Rational Choice Theorie in den Sozialwissenschaften

Rational Choice Theorie in den Sozialwissenschaften

DEr Hintergrund: Das Modell der Frame-Selektion;98 4.4.2;2. WAs ist Wertrationalitat?;101 4.4.3;3. DRei Rekonstruktionen;103 4.4.4;4. EIn Problem;104 4.4.5;5. ZWei Moglichkeiten;104 4.4.6;6. GUte Grunde und Konsequenzen;107 4.4.7;7.

Author: Andreas Diekmann

Publisher: De Gruyter Oldenbourg

ISBN: STANFORD:36105029798373

Category: Rational choice theory

Page: 360

View: 628

1;Inhalt;6 2;Vorwort;8 3;Teil A Einleitung;12 3.1;Die Theorie rationalen Handelns. STand und Perspektiven;14 3.1.1;1. BAusteine und Prinzip der RC-Theorie;15 3.1.2;2. SEU-Theorie;17 3.1.3;3. STrategien der Konstruktion von RC-Modellen;20 3.1.4;4. DIe Erklarung kollektiver Effekte;22 3.1.5;5. FAirness, Reziprozitat und soziale Normen;24 3.1.6;Literatur;28 4;Teil B Grundlagen;32 4.1;What Is Rationality?;34 4.1.1;1. EXpected Value of a Gamble (Pascal s Thesis);35 4.1.2;2. RAtionality Outside the Casino;39 4.1.3;3. DEcisions Under Uncertainty;41 4.1.4;4. CAusal and Evidential Theories of Rational Decision;42 4.1.5;6. EThical and Ideological Components in the Conception of Rationality;49 4.1.6;7. RAtionality From the Point of View of Reflexion Theory;52 4.1.7;8. ENter Decision Maker With a Conscience;56 4.1.8;9. MAthematical Psychoanalysis;57 4.1.9;10. IS Rationality a Platonic Category?;58 4.1.10;References;59 4.2;Irrationalitat und zyklische Praferenzen;62 4.2.1;1. TRansitivitat, Intransitivitat und Praferenzzyklen;62 4.2.2;2. EInwande gegen Praferenzzyklen;64 4.2.3;3. DIe Verteidigung von Praferenzzyklen;67 4.2.4;4. LAssen sich Praferenzzyklen oder nur zyklustrachtige Regeln verteidigen?;70 4.2.5;5. PRaferenzkonzeptionen;71 4.2.6;6. BEwertungsregeln und Zyklen schwach dispositionaler Praferenzen;74 4.2.7;7. ZYklen starker dispositionaler Praferenzen;75 4.2.8;8. SChlussbetrachtung;77 4.2.9;Literatur;78 4.3;Adaptive Rationalitat, Gruppenselektion und Ultrasozialitat;80 4.3.1;1. DAs Rationalitatsprinzip als Regel und Metaregel;80 4.3.2;2. EVolutionare Interpretationen und Erweiterungen des Rationalitatsprinzips;82 4.3.3;3. SElektionshierarchien;87 4.3.4;Literatur;94 4.4;Wertrationalitat;98 4.4.1;1. DEr Hintergrund: Das Modell der Frame-Selektion;98 4.4.2;2. WAs ist Wertrationalitat?;101 4.4.3;3. DRei Rekonstruktionen;103 4.4.4;4. EIn Problem;104 4.4.5;5. ZWei Moglichkeiten;104 4.4.6;6. GUte Grunde und Konsequenzen;107 4.4.7;7. WErte als konstitutionelle Interessen;108 4.4.8;8. RAtionale Grunde;110 4.4.9;9. DIe Stabilisierung der Werte: Kognitive und soziale Systeme ;110 4.4.10;Literatur;112 4.5;Frame Dependent Modeling of Influence Processes;114 4.5.1;1. INtroduction;114 4.5.2;2. MOdeling Influence in Policy Networks;116 4.5.3;3. MOdeling Influence in Friendship Networks;119 4.5.4;4. COnclusions;124 4.5.5;References;125 4.6;Tausch in Netzwerken;130 4.6.1;1. MArkt und Netzwerkstruktur;130 4.6.2;2. THeorien und Fragen;132 4.6.3;3. MOdellierungsansatz;134 4.6.4;4. EXperimente und Design;137 4.6.5;5. VOrhersagen und Befunde;138 4.6.6;Literatur;141 4.7;Kommunikationsstruktur und Leistung sozialer Systeme: Simulationen zu den Konsequenzen lokal rationalen Handelns unter verschiedenen Strukturbedingungen.;144 4.7.1;1. EInfuhrung;144 4.7.2;2. KOnzepte;145 4.7.3;3. MIkroprozesse und Makrostruktur: Vom Handeln individueller Akteure zur Entstehung der Gruppenstruktur und zur Gruppen-Leistung;152 4.7.4;Literatur;161 4.8;Die Uberprufung von Rational-Choice-Modellen mit Umfragedaten.;164 4.8.1;1. RC-Modelle und Umfrageforschung: ein gespanntes Verhaltnis;164 4.8.2;2. ZWei Strategien zur uberprufung von RC-Modellen mit Umfragedaten;167 4.8.3;3. EIn Beispiel: Ein RC-Modell des Scheidungsprozesses;173 4.8.4;4. DIe Grenzen von (Standard-) Umfragedaten;175 4.8.5;5. DIskussion;178 4.8.6;Literaturverzeichnis;179 5;Teil C Anwendungen;182 5.1;Soziale Mechanismen rationalen Vertrauens: Eine theoretische Skizze und Resultate aus empirischen Studien.;184 5.1.1;1. VErtrauen beim sozialen und okonomischen Tausch;186 5.1.2;2. LErn- und Kontrolleffekte in Dyaden und in Netzwerken;188 5.1.3;3. EIne Feldstudie uber Mechanismen des Vertrauens bei IT-Transaktionen;193 5.1.4;4. EIn Vignettenexperiment zu Transaktionen zwischen Abnehmern und Lieferanten;198 5.1.5;5. EIn Vignettenexperiment zum Kauf von Gebrauchtwagen;204 5.1.6;6. ZUsammenfassung und Ausblick
Categories: Rational choice theory

Rational Choice Theory

Rational Choice Theory

Balanced and insightful, this important new text gives a nuanced and elegant evaluation of the potential and limits of rational choice theory. Few approaches in political science have generated so much controversy as rational choice theory.

Author: Lina Eriksson

Publisher: Palgrave

ISBN: 0230545084

Category: Political Science

Page: 296

View: 287

Few approaches in political science have generated so much controversy as rational choice theory. Some claim that the approach has made political science scientific. Its critics argue that it involves unrealistic assumptions about individual behaviour. While its tenets and benefits remain the subject of heated debate, rational choice theory is now established as a core approach in political science and one that is vital for contemporary students of the discipline to understand. With an impressive degree of clarity, the book introduces the philosophical foundations, the methodology and the key issues of rational choice theory. It shows how the approach has been constructively used to explain political phenomena and also reflects more broadly on how theories are developed and used in political science. Balanced and insightful, this important new text gives a nuanced and elegant evaluation of the potential and limits of rational choice theory.
Categories: Political Science

Preferences Institutions and Rational Choice

Preferences  Institutions  and Rational Choice

Lecturer in Public Choice and Public Policy Keith Dowding, Keith M. Dowding,
Desmond S. King, Andrew Mellon ... Maximizing behaviour is displayed in all
aspects of social life , and the rational - choice method has no area beyond its ...

Author: Lecturer in Public Choice and Public Policy Keith Dowding

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: STANFORD:36105018224142

Category: Political Science

Page: 289

View: 700

Rational choice is an influential method in social inquiry. This volume examines the theoretical problems which bedevil the approach and the practical uses to which it may put. It concentrates upon the two key aspects of rational choice: the preferences of actors and the institutions in which they make their decisions.
Categories: Political Science

Rational Choice Theoretische Analysen und empirische Resultate

Rational Choice  Theoretische Analysen und empirische Resultate

Andreas Diekmann, Klaus Eichner, Peter Schmidt, Thomas Voss. limits to the
inclusion of explanatory factors within the “wide“ rational choice model. It is true
that, in principle, any number of factors may enter into a rational choice
explanation.

Author: Andreas Diekmann

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 9783531908663

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 133

In der Soziologie finden Rational-Choice (RC)-Erklärungen zunehmende Verbreitung. Sie sollen einerseits zu einer Lösung allgemeiner theoretischer Kernprobleme (Erklärung von sozialer Ordnung, Kooperation und sozialen Normen) beitragen. Darüber hinaus dominiert die RC-Theorie mittlerweile zahlreiche Felder der empirischen Forschung. In diesem Band beschreiben namhafte Autoren die umfangreichen theoretischen und empirischen Anwendungsmöglichkeiten. Ein Schwerpunkt der theoretischen Arbeiten sind Analysen sozialer Normen. Die empirischen Beiträge und Anwendungen behandeln ein breites Spektrum von Themen, u.a. aus der Soziologie des abweichenden Verhaltens, der politischen Soziologie und der Analyse des Terrorismus. Abgerundet werden die Aufsätze durch methodologische Überlegungen. Der Band liefert Studierenden und Forschern eine umfassende Orientierung über wichtige Entwicklungslinien dieses Forschungsprogramms.
Categories: Social Science

Foundations of Rational Choice Under Risk

Foundations of Rational Choice Under Risk

lead to rational choice . They may lead to maximally preferred selections , as
game - theorists have pointed out , but that is something else . It may be that , like
the dice man , the agent eschews rational choosing as a method of selection ,
and ...

Author: Paul Anand

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: STANFORD:36105004045931

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 161

View: 945

Describes and evaluates a number of existing criticisms of the formal theory of rationality and subjective expected utility theory. The author argues that rationality is not a behavioural entity, but rather has to do with the relation between an agent's preferences and his or her behaviour.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Rational Choice

Rational Choice

This series brings together a carefully edited selection of the most influential and enduring articles on central topics in social and political theory. Each volume contains ten to twelve articles and an introductory essay by the editor.

Author: Jon Elster

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814721698

Category: Philosophy

Page: 266

View: 982

This series brings together a carefully edited selection of the most influential and enduring articles on central topics in social and political theory. Each volume contains ten to twelve articles and an introductory essay by the editor.
Categories: Philosophy

The Rational Choice

The Rational Choice

It is not a completely free choice , for all of us inherited certain patterns of trade ,
and have been to a greater or lesser extent ... I will argue that our present poverty
and national weakness make socialism the only rational choice for us .

Author: Julius K. Nyerere

Publisher:

ISBN: UCAL:B4796301

Category: Capitalism

Page: 13

View: 678

Categories: Capitalism

Rational Choice in an Uncertain World

Rational Choice in an Uncertain World

In the Second Edition of Rational Choice in an Uncertain World the authors compare the basic principles of rationality with actual behaviour in making decisions.

Author: Reid Hastie

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9781412959032

Category: Psychology

Page: 374

View: 945

In the Second Edition of Rational Choice in an Uncertain World the authors compare the basic principles of rationality with actual behaviour in making decisions. They describe theories and research findings from the field of judgment and decision making in a non-technical manner, using anecdotes as a teaching device. Intended as an introductory textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, the material not only is of scholarly interest but is practical as well. The Second Edition includes: - more coverage on the role of emotions, happiness, and general well-being in decisions - a summary of the new research on the neuroscience of decision processes - more discussion of the adaptive value of (non-rational heuristics) - expansion of the graphics for decision trees, probability trees, and Venn diagrams.
Categories: Psychology

Rational Choice and Social Theory

Rational Choice and Social Theory

Discussion We have tried to show that rational choice theory need not rest on
either psychological or individualist foundations, and therefore that it is not, as an
explanatory enterprise, intrinsically hostile to social theories that see individuals
as ...

Author: John A. Ferejohn

Publisher:

ISBN: STANFORD:36105063841238

Category: Choice (Psychology)

Page: 29

View: 861

Categories: Choice (Psychology)

Rational Choice and Strategic Conflict

Rational Choice and Strategic Conflict

"This book is refreshing, innovative and important for several reasons.

Author: Gabriel Frahm

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110596106

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 356

View: 299

"This book is refreshing, innovative and important for several reasons. Perhaps most importantly, it attempts to reconcile game theory with one-person decision theory by viewing a game as a collection of one-person decision problems. As natural as this approach may seem, it is hard to find game theory books that really implement this view. This book is a wonderful exception, in which the transition between decision theory and game theory is both smooth and natural. It shows that decision theory and game theory can go—and, in fact, must go—hand in hand. The careful exposition, the many illustrative examples, the critical assessment of traditional game theory concepts, and the enlightening comparison with the subjectivistic approach advocated in this book, make it a pleasure to read and a must have for anyone interested in the foundations of decision theory and game theory." Andrés Perea (Maastricht University) "Gabriel Frahm's relatively nontechnical book is a bold synthesis of decision theory and game theory from a Bayesian or subjectivist perspective. It distinguishes between decisions, or one-person games, and games with two or more players, but Frahm argues that this distinction is not always necessary—the two kinds of games can be analyzed within a common theoretical framework. He models the dynamics of choice in several different settings (e.g., information may be complete or incomplete as well as perfect or imperfect), including one in which players look ahead and make farsighted calculations on which they base their choices. His book contains many provocative examples that illustrate the advantages of a unified theory of rational decision-making." Steven J. Brams (New York University)
Categories: Business & Economics

Routine Activity and Rational Choice

Routine Activity and Rational Choice

into the rational choice model. Felson (1986; see also Cohen and Land 1987)
wrote that rational choice is involved in the routine activities of potential criminals
in interaction with potential targets and potential guardians, since altered ...

Author: R. V. G. Clarke

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1560000872

Category: Social Science

Page: 418

View: 474

Two new criminological approaches are defined and applied to categories of crime in Routine Activity and Rational Choice, now available in paperback. Routine activity analyzes the criminal event, and avoids motivations and psychology as topics for discussion, whereas rational choice approaches crime as purposive behavior designed to meet the offender's commonplace needs, such as money, status, sex, and excitement. These conceptual models are both employed to analyze such crimes as drunk driving, gun use, kidnapping, and political violence. This volume discusses the relationship of these theories to more traditional approaches to crime studies. The Advances in Criminological Theory series encourages theory construction and validation in the articles and themes selected for publication. It also furthers the free exchange of ideas, propositions, and postulates. Following publication of the first volume, Michael J. Lynch of Florida State University asserted that "Advances in Criminological Theory is to be applauded as an attempt to revive criminological theory by providing an accessible outlet." Contributions to this volume include: Pierre Tremblay, "Searching for Suitable Co-offenders"; Raymond Paternoster and Sally Simpson, "A Rational Choice Theory of Corporate Crime"; Richard B. Felson, "Predatory and Dispute-related Violence"; Gordon Trasler, "Conscience, Opportunity, Rational Choice, and Crime"; Ezzat A. Fattah, "The Rational Choice/Opportunity Perspectives as a Vehicle for Integrating Criminological and Victimological Theories"; Patricia L. Brantingham and Paul J. Brantingham, "Environment, Routine, and Situation"; Maurice Cusson, "A Strategic Analysis of Crime"; Richard W. Harding, "Gun Use in Crime, Rational Choice, and Social Learning Theory."
Categories: Social Science

The Limits of Rational Choice Or why Do Economists Become Parents

The Limits of Rational Choice Or why Do Economists Become Parents

... preferences that leave the postulates of neoclassical theory intact . The fourth
explanation ( my own ) strays furthest from rational choice theory . Instead of
looking at caring behaviour as a choice made in order best to satisfy preferences
 ...

Author: Susan Himmelweit

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822026191932

Category: Economics

Page: 37

View: 557

Categories: Economics

Rational Choice and Implementation of Social Decision Functions

Rational Choice and Implementation of Social Decision Functions

8717 Rational Choice and lmplementation of Social Decision Functions, by
Manimay Sen. * Copies of these Discussion Papers may be obtained for $2 (
including postage) each by writing to the Secretary, Department of Economics
and ...

Author: Manimay Sengupta

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822006654123

Category: Decision making

Page: 44

View: 946

Categories: Decision making

The Reasoning Criminal

The Reasoning Criminal

This conclusion would be mistaken. This volume develops an alternative approach, termed the "rational choice perspective," to explain criminal behavior.

Author: Derek B. Cornish

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412852753

Category: Social Science

Page: 268

View: 910

The assumption that rewards and punishments influence our choices between different courses of action underlies economic, sociological, psychological, and legal thinking about human action. Hence, the notion of a reasoning criminal--one who employs the same sorts of cognitive strategies when contemplating offending as they and the rest of us use when making other decisions--might seem a small contribution to crime control. This conclusion would be mistaken. This volume develops an alternative approach, termed the "rational choice perspective," to explain criminal behavior. Instead of emphasizing the differences between criminals and non-criminals, it stresses some of the similarities. In particular, while the contributors do not deny the existence of irrational and pathological components in crimes, they suggest that the rational aspects of offending should be explored. An international group of researchers in criminology, psychology, and economics provide a comprehensive review of original research on the criminal offender as a reasoning decision maker. While recognizing the crucial influence of situational factors, the rational choice perspective provides a framework within which to incorporate and locate existing theories about crime. In doing so it also provides both a new agenda for research and sheds a fresh light on deterrent and prevention policies.
Categories: Social Science

Routine Activity and Rational Choice

Routine Activity and Rational Choice

" Contributions to this volume include: Pierre Tremblay, "Searching for Suitable Co-offenders"; Raymond Paternoster and Sally Simpson, "A Rational Choice Theory of Corporate Crime"; Richard B. Felson, "Predatory and Dispute-related Violence ...

Author: Richard D. Lambert

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351492546

Category: Social Science

Page: 428

View: 728

Two new criminological approaches are defined and applied to categories of crime in Routine Activity and Rational Choice, now available in paperback. Routine activity analyzes the criminal event, and avoids motivations and psychology as topics for discussion, whereas rational choice approaches crime as purposive behavior designed to meet the offender's commonplace needs, such as money, status, sex, and excitement. These conceptual models are both employed to analyze such crimes as drunk driving, gun use, kidnapping, and political violence. This volume discusses the relationship of these theories to more traditional approaches to crime studies.The Advances in Criminological Theory series encourages theory construction and validation in the articles and themes selected for publication. It also furthers the free exchange of ideas, propositions, and postulates. Following publication of the first volume, Michael J. Lynch of Florida State University asserted that "Advances in Criminological Theory is to be applauded as an attempt to revive criminological theory by providing an accessible outlet." Contributions to this volume include: Pierre Tremblay, "Searching for Suitable Co-offenders"; Raymond Paternoster and Sally Simpson, "A Rational Choice Theory of Corporate Crime"; Richard B. Felson, "Predatory and Dispute-related Violence"; Gordon Trasler, "Conscience, Opportunity, Rational Choice, and Crime"; Ezzat A. Fattah, "The Rational Choice/Opportunity Perspectives as a Vehicle for Integrating Criminological and Victimological Theories"; Patricia L. Brantingham and Paul J. Brantingham, "Environment, Routine, and Situation"; Maurice Cusson, "A Strategic Analysis of Crime"; Richard W. Harding, "Gun Use in Crime, Rational Choice, and Social Learning Theory."
Categories: Social Science

Rational Choice Theories Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Rational Choice Theories  Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

In criminology, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need.

Author: John Paul Wright

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199805730

Category:

Page: 16

View: 488

This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of criminology find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. A reader will discover, for instance, the most reliable introductions and overviews to the topic, and the most important publications on various areas of scholarly interest within this topic. In criminology, as in other disciplines, researchers at all levels are drowning in potentially useful scholarly information, and this guide has been created as a tool for cutting through that material to find the exact source you need. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Criminology, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study and practice of criminology. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.aboutobo.com.
Categories:

Rational Choice

Rational Choice

Assuming no prior knowledge, this widely-used and critically-acclaimed text provides a clear introduction to, and uniquely fair-minded assessment of, Rational Choice approaches.

Author: Andrew Hindmoor

Publisher: Palgrave

ISBN: 9781137427441

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 193

Assuming no prior knowledge, this widely-used and critically-acclaimed text provides a clear introduction to, and uniquely fair-minded assessment of, Rational Choice approaches. The substantially revised, updated and extended new edition includes more substantial coverage of game theory, collective action, 'revisionist' public choice, and the use of rational choice in International Relations.
Categories: Political Science

Rational Choice Marxism

Rational Choice Marxism

To begin with, rational choice Marxism, promised to construct historical explanations and social theories with clarity and rigour.

Author: T. Carver

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9781349241835

Category: Political Science

Page: 338

View: 900

To begin with, rational choice Marxism, promised to construct historical explanations and social theories with clarity and rigour. Subsequently, it took a `political turn' in addressing issues of class and production, and the prospects for electoral socialism. This anthology commences with the founding classics - Erik Olin Wright's `What is Analytical Marxism?' and Alan Carling's spirited challenge to the Marxist establishment - which are answered with critical responses detailed by Ellen Meiksins Wood and Michael Burawoy in previously uncollected debates. Also included are further debates charting the historical progression of rational choice Marxism. The editors demonstrate that the clarity and rigour originally promised by the rational choice Marxists was never in fact achieved, but that rational choice Marxism has considerably enhanced the theoretical treatment of class and production in a world of commodification and difference.
Categories: Political Science

Rational Choice Theory

Rational Choice Theory

Contributors to this volume are convinced that it provides an inadequate conceptualization of all aspects of decision making: of the individuals who make the decisions, of the process by which decisions get made and of the context within ...

Author: Margaret S. Archer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134546527

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 158

Rational Choice Theory is flourishing in sociology and is increasingly influential in other disciplines. Contributors to this volume are convinced that it provides an inadequate conceptualization of all aspects of decision making: of the individuals who make the decisions, of the process by which decisions get made and of the context within which decisions get made. The ciritique focuses on the four assumptions which are the bedrock of rational choice: rationality: the theory's definition of rationality is incomplete, and cannot satisfactorily incorporate norms and emotions individualism: rational choice is based upon atomistic, individual decision makers and cannot account for decisions made by ;couples', 'groups' or other forms of collective action process: the assumption of fixed, well-ordered preferences and 'perfect information' makes the theory inadequate for situations of change and uncertainty aggregation: as methodological individualists, rational choice theorists can only view structure and culture as aggregates and cannot incorporate structural or cultural influences as emergent properties which have an effect upon decision making. The critique is grounded in discussion of a wide range of social issues, including race, marriage, health and education.
Categories: Social Science