Racial profiling occurs when a police officer selectively focuses on a person's race , and subsequently follows , harasses , detains or arrests the individual . Broadly construed , racial profiling can be viewed as targeted policing ...
Author: Steven J. Muffler
Publisher: Nova Publishers
Category: Political Science
In recent years, racial profiling has drawn the attention of state and federal governments. In this book, racial profiling is defined as the practice of targeting individuals for police or security interdiction, detention, or other disparate treatment based primarily on their race, ethnicity, or national origin in the belief that certain minority groups are more likely to engage in unlawful behaviour. Assertions that law enforcement personnel at all levels unfairly target certain racial and ethnic groups, particularly but not exclusively for traffic stops and searches, have raised concerns about violations of the Constitution. The major debate on racial profiling centres on whether the practice should be prohibited entirely and whether data on traffic stops and searches should be collected to determine if the practice is occurring. This book gathers presents the major issues, available data, and analyses important to understanding on the most dangerous and divisive practices of our time.
Representatives of organizations representing law enforcement officers have stated that racial profiling is ... searching personal property, or detaining an individual solely on the basis of the individual's race, ethnicity, gender, ...
Author: Laurie E. Ekstrand
Publisher: DIANE Publishing
Category: Political Science
Examines allegations that law enforcement members use race as a factor in deciding whether to make traffic stops, through analysis of the findings and methodologies of studies conducted on racial profiling and government data on motorist stops.
Retrieved from http://www.racialprofilinganalysis.neu.edu/index.php End Racial Profiling Act of 2001, H.R. 2074, 107th Cong. (2001). Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., & Buerger, M.E. (2002). Moving police and community dialogues forward ...
Author: Michael L. Birzer
Publisher: CRC Press
Many racial minority communities claim profiling occurs frequently in their neighborhoods. Police authorities, for the most part, deny that they engage in racially biased police tactics. A handful of books have been published on the topic, but they tend to offer only anecdotal reports offering little reliable insight. Few use a qualitative methodol
However, most experts conclude that racial profiling is pervasive throughout US society. People of color face a dramatically higher level of suspicion in almost every aspect of their lives, a situation that some call “breathing while ...
Author: Alison Marie Behnke
Publisher: Twenty-First Century Books ™
Category: Young Adult Nonfiction
In the United States, racial profiling affects thousands of Americans every day. Both individuals and institutions—such as law enforcement agencies, government bodies, and schools—routinely use race or ethnicity as grounds for suspecting someone of an offense. The high-profile deaths of unarmed people of color at the hands of police officers have brought renewed national attention to racial profiling and have inspired grassroots activism from groups such as Black Lives Matter. Combining rigorous research with powerful personal stories, this insightful title explores the history, the many manifestations, and the consequences of this form of social injustice.
Introduction “Racial profiling involves targeting an entire group of people for suspicion based on the group's race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin.” I. the debate about racial profiling, one of the key starting points for ...
Author: Noël Merino
Publisher: Greenhaven Publishing LLC
Category: Young Adult Nonfiction
The writings in this anthology have been selected to introduce your readers to a wide array of viewpoints on the use of racial profiling in law enforcement. Written by foremost authorities in the field, these essays express leading liberal, conservative, and centrist views. Each chapter asks a relevant question about the topic, and the viewpoints that follow are grouped into “yes” and “no” categories. Questions debated in this book are whether racial profiling is a problem, whether Arab Muslims should be profiled in the War on Terror, what the causes and consequences of racial profiling are, and what should be done about it.
How roadway composition matters in analyzing police data on racial profiling. Police Quarterly, 5 (3), 306–333. Meehan, A. J., & Ponder, M. C. (2002b). Race and place: The ecology of racial profiling African American motorists.
Author: Anthony Vito
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: BUSINESS & ECONOMICS
Racial Profiling: Using Propensity Score Matching to Examine Focal Concerns Theory combines theory and propensity score matching to offer readers a better understanding of racial profiling through traffic stop data concerning the race and gender of the driver. The book examines the likelihood of a citation, search, or consent search for similarly situated African-American and Caucasian drivers in general, similarly situated African-American and Caucasian male drivers, and similarly situated African-American and Caucasian female drivers. Whether and why police exercise racial profiling in their decisionmaking is one of the most hotly debated topics in criminal justice. In this work, Anthony Vito uses Focal Concerns Theory to explain police officer decisionmaking in traffic stop outcomes via propensity score matching, revealing the intersectional dynamics of racial profiling and gender bias by the Louisville Police Department. The unique approach of looking at the Focal Concerns Theory components of blameworthiness, protection of the community, and practical constraints and consequences together with propensity score matching provides a theoretical lens for analysis and a model for future studies. This book is an original and timely resource for researchers, scholars, practitioners, and other stakeholders focusing on the problem of racial profiling in policing.
TREND TO PERCEPTION-BASED RESEARCH Racial profiling research was firmly at the top of the mainstream crimi— nological agenda in the 1990s and early 2000s. As the body of literature grew, it focused on developing more accurate ...
Author: Karen S. Glover
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
Category: Social Science
Karen S. Glover investigates the social science practices of racial profiling inquiry, examining their key influence in shaping public understandings of race, law, and law enforcement. Commonly manifesting in the traffic stop, the association with racial minority status and criminality challenges the fundamental principle of equal justice under the law as described in the U.S. Constitution. Communities of color have long voiced resistance to racialized law and law enforcement, yet the body of knowledge about racial profiling rarely engages these voices. Applying a critical race framework, Glover provides in-depth interview data and analysis that demonstrate the broad social and legal realms of citizenship that are inherent to the racial profiling phenomenon. To demonstrate the often subtle workings of race and the law in the post-Civil Rights era, the book includes examination of the 1996 U.S. Supreme Court's Whren decision-a judicial pronouncement that allows pretextual action by law enforcement and thus widens law enforcement powers in decisions concerning when and against whom law is applied.
Author: Darin D. FredricksonPublish On: 2002-01-01
In this work, the authors tackle one of the most complex and emotionally charged issues presenting law enforcement—and the communities they serve today, that of racial profiling. Discrimination in today's society takes different forms.
Author: Darin D. Fredrickson
Publisher: Charles C Thomas Publisher
Category: Crime and race
This book was written to eliminate confusion regarding what has come to be called racial profiling by clarifying the legitimate law enforcement practice of criminal profiling, and by clarifying what constitutes unfair discrimination, and persecution. This book was written to benefit sociology students, law enforcement officers, and anyone else in a position to be concerned with, or affected by, the profiling issue. Police administrators, judges, and legislators, must adequately understand the topics and their many ramifications if they are to make decisions that are based on fact rather than stereotype and myth, and free from the influence of adverse social and political pressures. And, attorneys, when prosecuting or defending cases wherein profiling and discrimination is an issue must have good insight into the many interrelated dynamics of the topics to properly prepare and argue their case. This writing explores difficult social issues that are often poorly understood, but issues that need to be understood if solutions are to be meaningful. And, a poorly conceived solution is especially likely when the issues are both complex and controversial. In this book, the writers acknowledge that while criminal profiling is a necessary and legitimate law enforcement practice, unchecked bias can pollute the practice. And, while they acknowledge that measures to detect those whose enforcement practices reflect bias can have merit, they emphasize that such efforts must be in addition to the hiring of high caliber officers, providing quality training, providing competent leadership, and on a properly staffed and trained Internal Affairs department. But, the authors also emphasize the unfortunate fact that many efforts intended to prevent bias are to varying degrees ineffectual and create collateral problems. Germane to that discussion is illumination of the difficulties of monitoring fair treatment policies, and the unintended problems that often accompany consent decrees.
How would an officer do that without illegally considering an individual's ethnicity prior to a traffic stop? ... While a member of the Illinois State Legislature, Barack Obama was a strong proponent of racial profiling legislation.
Author: Brian L. Withrow
Publisher: Looseleaf Law Publications
One of the nation's leading racial profiling experts, Dr. Brian Withrow, who has successfully defended more police officers and agencies against racial profiling accusations than any other on record, spotlights: -Truths and misconceptions about racial profiling: What it is and what it isn't.-Steps you and your agency should take to avoid and defend against racial profiling accusations.-Advice for creating policies and procedures that protect against profiling problems and minimize legal risk.-Rare insights into strategies plaintiffs' attorneys use to build profiling cases against officers and agencies.No politics. No spin. Just real facts and proven solutions!
... 2001) (answer from Senator Ashcroft, to written question submitted by Senator Russell D. Feingold) (as quoted in Samuel R. Gross and Debra Livingston, “Racial Profiling, Under Attack,” 102 Columbia Law Review 1413, 1420 (2002)).
Author: Guy Padula
Colorblind Racial Profiling outlines the history of racial profiling practices and policies in the United States from 1974 to the present day. Drawing on a wide variety of sources including case law, newspaper and television reporting, government reports, and police manuals, author Guy Padula traces how institutionalized racial profiling spread across the nation and analyzes how the United States Supreme Court sanctioned the practice. Insightful and accessible, Colorblind Racial Profiling is essential reading for all those interested in the history of racial profiling and criminal justice in the United States.