Reform Revolution and Crisis in Europe

Reform  Revolution and Crisis in Europe

This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.

Author: Taylor & Francis Group

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1032086351

Category:

Page: 244

View: 803

Today Europe stands at a crossroads unlike any it has faced since 1945. Since the 2008 financial crash, Europe has weathered the Greek debt crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the identity crisis brought about by Brexit in 2016. The future of the European project is in doubt. How will Europe respond? Reform and revolution have been two forms of response to crisis that have shaped Europe's history. To understand Europe's present, we must understand that past. This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.
Categories:

Reform Revolution and Crisis in Europe

Reform  Revolution and Crisis in Europe

This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought"--

Author: Bronwyn Winter

Publisher:

ISBN: 0367815001

Category: History

Page: 244

View: 969

"Today Europe stands at a crossroads unlike any it has faced since 1945. Since the 2008 financial crash, Europe has weathered the Greek debt crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the identity crisis brought about by Brexit in 2016. The future of the European project is in doubt. How will Europe respond? Reform and revolution have been two forms of response to crisis that have shaped Europe's history. To understand Europe's present, we must understand that past. This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought"--
Categories: History

Reform Revolution and Crisis in Europe

Reform  Revolution and Crisis in Europe

not always) transnational, and this volume's focus on “revolution” and “crisis” means that many of its contributions deal in one way or another with these histories. Nevertheless, we aim to decouple the discussion of reform and ...

Author: Bronwyn Winter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000726015

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 593

Today Europe stands at a crossroads unlike any it has faced since 1945. Since the 2008 financial crash, Europe has weathered the Greek debt crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the identity crisis brought about by Brexit in 2016. The future of the European project is in doubt. How will Europe respond? Reform and revolution have been two forms of response to crisis that have shaped Europe’s history. To understand Europe’s present, we must understand that past. This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.
Categories: History

Reform Revolution and French Global Policy 1787 1791

Reform  Revolution and French Global Policy  1787 1791

This work focuses on the policy responses of the National Constituent Assembly to the issues of global competition, especially in the maritime, colonial and economic sphere, and with particular reference to Anglo-French rivalry.

Author: Jeremy J. Whiteman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351905879

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 960

The period following the American War of Independence was, for the France of Louis XVI, the high water mark of its diplomatic prestige. With France's arch-rival, Britain, humbled by the loss of her main north American colonies and deprived of any significant continental alliances, Louis felt confident that France could at last re-assume its natural role as the economic, political and military leader of Europe. That this did not happen, and if anything France's international prestige sunk even lower, was a bitter pill for its rulers, and one that was to have important ramifications beyond the sphere of foreign policy. Indeed, continued frustration at France's impotence on the world stage became a pressing domestic issue, with radically opposing solutions being put forward to bring about a 'national regeneration'. This work focuses on the policy responses of the National Constituent Assembly to the issues of global competition, especially in the maritime, colonial and economic sphere, and with particular reference to Anglo-French rivalry. These responses are contrasted to the policies of the 'reforming' royal government of the Pre-Revolution of 1787-1789. From this analysis of the Old and New Regimes' respective global policies, it is shown how French responses to the demands of international competition played a role in both fostering and shaping the Revolution of 1789. Moreover, Whiteman argues that in spite of profound ideological differences, in material terms there was a significant degree of continuity between the policies of the Constituent deputies and the Old Regime royal government.
Categories: History

Crisis in Europe 1560 1660 Routledge Revivals

Crisis in Europe 1560   1660  Routledge Revivals

Originally published in 1965, this collection brings together a broad selection of articles from Past and Present which cover many aspects of crisis and change in most European countries.

Author: Trevor Aston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780415694766

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 959

Past and Present began publication in 1952. It has established itself as one of the leading historical journals, publishing in lively and readable form a wide variety of scholarly and original articles. Much important work by English and foreign scholars on the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries first appeared in the form of articles in the journal. Originally published in 1965, this collection brings together a broad selection of these articles which have much common ground in the questions they discuss. Together they cover many aspects of crisis and change in most European countries – in society, government, economics, religion and education. The book will be welcomed by all interested in this much debated period.
Categories: History

A History of Eastern Europe

A History of Eastern Europe

This welcome second edition of A History of Eastern Europe provides a thematic historical survey of the formative processes of political, social and economic change which have played paramount roles in shaping the evolution and development ...

Author: Robert Bideleux

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134213184

Category: History

Page: 720

View: 992

This welcome second edition of A History of Eastern Europe provides a thematic historical survey of the formative processes of political, social and economic change which have played paramount roles in shaping the evolution and development of the region. Subjects covered include: Eastern Europe in ancient, medieval and early modern times the legacies of Byzantium, the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire the impact of the region's powerful Russian and Germanic neighbours rival concepts of 'Central' and 'Eastern' Europe the experience and consequences of the two World Wars varieties of fascism in Eastern Europe the impact of Communism from the 1940s to the 1980s post-Communist democratization and marketization the eastward enlargement of the EU. A History of Eastern Europe now includes two new chronologies – one for the Balkans and one for East-Central Europe – and a glossary of key terms and concepts, providing comprehensive coverage of a complex past, from antiquity to the present day.
Categories: History

Reinterpreting Revolution in Twentieth Century Europe

Reinterpreting Revolution in Twentieth Century Europe

In this volume, leading specialists from a variety of disciplines examine the changing and conflicting meanings of revolution in modern and contemporary Europe.

Author: Moira Donald

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9781137144782

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 607

Until the dramatic fall of Communist regimes in the East placed the possibility of revolution on the agenda once again, sudden and decisive political change had appeared a largely anachronistic phenomenon in Europe. Looking back over the twentieth century, it is plausible to argue that the twentieth, rather than the nineteenth, has been the 'most revolutionary of centuries'. In this volume, leading specialists from a variety of disciplines examine the changing and conflicting meanings of revolution in modern and contemporary Europe. Contributions include both broad essays on the global and historical context of European revolution and specific case studies reinterpreting a variety of revolutionary experiences.
Categories: History

Revolution of Russia and the climate

Revolution of Russia and the climate

Cyclical climate crises shape the biological life on Earth, including the development and decline of subsequent human civilizations.

Author: Bogdan Góralski

Publisher: Bogdan Góralski

ISBN:

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 58

View: 531

Cyclical climate crises shape the biological life on Earth, including the development and decline of subsequent human civilizations. Favorable climatic conditions cause a population increase within every civilization. Then comes the deterioration of climatic conditions and the internal crisis of civilization that sets the leader. Then comes the conquest of external countries and the development of the empire until its fall, which shape a new empire. The development and fall of subsequent civilizations follow the rhythm of the movements of the earth's coating, what I described in my works. Chinggis Khan's empire was born during the climate crisis in Asia. At that time, favorable climatic conditions prevailed in Europe, and it was in the direction of Europe that the Mongol expansion was directed. In the meantime, between the Mughal empire and Napoleon's empire, a powerful Ottoman Empire emerged, whose development indicates the shift of favorable climate zones from East Asia to the west towards Turkey. The empire developed and fell before the summit of the Little Ice Age that was destroying Europe. Russian Empire developed in almost the same time as the Ottoman Empire, and it collapsed in the internal crisis of the Russian revolution during the east European climatic crisis-see in my work below entitled "Russian revolution and the climate." The Little Ice Age caused an internal crisis in Europe, the expansion of Europeans to other continents, and the rise of Napoleon's empire. At that time, favorable climatic conditions prevailed in Asia. Another climate crisis in Asia is approaching, and I am sure that only the global opening of borders and the free migration of peoples can save the world from the Third World War. The analysis of past revolutions leads to the conclusion that two factors are needed for the revolution to take place: the dissatisfied people and the frustrated intelligentsia driving the revolution. 2 The dissatisfaction of the people comes from not fulfilling basic life needs, and the frustration of intelligence is a consequence of the lack of life prospects in the old social order. The environmental factors (natural and social ) determine the emergence of the revolutionary situation. Natural factors would include, above all, climatic factors - atmospheric precipitation and air temperature, which in the case of Russia, are very variable. They determine the basic social parameters - the size and sexual composition of the population developing in favorable climatic conditions for a given territory. For the revolution to take place, a decades-long period of good climatic conditions conducive to population growth and its masculinization would be needed, followed by a deterioration of this climatic situation and the social situation that was linked to it. In the decades before the Russian Revolution, there were better conditions in Russia (rising atmospheric precipitation) and social conditions (reform of education for Alexander I, release from serfdom and other reforms). The later deterioration of the social situation due to overpopulation and hunger of the land was followed by erroneous actions by the authorities that do not take into account the impact of the climatic factor and destroying the rural communities - сообщество. In the run-up to the revolution, climatic conditions gradually improved, and the apogee of the climate crisis took place just before the revolution. The crisis in Europe and the position of European powers pushing for world war caused deterioration of the internal situation in Russia and consequently accelerated the revolution. To the deterioration contributed the coolings of the climate of 1901-1905 and 1914-1918. (See fig. 24). The European elites, mostly landowners, were bankrupted by the constantly going down prices of grain (from 1830 supplied by steamers from the USA (about 15% of Europe's grain needs)) and only war left to escape from it. Probably it was one of the main causes of the First World War, apart from the masculinization of the European population. The social factor decisive for the revolution is the size of the population able to survive in a given territory. When the population rises to the border value for a given territory, it becomes sensitive to any deterioration of living conditions because the environmental resources available to individual units decrease, and also, due to the population density, social distances are reduced, which increases the level of aggression. Such a deterioration in the life situation of the Russian people uprooted Russian nobility, intelligentsia, and the Jewish community occurred in the period preceding the revolution, ie, from 1861 to 1917. The climate crisis and the lack of knowledge about the real problems of Russian society determined the outbreak of the revolution. Another reason was to stop by the state terror of progressive and positive evolution of the patriotically minded Russian intelligentsia. The victory of the Bolshevik Revolution was also decided by anti-Semitism, controlled by tsarism (?). In the further course of my work, I will try to show that the above factors determined the existence of a specific social situation and the outbreak of the Russian Revolution.
Categories: Body, Mind & Spirit

Cycles of Conflict Centuries of Change

Cycles of Conflict  Centuries of Change

This important collection explores how Mexico’s tumultuous past informs its uncertain present and future. Cycles of crisis and reform, of conflict and change, have marked Mexico’s modern history.

Author: Elisa Servín

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822389934

Category: History

Page: 422

View: 566

This important collection explores how Mexico’s tumultuous past informs its uncertain present and future. Cycles of crisis and reform, of conflict and change, have marked Mexico’s modern history. The final decades of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries each brought efforts to integrate Mexico into globalizing economies, pressures on the country’s diverse peoples, and attempts at reform. The crises of the late eighteenth century and the late nineteenth led to revolutionary mobilizations and violent regime changes. The wars for independence that began in 1810 triggered conflicts that endured for decades; the national revolution that began in 1910 shaped Mexico for most of the twentieth century. In 2000, the PRI, which had ruled for more than seventy years, was defeated in an election some hailed as “revolution by ballot.” Mexico now struggles with the legacies of a late-twentieth-century crisis defined by accelerating globalization and the breakdown of an authoritarian regime that was increasingly unresponsive to historic mandates and popular demands. Leading Mexicanists—historians and social scientists from Mexico, the United States, and Europe—examine the three fin-de-siècle eras of crisis. They focus on the role of the country’s communities in advocating change from the eighteenth century to the present. They compare Mexico’s revolutions of 1810 and 1910 and consider whether there might be a twenty-first-century recurrence or whether a globalizing, urbanizing, and democratizing world has so changed Mexico that revolution is improbable. Reflecting on the political changes and social challenges of the late twentieth century, the contributors ask if a democratic transition is possible and, if so, whether it is sufficient to address twenty-first-century demands for participation and justice. Contributors. Antonio Annino, Guillermo de la Peña, François-Xavier Guerra, Friedrich Katz, Alan Knight, Lorenzo Meyer, Leticia Reina, Enrique Semo, Elisa Servín, John Tutino, Eric Van Young
Categories: History

Making Waves

Making Waves

Jan Windebank is Professor of French and European Societies in the School of Languages and Cultures at the University of ... and is lead editor of the forthcoming anthology Reform, Revolution and Crisis in Europe: Landmarks in History, ...

Author: Margaret Atack

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9781789624557

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 188

French feminism was central to the theory and culture of Second Wave feminism as an international movement, and 1975 was a key year for the women's movement in France. Through a critical review of the politics, activism and cultural creativity of that moment, from the perspective of both preceding and subsequent 'waves' of feminism, this book evaluates the legacies of 1975, and their strengths and limitations as new questions and new conjunctures have come into play. Edited and written by an international group of feminist scholars, it offers both a critical re-evaluation of a vital moment in women's cultural history, and a new analysis of the relationship between second wave agendas and contemporary feminist politics and culture.
Categories: Social Science

After Europe

After Europe

In this provocative book, renowned public intellectual Ivan Krastev reflects on the future of the European Union—and its potential lack of a future.

Author: Ivan Krastev

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 9780812249439

Category: Political Science

Page: 128

View: 125

In this provocative book, renowned public intellectual Ivan Krastev reflects on the future of the European Union—and its potential lack of a future. With far-right nationalist parties on the rise across the continent and the United Kingdom planning for Brexit, the European Union is in disarray and plagued by doubts as never before. Krastev includes chapters devoted to Europe's major problems (especially the political destabilization sparked by the more than 1.3 million migrants from the Middle East, North Africa, and South Asia), the spread of right-wing populism (taking into account the election of Donald Trump in the United States), and the thorny issues facing member states on the eastern flank of the EU (including the threat posed by Vladimir Putin's Russia). He concludes by reflecting on the ominous political, economic, and geopolitical future that would await the continent if the Union itself begins to disintegrate.
Categories: Political Science

Worldwide Perspectives on Lesbians Gays and Bisexuals 3 volumes

Worldwide Perspectives on Lesbians  Gays  and Bisexuals  3 volumes

Bronwyn Winter teaches in European studies and international and global studies at the University of Sydney. ... eds., 2018); and Reform, Revolution, and Crisis in Europe: Landmarks in History, Memory, and Thought (Winter and Moir, ...

Author: Paula Gerber Ph.D.

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781440842276

Category: Social Science

Page: 1356

View: 916

This three-volume set is a rich resource for readers in any discipline interested in understanding the global, regional, and domestic experiences of LGB people. This interdisciplinary set makes a vital contribution to understanding how LGB rights are progressing—and in some cases, regressing—around the globe. The three volumes look at the lived experiences of LGB people from varied perspectives and provide comprehensive coverage on a wide variety of topics ranging from LGB youth and LGB aging to the approaches to LGB people of different religions, including Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Chapters focus on topics including the ongoing criminalization of same-sex sexual conduct and how international human rights law can be used to improve the lives of LGB people. Particular attention is paid to the rights of bisexuals, a group often ignored in works focusing on sexual orientation. Volume 1 focuses on history, politics, and culture relating to LGB people; Volume 2 focuses on the laws—domestic and international—governing LGB people; and Volume 3 provides snapshots of the current state of LGB experience in countries worldwide, presented by geographical region: Europe, the Americas, Africa, the Middle East and the Asia Pacific region. Includes contributions on the experience of LGB people in countries and regions that are extremely hostile to sexual minorities, including Russia, Iran, the Caribbean, Zimbabwe, and Uganda. Considers a multitude of factors that influence LGB people's quality of life, including, health, education, the economy, technology, religion, and the law. Offers comprehensive domestic, regional, and international accounts, serving as a one-stop source for in-depth, quality global research on LGB people. Addresses the intersectionality of discrimination based on sexuality and race, religion, and age.
Categories: Social Science

The Role of EU Agencies in the Eurozone and Migration Crisis

The Role of EU Agencies in the Eurozone and Migration Crisis

EU Agencies' Involvement in Transboundary Crisis Response: Supporting Efforts or Leading Coordination? ... The Politics of 'Eurocratic' Structure and the New European Agencies. West European Politics, 25(4), ... Reform or Revolution?

Author: Johannes Pollak

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030513832

Category: Political Science

Page: 233

View: 414

This book provides a wealth of empirical material to understand key aspects of EU governance including its plurality of actors and policy making modes and its functioning during crisis management. Authored by legal scholars and political scientists, it presents new research and insights on the role of EU agencies in the context of the Euro and migration crises. Specifically, the contributions assess why the crises have led to the creation of new EU agencies and what roles these agencies have performed since their inception; how the crisis, notably the migration crisis, has impacted on existing EU agencies; how EU agencies have shaped the policies during and after the crises; and, how the crisis has affected the accountability of EU agencies. This book is essential in understanding the intricacies of EU crisis management and the specific role of EU agencies therein, as well as EU governance more broadly. Chapter 9 is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via link.springer.com.
Categories: Political Science

Democracy in Europe

Democracy in Europe

In conclusion, the book demonstrates how in the recent past democracy, far from making progress, has in fact become more limited and oligarchic, as indeed it was at the outset, 2,500 years ago.

Author: Luciano Canfora

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781405154598

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 930

This history traces the development of democracy in Europe from its origins in ancient Greece up to the present day. Considers all the major watersheds in the development of democracy in modern Europe. Describes the rediscovery of Ancient Greek political ideals by intellectuals at the end of the eighteenth century. Examines the twenty-year crisis from 1789 to 1815, when the repercussions of revolution in France were felt across the European continent. Explains how events in France led to the explosion of democratic movements between 1830 and 1848. Compares the different manifestations of democracy within Eastern and Western Europe during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Considers fascism and its consequences for democracy in Europe during the twentieth century. Demonstrates how in the recent past democracy itself has become the object of ideological battles.
Categories: History

The 1848 Revolutions and European Political Thought

The 1848 Revolutions and European Political Thought

Nowhere is this relative neglect more visible than in the century following the French Revolution and the ... which the 1848 revolutionary crisis in Europe was grasped by its proponents and its adversaries, and in which various agendas ...

Author: Douglas Moggach

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108575690

Category: Political Science

Page:

View: 489

The revolutions that swept across Europe in 1848 marked a turning-point in the history of political and social thought. They raised questions of democracy, nationhood, freedom and social cohesion that have remained among the key issues of modern politics, and still help to define the major ideological currents - liberalism, socialism, republicanism, anarchism, conservatism - in which these questions continue to be debated today. This collection of essays by internationally prominent historians of political thought examines the 1848 Revolutions in a pan-European perspective, and offers research on questions of state power, nationality, religion, the economy, poverty, labour, and freedom. Even where the revolutionary movements failed to achieve their explicit objectives of transforming the state and social relations, they set the agenda for subsequent regimes, and contributed to the shaping of modern European thought and institutions.
Categories: Political Science

Europe 1780 1830

Europe 1780   1830

Now for the first time the book has been fully revised, updated and expanded. The half-century covered constitutes one of the most complex, eventful and rapidly changing of any in Europe's history.

Author: Franklin L. Ford

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317870944

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 539

Europe 1780--1830 rapidly established itself as a standard introduction to European history in the age of the French Revolution and its aftermath when it first appeared. Now for the first time the book has been fully revised, updated and expanded. The half-century covered constitutes one of the most complex, eventful and rapidly changing of any in Europe's history. It is a period whose emphasis on conflict and political crisis combines daring innovation with the stubborn persistence of many older attitudes and patterns of human behaviour. Professor Ford explores these tensions throughout; and he gives his readers a powerful sense of the extraordinary energy, in every aspect of human activity, that characterised the time.
Categories: History

Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States SPD 9

Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States   SPD 9

It was because England had a bloody revolution in the seventeenth century that she escaped one in the nineteenth. ... The years 1831-1832, when the Reform Bills were at stake, can be plausibly regarded as a revolutionary crisis, ...

Author: Raymond Grew

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400868438

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 584

As the last volume in the series sponsored by the SSRC Committee on Comparative Politics, this book reflects—as does the preceding volume—the Committee's decision to devote renewed attention to the original state building experiences of the West, after having studied political development in the newer countries of the Third World. The contributors attempt to discern patterns of historical change in the different sequences of crises that affect all states in their development. Following an introductory and theoretical statement by Raymond Grew, each chapter focuses on a different country or area. Each of these essays applies and evaluates the Committee's concept of crises of development, i.e., crises of identity, legitimacy, participation, penetration, and distribution. The distinguished historians and political scientists who contribute to the volume are: Keith Thomas (on the United Kingdom), Aristide R. Zolberg (on Belgium), Folke Dovring (on Scandinavia), J. Rogers Hollingsworth (on the United States), Stanley G. Payne (on Spain and Portugal), David D. Bien (on France), Raymond Grew (on France and Italy), John R. Gillis (on Germany), Walter M. Pintner (on Russia), and Roman Szporluk (on Poland), with Lucian W. Pye providing the Preface. Originally published in 1979. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Categories: Political Science