Reciprocals and Reflexives

Reciprocals and Reflexives

In this paper, I provide evidence from Hungarian showing that the syntactic properties of inherently reciprocal and reflexive predicates are not identical. One may find the occasional remark in the literature that reciprocal predicates ...

Author: Ekkehard König

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110199147

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 662

View: 223

This collection of original papers is a representative survey of recent theoretical and cross-linguistic work on reciprocity and reflexivity. Its most remarkable feature is its combination of formal approaches, case studies on individual languages and broad typological surveys in one volume, showing that the interaction of formal approaches to grammar and typology may lead to new insights and results for both fields. Among the major issues addressed in this volume are the following: How can our current knowledge about the space and limits of variation in the relevant domain be captured in a structural typology of reciprocity? What light can such a typology shed on the facts of particular languages or groups of languages (e.g. Austronesian)? How can recent descriptive and typological insights be incorporated into a revised and more adequate version of the Binding Theory? How do verbal semantics, argument structure and reciprocal markers interact? How can we explain the pervasive patterns of ambiguity observable in these two domains, especially the use of the same forms both as reflexive and reciprocal markers? What are the major sources in the historical development of reciprocal markers? This combination of large-scale typological surveys with in-depth studies of particular languages provides new answers to old questions and raises important new questions for future research.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Reciprocals

Reciprocals

Reciprocals without reflexives FRANTISEK LICHTENBERK University of Auckland 1. Introduction It is well known that there are many languages that exhibit a reflexive - reciprocal polysemy , with one and the same morphosyntactic means ...

Author: Zygmunt Frajzyngier

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027229406

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 201

View: 315

The theoretical issues addressed in the present volume are semantic and cognitive properties of reciprocal events, syntactic properties of reciprocals, and the relationship of reciprocals to other grammatical categories. Several papers discuss the history of reciprocal constructions, offering alternative hypotheses regarding the grammaticalization of reciprocals. The formal, functional, typological and historical approaches in the present volume complement each other, contributing together to the understanding of forms, and syntactic and semantic properties of reciprocal markers. Several papers in the present volume make a double contribution to the problems of reciprocal constructions: they provide new descriptive data and they address theoretical issues at the same time. The languages discussed include: English, Dutch, German, Greek, Polish, Nyulnyulan (Australia), Amharic (Ethio-Semitic), Bilin (Cushitic), Chadic languages, Bantu, Halkomelem (Salishan), Mandarin, Yukaghir and a number of Oceanic languages. The volume also includes a study of grammaticalization of reciprocals and reflexives in African languages.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Reciprocal Constructions

Reciprocal Constructions

CHAPTER 14 Reciprocal and reflexive constructions in Lithuanian ( with references to Latvian ) Emma Geniušienė Vilnius University 1.1 1. Introduction Lithuanian and Latvian 1.2 Overview 1.3 Database 2. Grammatical notes 2.1 The noun and ...

Author: Vladimir Petrovich Nedi?a?lkov

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 902722983X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 456

View: 108

This monograph constitutes the first comprehensive investigation of reciprocal constructions and related phenomena in the world's languages. Reciprocal constructions (of the type The two boys hit each other, The poets admire each other's poems) have often been the subject of language-particular studies, but it is only in this work that a truly global comparative picture emerges. Nine stage-setting chapters dealing with general and theoretical matters are followed by 40 chapters containing in-depth descriptions of reciprocals in individual languages by renowned specialists. The introductory papers provide a conceptual and terminological framework that allows the authors of the individual chapters to characterize their languages in comparable terms, making it easy for the reader to see points of commonality between languages and constructions that have never been compared before. This set of volumes is an indispensable starting point and will be a lasting reference work for any future studies of reciprocals.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Cambridge Handbook of Generative Syntax

The Cambridge Handbook of Generative Syntax

From a competition theory perspective, the binding domain may apply to reflexives and reciprocals in the same way, but that domain would then have to include the possessor position, since possessor reciprocals have access to antecedents ...

Author: Marcel den Dikken

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107354586

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page:

View: 757

Syntax – the study of sentence structure – has been at the centre of generative linguistics from its inception and has developed rapidly and in various directions. The Cambridge Handbook of Generative Syntax provides a historical context for what is happening in the field of generative syntax today, a survey of the various generative approaches to syntactic structure available in the literature and an overview of the state of the art in the principal modules of the theory and the interfaces with semantics, phonology, information structure and sentence processing, as well as linguistic variation and language acquisition. This indispensable resource for advanced students, professional linguists (generative and non-generative alike) and scholars in related fields of inquiry presents a comprehensive survey of the field of generative syntactic research in all its variety, written by leading experts and providing a proper sense of the range of syntactic theories calling themselves generative.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

A Grammar of Igala

A Grammar of Igala

Figure 1 shows the forms of reflexive pronouns in Igala. 4.6.3 Reciprocals The reciprocals, like the reflexives, are formed by a Noun+Genitive pronominal clitic combination. Reciprocals also demonstrate anaphoric relationship with ...

Author: Ejeba, Salem Ochala

Publisher: M & J Grand Orbit Communications

ISBN: 9789785431186

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 268

View: 792

The book establishes 28 phonemic consonants and 7 vowels, as well as lexical and grammatical tones in Igala. It shows the canonical syllable types as V and CV with no complexity, and relates resyllabification to the retiming of segments as tone bearing units and the duration of their mora. The work discusses nine word classes, as well as ideophones and clitics in Igala. There are splitting verbs of various structures and fully-fledged pronouns with morphologically toneless clitic counterparts that are toned in their syntactic context, among other elements of the Igala morphology. The work establishes clitics as generally bearing the grammatical tones of various categories as a result of their morphological tonelessness and their availability for post-lexical tone assignment. It also accounts for the generally complex interaction of clitics and tones in the organisation of the morphosyntax and the tone-syntax interface. Igala has both verbal and nominal extensional affixes with various semantic features. Some interesting discussions in the Igala syntax include the structural and functional types of serial verb constructions, the detransitivizing process of verb movement in object demoting structures, coreferentiality in relativised constituents and the future/non-future temporal distinction. Complementary binominals are conjoined with a specified binominal morpheme, and their rigidly irreversible structures have implications in the Igala semantics. The binominals demonstrate a grammatically specified pattern defined over a conceptual space, showing the network among conceptual categories, such as kinship, marital, social, hunter-hunted, more-less and cause-effect relationships as reflected in the Igala grammar.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Acta Universitatis Carolinae

Acta Universitatis Carolinae

Word-order Structure in "Non-Configurational Languages" Rappaport o., 1982: On Anaphora and Control in Russian, Univ. of Texas at Austin, mimeo 1 The idea of virtual class of reciprocals, and analogously of reflexives, can be modified ...

Author:

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015020736743

Category: Philology

Page:

View: 266

Categories: Philology

Reciprocals and Semantic Typology

Reciprocals and Semantic Typology

This construction contrasts with the corresponding reciprocal pronoun constructions (specifically the numo subconstruction, described below) in systematic ways. The subject of reflexives is in ergative case, while that of the ...

Author: Nicholas Evans

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027206794

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 349

View: 788

Is there a single, Platonic 'reciprocal' meaning found in all languages, or is there a cluster of related concepts which are nonetheless impossible to characterize in any single way? This title develops and explains techniques for tackling this question. It confronts a general problem facing semantic typology.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The World Atlas of Language Structures

The World Atlas of Language Structures

2.2 Reciprocal-reflexive polysemy. Non-iconic reciprocal constructions fall into two types depending on whether or not they can also express reflexive meaning. This is a cross-linguistically significant parameter, since reciprocal and ...

Author: Martin Haspelmath

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191531248

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 712

View: 664

The World Atlas of Language Structures is a book and CD combination displaying the structural properties of the world's languages. 142 world maps and numerous regional maps - all in colour - display the geographical distribution of features of pronunciation and grammar, such as number of vowels, tone systems, gender, plurals, tense, word order, and body part terminology. Each world map shows an average of 400 languages and is accompanied by a fully referenced description of the structural feature in question. The CD provides an interactive electronic version of the database which allows the reader to zoom in on or customize the maps, to display bibliographical sources, and to establish correlations between features. The book and the CD together provide an indispensable source of information for linguists and others seeking to understand human languages. The Atlas will be especially valuable for linguistic typologists, grammatical theorists, historical and comparative linguists, and for those studying a region such as Africa, Southeast Asia, North America, Australia, and Europe. It will also interest anthropologists and geographers. More than fifty authors from many different countries have collaborated to produce a work that sets new standards in comparative linguistics. No institution involved in language research can afford to be without it.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Syntax of Anaphoric Binding

The Syntax of Anaphoric Binding

Either stipulation seems to be more or less equivalent to a prohibition against reflexives or reciprocals in subject ... 2.4.3 Reflexive and Reciprocal Differences : Lebeaux 1983 According to the theory of anaphoric binding which is ...

Author: Mary Dalrymple

Publisher: Center for the Study of Language (CSLI)

ISBN: 1881526062

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 204

View: 478

Mary Dalrymple provides a theory of the syntax of anaphoric binding, couched in the framework of Lexical-Functional Grammar. Cross-linguistically, anaphoric elements vary a great deal. One finds long- and short-distance reflexives, sometimes within the same language; pronominals may require local noncoreference or coreference only with nonsubjects. Analyses of the syntax of anaphoric binding which have attempted to fit all languages into the mold of English are inadequate to account for the rich range of syntactic constraints that are attested. How, then, can the cross-linguistic regularities exhibited by anaphoric elements be captured, while at the same time accounting for the diversity that is found? Dalrymple shows that syntactic constraints on anaphoric binding can be expressed in terms of just three grammatical concepts: subject, predicate, and tense. These concepts define a set of complex constraints, combinations of which interact to predict the wide range of universally available syntactic conditions that anaphoric elements obey. Mary Dalrymple is a member of the research staff of the Natural Language Theory and Technology group at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Interfaces in Functional Discourse Grammar

Interfaces in Functional Discourse Grammar

Given that reflexives and reciprocals are built on the very same structural template, if (27) is analyzed as in (28a) the same underlying frame should be assumed for (29), resulting in the analysis in (30a). That, however, would obscure ...

Author: Lucia Contreras-García

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110711592

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 457

View: 154

In grammar design, a basic distinction is made between derivational and modular architectures. This raises the question of which organization of grammar can deal with linguistic phenomena more appropriately. The studies contained in the present volume explore the interface relations between different levels of linguistic representation in Functional Discourse Grammar as presented in Hengeveld and Mackenzie (2008) and Keizer (2015). This theory analyses linguistic expressions at four linguistic levels: interpersonal, representational, morphosyntactic and phonological. The articles address issues such as the possible correspondences and mismatches between those levels as well as the conditions which constrain the combinations of levels in well-formed expressions. Additionally, the theory is tested by examining various grammatical phenomena with a focus both on the English language and on typological adequacy: anaphora, raising, phonological reduction, noun incorporation, reflexives and reciprocals, serial verbs, the passive voice, time measurement constructions, coordination, nominal modification, and connectives. Overall, the volume provides both theoretical and descriptive insights which are of relevance to linguistics in general.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines