analysis of the influences of the OECD's BEPS project on the UN Model.
Categories: Law

Klaus Vogel on Double Taxation Conventions

Klaus Vogel on Double Taxation Conventions

... H.-J. & Züger, M. (eds), Permanent Establishments in International Tax Law (2003); Brugger, F. & Plansky, P. (eds), Permanent Establishments in ... J. & Williams, L., Permanent Establishments – A Planning Primer (1993); IFA (ed.) ...

Author: Ekkehart Reimert

Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.

ISBN: 9789403512846

Category: Law

Page: 2556

View: 372

Klaus Vogel on Double Taxation Conventions is regarded as the international gold standard on the law of tax treaties. This article-by-article commentary has been completely revised and updated to give you a full and current account of double tax conventions (DTCs). DTCs form the backbone of international taxation, but they raise many interpretational questions. This market leading work will provide you with the answers. Based on the OECD/G20 Multilateral Instrument, the OECD MC and Commentary published in 2017 and the most recent amendments to the UN MC, the book also includes relevant case law and scholarly literature upto and including 2020. Previous editions of the Vogel have been routinely relied on by courts around the world including Australia, Canada, Germany, India, South Africa, the Netherlands and United Kingdom. What’s new in this edition? There have been many important developments in this area since the last edition in 2015. The authors discuss these developments and the effect they will have upon practitioners working in this area. They also provide a wealth of new and revised case law, along with the DTCs of emerging countries. You’ll find: Reports about major features in the DTC practice of many leading jurisdictions, such as: the DTC practice of Austria, Canada, France, Germany, India, the Netherlands, Switzerland, the UK and the US Sections on divergent country practice covering their national models and networks of bilateral DTCs Thorough analysis of the OECD and UN model, as well as the implementation of these models in practice Amendments of bilateral DTCs, textual or in substance, on the basis of the 2017 Anti-BEPS Multilateral Instrument Coverage of a full range of the latest tax treaties around the world, including important treaties between OECD and BRICS countries This new Fifth Edition of Klaus Vogel on Double Taxation Conventions continues to reflect the unchallenged role of the OECD. The OECD MC, accompanied by the official Commentary, guidelines, reports and other recommendations, has sustained its position as the most important legal instrument in the area of DTCs. On occasion, the UN MC and Commentary diverge from the OECD texts. When this happens, the authors deal with the specifics of the UN MC in separate annotations and analyses, explaining and making sure you understand the differences. How this will help you: All the information you need to confidently advise on issues such as the taxation of income, taxation of capital and the elimination of double taxation Know that your advice to clients is based on the most up-to-date and respected information available, from an outstanding team of editors and authors The editors, Professors Ekkehart Reimer and Alexander Rust, have worked with the late Professor Vogel as well as an international team of top experts to completely update and enhance the content. The writing team comprises: Editors: Prof. Dr Ekkehart Reimer, Heidelberg University and Prof. Dr Alexander Rust, WU Vienna. Authors: Johannes Becker, Federal Ministry of Finance, Berlin; Alexander Blank, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg; Katharina Blank, Federal Ministry of Finance, Berlin; Michael Blank, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Prof. Dr Luc De Broe, Catholic University of Leuven; Laga; Prof. Dr Axel Cordewener, Catholic University of Leuven and Flick Gocke Schaumburg ; Prof. Dr Ana Paula Dourado, University of Lisbon; Daniela Endres-Reich, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg; Prof. Dr Werner Haslehner, University of Luxembourg; Prof. Dr Roland Ismer, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg; Prof. Dr Eric C. C. M. Kemmeren , Tilburg University; Prof. Dr Georg Kofler, WU Vienna; Sophia Piotrowski, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg; Prof. Dr Ekkehart Reimer, Heidelberg University; Prof. Dr Alexander Rust, WU Vienna; Annika Streicher, WU Vienna; Prof. Dr. Matthias Valta, Duesseldorf University; Jens Wittendorff, Ernst & Young, Copenhagen and University of Aarhus; Kamilla Zembala, Heidelberg University
Categories: Law

Base Erosion and Profit Shifting BEPS

Base Erosion and Profit Shifting  BEPS

6 (2010), at 538; J. Huston, & L. Williams, Permanent Establishments: A Planning Primer (Kluwer Law International 1993); Taxation of Business Profits in the 21st Century (C. Gutiérrez & A. Perdelwitz eds., IBFD 2013).

Author: Michael Lang

Publisher: Linde Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 9783709407349

Category: Law

Page: 368

View: 598

The expected post-BEPS project changes to the Model Convention As a result of the Actions under the BEPS Action Plan, the OECD plans to update its Model Convention in the near future. The proposed changes particularly concern the introduction of savings and limitation on benefits clauses, reconsideration of the treaty entitlement for fiscally transparent entities and articulation of various proposals with regard the current concept of permanent establishment and limitations on the abuse thereof. This book includes 12 chapters that analyse the expected post-BEPS project changes to the Model Convention and the possibility of updating treaties on the basis of the multilateral instrument, rather than bilateral negotiations. The book incorporates the perspectives of leading scholars and practitioners dealing with international tax matters. Essential insights are provided for academics, practitioners, tax officials and judges who deal with or are interested in the field of international taxation.
Categories: Law

IBFD International Tax Glossary

IBFD International Tax Glossary

Permanent account number See: Taxpayer identification number Permanent agent See: Permanent representative Permanent ... Deventer, Boston : Kluwer Law and Taxation, 1991; Permanent establishments : a planning primer / J. Huston and L.

Author: Julie Rogers-Glabush

Publisher: IBFD

ISBN: 9789087220570

Category: Taxation

Page: 550

View: 764

Categories: Taxation

E commerce and Source based Income Taxation

E commerce and Source based Income Taxation

business profits under the permanent establishment threshold seminal work that was published in 1991,30 and will only be briefly noted here ... 1021; John Huston and Lee Williams, Permanent Establishments: A Planning Primer (1993), pp.

Author: Dale Pinto

Publisher: IBFD

ISBN: 9789076078564

Category: Electronic commerce

Page: 244

View: 172

The advent of electronic commerce has caused many to question the continued viability of sourced-based taxation. This thesis argues that source-based taxation is theoretically justifiable for income that arises from international transactions which are conducted in an electronic commerce environment.
Categories: Electronic commerce