This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.
Author: Bronwyn Winter
Today Europe stands at a crossroads unlike any it has faced since 1945. Since the 2008 financial crash, Europe has weathered the Greek debt crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the identity crisis brought about by Brexit in 2016. The future of the European project is in doubt. How will Europe respond? Reform and revolution have been two forms of response to crisis that have shaped Europe’s history. To understand Europe’s present, we must understand that past. This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.
A unique dimension of this collection is its avoidance of one-dimensional explanations. The contributors approach the subject from very different angles, and start from very distinct sociopolitical premises.
Communism in Eastern Europe is in crisis. Its dimensions are social and economic; its manifestation is political. This volume, a collection of essays by leading authorities, describes the symptoms of the crisis, diagnoses the causes of the malady, and offers alternative scenarios for therapy. A unique dimension of this collection is its avoidance of one-dimensional explanations. The contributors approach the subject from very different angles, and start from very distinct sociopolitical premises. The volume includes original accounts of unexplored aspects of East European communism as well as classic interpretations of the economic crisis and social stagnation that characterize the area. Contributions not only examine the sociopolitical behavior of the ruling apparatus, but also analyze its strategies, political culture, and the opposition. Both the professional and the general reader seeking more information about Eastern Europe will find this volume an extensive, in-depth portrait of the current situation in what many observers predict may develop into the major area of tension in post-World War II Europe. Ferenc Feher, a collaborator and friend of George Lukacs, was a leading member of the "Budapest School." Forced into exile in 1977, he was taught in Australia and is now in New York at the New School for Social Research. He has published widely, in several languages, on the philosophy of art, political theory, and history.
Together they cover many aspects of crisis and change in most European countries - in society, government, economics, religion and education. The book will be welcomed by all interested in this much debated period.
Author: Trevor Aston
Past and Present began publication in 1952. It has established itself as one of the leading historical journals, publishing in lively and readable form a wide variety of scholarly and original articles. Much important work by English and foreign scholars on the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries first appeared in the form of articles in the journal. Originally published in 1965, this collection brings together a broad selection of these articles which have much common ground in the questions they discuss. Together they cover many aspects of crisis and change in most European countries – in society, government, economics, religion and education. The book will be welcomed by all interested in this much debated period.
Thus, all compromise must be compatible with fundamental principles; reform
can be workable and justifiable only as radical reform. Revolution, on the other
hand, should remain a self-limiting one, both because of the “geopolitical”
Author: Ferenc Feher
Category: Political Science
Communism in Eastern Europe is in crisis. Its dimensions are social and economic; its manifestation is political. This volume, a collection of essays by leading authorities, describes the symptoms of the crisis, diagnoses the causes of the malady, and offers alternative scenarios for therapy. A unique dimension of this collection is its avoidance of one-dimensional explanations. The contributors approach the subject from very different angles, and start from very distinct sociopolitical premises. The volume includes original accounts of unexplored aspects of East European communism as well as classic interpretations of the economic crisis and social stagnation that characterize the area. Contributions not only examine the sociopolitical behavior of the ruling apparatus, but also analyze its strategies, political culture, and the opposition. Both the professional and the general reader seeking more information about Eastern Europe will find this volume an extensive, in-depth portrait of the current situation in what many observers predict may develop into the major area of tension in post-World War II Europe.
Cyclical climate crises shape the biological life on Earth, including the development and decline of subsequent human civilizations.
Author: Bogdan Góralski
Publisher: Bogdan Góralski
Category: Business & Economics
Cyclical climate crises shape the biological life on Earth, including the development and decline of subsequent human civilizations. Favorable climatic conditions cause a population increase within every civilization. Then comes the deterioration of climatic conditions and the internal crisis of civilization that sets the leader. Then comes the conquest of external countries and the development of the empire until its fall, which shape a new empire. The development and fall of subsequent civilizations follow the rhythm of the movements of the earth's coating, what I described in my works. Chinggis Khan's empire was born during the climate crisis in Asia. At that time, favorable climatic conditions prevailed in Europe, and it was in the direction of Europe that the Mongol expansion was directed. In the meantime, between the Mughal empire and Napoleon's empire, a powerful Ottoman Empire emerged, whose development indicates the shift of favorable climate zones from East Asia to the west towards Turkey. The empire developed and fell before the summit of the Little Ice Age that was destroying Europe. Russian Empire developed in almost the same time as the Ottoman Empire, and it collapsed in the internal crisis of the Russian revolution during the east European climatic crisis-see in my work below entitled "Russian revolution and the climate." The Little Ice Age caused an internal crisis in Europe, the expansion of Europeans to other continents, and the rise of Napoleon's empire. At that time, favorable climatic conditions prevailed in Asia. Another climate crisis in Asia is approaching, and I am sure that only the global opening of borders and the free migration of peoples can save the world from the Third World War. I present below the chapter of my book titled "Natural History and Climate Changes". III.18.104.22.168. Reasons for the outbreak of the Russian Revolution The analysis of past revolutions leads to the conclusion that two factors are needed for the revolution to take place: the dissatisfied people and the frustrated intelligentsia driving the revolution. The dissatisfaction of the people comes from not fulfilling basic life needs, and the frustration of intelligence is a consequence of the lack of life prospects in the old social order. The environmental factors (natural and social ) determine the emergence of the revolutionary situation. Natural factors would include, above all, climatic factors - atmospheric precipitation and air temperature, which in the case of Russia, are very variable. They determine the basic social parameters - the size and sexual composition of the population developing in favorable climatic conditions for a given territory. For the revolution to take place, a decades-long period of good climatic conditions conducive to population growth and its masculinization would be needed, followed by a deterioration of this climatic situation and the social situation that was linked to it. In the decades before the Russian Revolution, there were better conditions in Russia (rising atmospheric precipitation) and social conditions (reform of education for Alexander I, release from serfdom and other reforms). The later deterioration of the social situation due to overpopulation and hunger of the land was followed by erroneous actions by the authorities that do not take into account the impact of the climatic factor and destroying the rural communities - сообщество. In the run-up to the revolution, climatic conditions gradually improved, and the apogee of the climate crisis took place just before the revolution. The crisis in Europe and the position of European powers pushing for world war caused deterioration of the internal situation in Russia and consequently accelerated the revolution. To the deterioration contributed the coolings of the climate of 1901-1905 and 1914-1918. (See fig. 24). The European elites, mostly landowners, were bankrupted by the constantly going down prices of grain (from 1830 supplied by steamers from the USA (about 15% of Europe's grain needs)) and only war left to escape from it. Probably it was one of the main causes of the First World War, apart from the masculinization of the European population. The social factor decisive for the revolution is the size of the population able to survive in a given territory. When the population rises to the border value for a given territory, it becomes sensitive to any deterioration of living conditions because the environmental resources available to individual units decrease, and also, due to the population density, social distances are reduced, which increases the level of aggression. Such a deterioration in the life situation of the Russian people uprooted Russian nobility, intelligentsia, and the Jewish community occurred in the period preceding the revolution, ie, from 1861 to 1917. The climate crisis and the lack of knowledge about the real problems of Russian society determined the outbreak of the revolution. Another reason was to stop by the state terror of progressive and positive evolution of the patriotically minded Russian intelligentsia. The victory of the Bolshevik Revolution was also decided by anti-Semitism, controlled by tsarism (?). In the further course of my work, I will try to show that the above factors determined the existence of a specific social situation and the outbreak of the Russian Revolution.
... revolutionary crisis in Europe was grasped by its proponents and its
adversaries, and in which various agendas for social change were advanced,
often in polemical interaction with other currents within the diverse
insurrectionary and reform ...
Author: Douglas Moggach
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Political Science
The revolutions that swept across Europe in 1848 marked a turning-point in the history of political and social thought. They raised questions of democracy, nationhood, freedom and social cohesion that have remained among the key issues of modern politics, and still help to define the major ideological currents - liberalism, socialism, republicanism, anarchism, conservatism - in which these questions continue to be debated today. This collection of essays by internationally prominent historians of political thought examines the 1848 Revolutions in a pan-European perspective, and offers research on questions of state power, nationality, religion, the economy, poverty, labour, and freedom. Even where the revolutionary movements failed to achieve their explicit objectives of transforming the state and social relations, they set the agenda for subsequent regimes, and contributed to the shaping of modern European thought and institutions.
"Like Eric Hobsbawm's masterful histories of economic, social, and cultural change in Europe, Berend's book covers a vast variety of changes, and convincingly shows that they were all related.
Author: Ivan T. Berend
Publisher: Univ of California Press
"Like Eric Hobsbawm's masterful histories of economic, social, and cultural change in Europe, Berend's book covers a vast variety of changes, and convincingly shows that they were all related."--Daniel Chirot, author of Modern Tyrants "A dozen fermenting societies floundering through choppy times are brilliantly brought together in Ivan Berend's informed, lucid and readable account of Central and Eastern Europe before World War II. Berend has achieved a splendid synthesis not to be missed by specialists, yet accessible to the general reader."--Eugen Weber, University of California, Los Angeles "Berend's work will find an eager audience of European historians, specialists in Central and Eastern Europe, and educated readers among the general population."--David F. Good, author of The Economic Rise of the Habsburg Empire, 1750-1914
Fifty years after the beginning of the debate about the "general crisis of the seventeenth century," and thirty years after theodore K. Rabb's reformulation of it as the "European struggle for stability." this volume returns to the ...
Author: Philip Benedict
Publisher: University of Delaware Press
Fifty years after the beginning of the debate about the "general crisis of the seventeenth century," and thirty years after theodore K. Rabb's reformulation of it as the "European struggle for stability." this volume returns to the fundamental questions raised by the long-running discussion: What continent-wide patterns of change can be discerned in European history across the centuries from the Renaissance to the French Revolution? What were the causes of the revolts that rocked so many countries between 1640 and 1660? Did fundamental changes occur in the relationship between politics and religion? Politics and military technology? Politics and the structures of intellectual authority?
In Britain, barricades and bloodshed were not necessary to pass the Reform Act
of 1832, but there was something approaching a revolutionary crisis in 1831 and
it concluded with the end of Britain's parliamentary 'Old Regime'. There was ...
Author: Martyn Lyons
Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education
Martyn Lyons offers a fresh interpretation of European history in the half-century following the fall of Napoleon. Instead of seeing the period in traditional terms of Restoration and Reaction, this new account emphasizes the problems of remembering and forgetting the recent revolutionary and Napoleonic past, and of either incorporating or rejecting its legacy. Post-Revolutionary Europe: - makes interesting comparisons and contrasts between the fall of the French Empire in 1815 and the collapse of the Soviet Empire in 1989-91 - examines the new forms of popular participation in political life which developed between the 1830 and 1848 Revolutions, as a broad public sphere of action was created - offers a series of thematic chapters which discuss key topics such as peasants and artisans, the bourgeois family, nationalism, the growth of cities, and European Jewry - covers a wide geographical context, from Britain to the Balkans and from Portugal to Russia. Illustrated throughout, this clear and engaging text is essential reading for all those with an interest in this important period of European history.
While mainly focusing on the modern era and on the effects of ethnic nationalism, fascism and communism, the book also offers original, striking and revisionist coverage of: * ancient and medieval times * the Hussite Revolution, the ...
Author: Robert Bideleux
A History of Eastern Europe: Crisis and Change is a wide-ranging single volume history of the "lands between", the lands which have lain between Germany, Italy, and the Tsarist and Soviet empires. Bideleux and Jeffries examine the problems that have bedevilled this troubled region during its imperial past, the interwar period, under fascism, under communism, and since 1989. While mainly focusing on the modern era and on the effects of ethnic nationalism, fascism and communism, the book also offers original, striking and revisionist coverage of: * ancient and medieval times * the Hussite Revolution, the Renaissance, the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation * the legacies of Byzantium, the Ottoman Empire and the Hapsburg Empire * the rise and decline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth * the impact of the region's powerful Russian and Germanic neighbours * rival concepts of "Central" and "Eastern" Europe * the 1920s land reforms and the 1930s Depression. Providing a thematic historical survey and analysis of the formative processes of change which have played the paramount roles in shaping the development of the region, A History of Eastern Europe itself will play a paramount role in the studies of European historians.
Author: Harold Gordon SkillingPublish On: 2015-03-08
Reform, Revolution, or Counterrevolution? ... In this sense it was but part of a
general crisis of communism in most of Eastern Europe where both the initial
Sovietization and the subsequent steps toward de-Stalinization were, so to speak
Author: Harold Gordon Skilling
Publisher: Princeton University Press
For about eight months in 1968 Czechoslovakia underwent rapid and radical changes that were unparalleled in the history of communist reform; in the eight months that followed, those changes were dramatically reversed. H. Gordon Skilling provides a comprehensive analysis of the events of 1968, assessing their significance both for Czechoslovakia and for communism generally. The author's account is based on all available written sources, including unpublished Communist Party documents and interviews conducted in Czechoslovakia in 1967, 1968, and 1969. He examines the historical background, the main reforms and political forces of 1968, international reactions, the Soviet intervention, and the experiment's collapse, concluding with his reasons for regarding the events of the Prague spring as a movement of revolutionary proportions. The author's account is based on all available written sources, including unpublished Communist Party documents and interviews conducted in Czechoslovakia in 1967, 1968, 1969. He examines the historical background, the main reforms and political forces on 1968, international reactions, the Soviet intervention, and the experiment's collapse, concluding with his reasons for regarding the events of the Prague spring as a movement of revolutionary proportions. Originally published in 1976. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
ZZ The Tanzimat - 1 Hayriye , or " Auspicious Reorderings , " was a period of
sustained legislation and reform that modernized ... Mustafa Reşit , leader of the
more liberal elements of the Ruling Class , was in Europe , helpless to do
anything about this situation . ... Resolution of the Eastern Crisis At the beginning
Author: Stanford J. Shaw
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Reform, Revolution and Republic: The Rise of Modern Turkey, 1808-1975 is the second book of the two-volume History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. It discusses the modernization of the Ottoman Empire during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the spread of nationalism among its subject peoples, and the revolutionary changes in Ottoman institutions and society that led to the Empire's demise and the rise of the democratic Republic of Turkey. Based on extensive research in the Ottoman archives as well as Western sources, this volume analyzes the external pressures, reform measures, institutional changes, and intellectual movements that affected the heterogeneous Ottoman society during the Empire's last century. It concludes with an analysis of contemporary Turkey's constitutional and political structures and principal domestic and foreign problems.
At a crossroads between past and future, the contributors to this seminal volume address all the crucial issues -- liberal democracy and its enemies, modernity and discontent, economic reforms and their social impact, ethnicity, nationalism ...
Author: Sorin Antohi
Publisher: Central European University Press
Category: Political Science
"The list of contributors is impressive withnot a single dull chapter...; the editors are to be congratulated for making available such a stimulating and timely, if not timeless, collection" - Slavic Review "[T]his is a book that will serve many intellectual tastes and interests, and that will certainly prove thought provoking for anyone who reads it... I recommend it to anybody who wants to witness the analythical depth and span with which the meaning of 1989 can be approached." - Extremism & Democracy The tenth anniversary of the collapse of communism in Central and Eastern Europe provides the starting point for this thought-provoking analysis. Between Past and Future reflects upon the past ten years and considers what lies ahead for the future. An international group of distinguished academics and public intellectuals, including former dissidents and active politicians, engage in a lively exchange on the antecedents, causes, contexts, meanings and legacies of the 1989 revolutions. At a crossroads between past and future, the contributors to this seminal volume address all the crucial issues -- liberal democracy and its enemies, modernity and discontent, economic reforms and their social impact, ethnicity, nationalism and religion, geopolitics, electoral systems and political power, European integration and the tragic demise of Yugoslavia. Based on the results of recent research on the ideologies behind one of the most dramatic systematic transformations in world history, and including contributions from some of the world's leading experts, Between Past and Future is an essential reference book for scholars and students of all levels, policy-makers, journalists and the general reader interested in the past and future prospects of Central & Eastern Europe
Schelling, Hölderlin and Hegel and the Crisis of Early German Idealism Franz
Gabriel Nauen ... his own society, realized that the success of reform in France
and Europe would not occur through an easy victory of obvious principles but
Author: Franz Gabriel Nauen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
In this study I will present the intellectual development of Schelling, Holderlin and Hegel during their formative years. Because of their similar social origins, the early thought of these young Swabians, during the 1790's, should be treated as a unit. Their experience as roommates at the Stift in Tiibingen and their close intellectual fellowship throughout the nineties made each extremely responsive to the others ideas. As mem bers of the political elite in Wiirttemberg, their intellectual assumptions were profoundly affected by the crisis of Wiirttemberg and German political society and by the events of the French Revolution in a way ex plicable only in the light of their Swabian heritage. So, for example, seen in the context of HOlderlin's and Schelling's thinking, the genesis of Hegel's earliest mature philosophical assumptions appears to be not so much an event in the history of philosophy as a specific solution to the problems raised by the crisis of his society. The crucial role of Holderlin in the history of German Idealism should also become apparent as a result of this study. For reasons developed in the following, Holderlin's thinking bridged the gap not only between Kantianism and the new philosophy, which was to come to fruition in Hegel's mature thought, but also between the republican and the natio nalist phase in the history of German political thought.
Author: United States. Embassy (Japan)Publish On: 1932
... European Crisis ; Some Younger Generation Soviet Leaders Desire Reform ; " Revolution from Below " Is Not Possible ... situation , moves for reform in both the
Soviet Union and the entire East Europe , " after BREZHNEV , " will be needed .
... Romania (as in much of Eastern Europe) as a central promoter and arbiter of
market reforms, I considered the rise and fall of the Romanian neoliberal “ revolution” to be primarily a domestic story, and as such paid little attention to the
Author: Grigore Pop-Eleches
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Category: Business & Economics
The wave of neoliberal economic reforms in the developing world since the 1980s has been regarded as the result of both severe economic crises and policy pressures from global financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Using comparative evidence from the initiation and implementation of IMF programs in Latin America and Eastern Europe, From Economic Crisis to Reform shows that economic crises do not necessarily persuade governments to adopt IMF-style economic policies. Instead, ideology, interests, and institutions, at both the international and domestic levels, mediate responses to such crises. Grigore Pop-Eleches explains that the IMF's response to economic crises reflects the changing priorities of large IMF member countries. He argues that the IMF gives greater attention and favorable treatment to economic crises when they occur in economically or politically important countries. The book also shows how during the neoliberal consensus of the 1990s, economic crises triggered IMF-style reforms from governments across the ideological spectrum and how these reforms were broadly compatible with democratic politics. By contrast, during the Latin American debt crisis, the contentious politics of IMF programs reflected the ideological rivalries of the Cold War. Economic crises triggered ideologically divergent domestic policy responses and democracy was often at odds with economic adjustment. The author demonstrates that an economic crisis triggers neoliberal economic reforms only when the government and the IMF agree about the roots and severity of the crisis.
Revolution and Reform Dieter Dowe, Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, Dieter
Langewiesche, Jonathan Sperber ... Geographically in Europe but not of it,
Britain managed to escape such continental horrors as revolution, as alien forces
stopped short at the English Channel. ... Having endured its worst trough during
the cyclical crisis of 1839/42, the economy, boosted by a number of growth
factors, was carried ...
Author: Dieter Dowe
Publisher: Berghahn Books
The events of 1989/90 in Europe demonstrated the renewed relevance of the mid-nineteenth century uprisings: both by showing, once again, how a revolutionary initiative could quickly spread through different European countries, but also by calling into question the nature of revolution and the criteria for a revolution's success and failure. To commemorate the 1848 revolution in a spirit of renewed critical inquiry, an international team of prominent historians have come together to produce what must be the most comprehensive work on this topic to date and to offer a synthesis that sums up the current state of scholarly research, emphasizing the many new interpretations that have developed over several decades.
The skillful and fluent translation makes the book a pleasure to read."--R. R. Palmer, Professor Emeritus, Yale University "[This] will become a standard work of reference for anyone who wants to understand the world of the Enlightenment.
Author: Franco Venturi
Category: Eighteenth century
"Franco Venturi, premier European interpreter of the Enlightenment, is still completing his acclaimed multivolume work Settecento Riformatore, a grand synthesis of Western history before the French Revolution as seen through the perceptive eyes of Italian observers. R. Burr Litchfield now makes available in English translation the third volume of Settecento Riformatore and first part of The End of the Old Regime in Europe. Here the reader will discover the lively world of Italian journalists, polemicists, chroniclers, and commentators, who followed with intelligence and growing awareness the great developments of their age, from the Greek uprising of 1770, the Pugachev revolt in Russia and unrest of peasants in Bohemia, through the first partition of Poland, the reactions of Struensee in Denmark and Gustavus III in Sweden, constitutional troubles in Geneva, the crisis of reform in France with the dismissal of Turgot, and events in England and America at the outbreak of the American Revolution. Thus began the outer circle of revolutions that after another two decades would find their epicenter in Paris in 1789"--Publishers description.
European. Revolution,. 1989–2000. Ivan T.Berend “Yugoslav Communism,
separating itself from Moscow,” stated the legendary Yugoslav dissident, Milovan
Djilas, “initiated the crisis of Soviet imperialism. ... This chapter will discuss the
evolution of communism in Eastern Europe, the revolts that provoked its collapse,
and the efforts to “return to Europe” as a framework for modernization and reform
Author: Rosemary Wakeman
Category: Business & Economics
This collection explores the most important transformations & upheavals of post-1945 Europe in the light of recent scholarship. It examines the post-war economic boom & the political realignment of eastern European states in the 1990s, amongst other topics.
3 Reforms , revolutions , and the loosening bloc , the 1950s and 1960s Stalinist
Central and Eastern European socialism , in a few years after its introduction ,
declined into a deep crisis . The reasons for this were an overly expensive
Author: Ivan Berend
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Category: Business & Economics
An ambitious, comparative analysis of 'Eastern Bloc' economies during a period of revolutionary change.