Reform Revolution and Crisis in Europe

Reform  Revolution and Crisis in Europe

European. Diplomacy. in. Crisis. Lessons From the Congress of Berlin of 1878
Nina Markovic Khaze The Congress of Berlin of 1878 (hereafter the Congress) is
remembered as one of three major European peace conferences of the ...

Author: Bronwyn Winter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000726015

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 875

Today Europe stands at a crossroads unlike any it has faced since 1945. Since the 2008 financial crash, Europe has weathered the Greek debt crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the identity crisis brought about by Brexit in 2016. The future of the European project is in doubt. How will Europe respond? Reform and revolution have been two forms of response to crisis that have shaped Europe’s history. To understand Europe’s present, we must understand that past. This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.
Categories: History

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe

Thus, all compromise must be compatible with fundamental principles; reform
can be workable and justifiable only as radical reform. Revolution, on the other
hand, should remain a self-limiting one, both because of the "geopolitical"
strategic ...

Author: Ferenc Féhér

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412820677

Category: History

Page: 531

View: 676

Communism in Eastern Europe is in crisis. Its dimensions are social and economic; its manifestation is political. This volume, a collection of essays by leading authorities, describes the symptoms of the crisis, diagnoses the causes of the malady, and offers alternative scenarios for therapy. A unique dimension of this collection is its avoidance of one-dimensional explanations. The contributors approach the subject from very different angles, and start from very distinct sociopolitical premises. The volume includes original accounts of unexplored aspects of East European communism as well as classic interpretations of the economic crisis and social stagnation that characterize the area. Contributions not only examine the sociopolitical behavior of the ruling apparatus, but also analyze its strategies, political culture, and the opposition. Both the professional and the general reader seeking more information about Eastern Europe will find this volume an extensive, in-depth portrait of the current situation in what many observers predict may develop into the major area of tension in post-World War II Europe. Ferenc Feher, a collaborator and friend of George Lukacs, was a leading member of the "Budapest School." Forced into exile in 1977, he was taught in Australia and is now in New York at the New School for Social Research. He has published widely, in several languages, on the philosophy of art, political theory, and history.
Categories: History

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe

Thus, all compromise must be compatible with fundamental principles; reform
can be workable and justifiable only as radical reform. Revolution, on the other
hand, should remain a self-limiting one, both because of the “geopolitical”
strategic ...

Author: Ferenc Feher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000675276

Category: Political Science

Page: 540

View: 844

Communism in Eastern Europe is in crisis. Its dimensions are social and economic; its manifestation is political. This volume, a collection of essays by leading authorities, describes the symptoms of the crisis, diagnoses the causes of the malady, and offers alternative scenarios for therapy. A unique dimension of this collection is its avoidance of one-dimensional explanations. The contributors approach the subject from very different angles, and start from very distinct sociopolitical premises. The volume includes original accounts of unexplored aspects of East European communism as well as classic interpretations of the economic crisis and social stagnation that characterize the area. Contributions not only examine the sociopolitical behavior of the ruling apparatus, but also analyze its strategies, political culture, and the opposition. Both the professional and the general reader seeking more information about Eastern Europe will find this volume an extensive, in-depth portrait of the current situation in what many observers predict may develop into the major area of tension in post-World War II Europe.
Categories: Political Science

Revolutionary Europe 1780 1850

Revolutionary Europe 1780   1850

For another reform movement, Alan Heeson, 'The Coal Mines Act of 1842, Social
Reform and Social Control', Historical ... General national histories and works on
the revolution of 1848 also include accounts of the pre-revolutionary crisis.

Author: Jonathan Sperber

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781351807456

Category: History

Page: 426

View: 686

Jonathan Sperber’s Revolutionary Europe 1780–1850 is a history of Europe in the age of the French Revolution, from the end of the old regime to the outcome of the revolutions of 1848. Fully revised and updated, this second edition provides a continent-wide history of the key political events and social transformation that took place within this turbulent period, extending as far as their effects within the European colonial society of the Caribbean. Key features include analyses of the movement from society’s old regime of orders to a civil society of property owners; the varied consequences of rapid population increase and the spread of market relations in the economy; and the upshot of these changes for political life, from violent revolutions and warfare to dramatic reforms and peaceful mass movements a lively account of the events of the period and a thorough analysis of the political, cultural and socioeconomic transformations that shaped them a look into the lives of ordinary people amidst the social and economic developments of the time a range of maps depicting the developments in Europe’s geographic scope between 1789 and 1848, including for the 1820, 1830 and 1848 revolutions. Revolutionary Europe 1780–1850 is the perfect introduction for students of the history of the French Revolution and the history of Europe more broadly.
Categories: History

Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States SPD 9

Crises of Political Development in Europe and the United States   SPD 9

It was because England had a bloody revolution in the seventeenth century that
she escaped one in the nineteenth. ... The years 1831-1832, when the Reform
Bills were at stake, can be plausibly regarded as a revolutionary crisis, held in ...

Author: Raymond Grew

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400868438

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 931

As the last volume in the series sponsored by the SSRC Committee on Comparative Politics, this book reflects—as does the preceding volume—the Committee's decision to devote renewed attention to the original state building experiences of the West, after having studied political development in the newer countries of the Third World. The contributors attempt to discern patterns of historical change in the different sequences of crises that affect all states in their development. Following an introductory and theoretical statement by Raymond Grew, each chapter focuses on a different country or area. Each of these essays applies and evaluates the Committee's concept of crises of development, i.e., crises of identity, legitimacy, participation, penetration, and distribution. The distinguished historians and political scientists who contribute to the volume are: Keith Thomas (on the United Kingdom), Aristide R. Zolberg (on Belgium), Folke Dovring (on Scandinavia), J. Rogers Hollingsworth (on the United States), Stanley G. Payne (on Spain and Portugal), David D. Bien (on France), Raymond Grew (on France and Italy), John R. Gillis (on Germany), Walter M. Pintner (on Russia), and Roman Szporluk (on Poland), with Lucian W. Pye providing the Preface. Originally published in 1979. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Categories: Political Science

Czechoslovakia s Interrupted Revolution

Czechoslovakia s Interrupted Revolution

Reform, Revolution, or Counterrevolution? ... In this sense it was but part of a
general crisis of communism in most of Eastern Europe where both the initial
Sovietization and the subsequent steps toward de-Stalinization were, so to speak
, ...

Author: Harold Gordon Skilling

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400871155

Category: History

Page: 944

View: 743

For about eight months in 1968 Czechoslovakia underwent rapid and radical changes that were unparalleled in the history of communist reform; in the eight months that followed, those changes were dramatically reversed. H. Gordon Skilling provides a comprehensive analysis of the events of 1968, assessing their significance both for Czechoslovakia and for communism generally. The author's account is based on all available written sources, including unpublished Communist Party documents and interviews conducted in Czechoslovakia in 1967, 1968, and 1969. He examines the historical background, the main reforms and political forces of 1968, international reactions, the Soviet intervention, and the experiment's collapse, concluding with his reasons for regarding the events of the Prague spring as a movement of revolutionary proportions. The author's account is based on all available written sources, including unpublished Communist Party documents and interviews conducted in Czechoslovakia in 1967, 1968, 1969. He examines the historical background, the main reforms and political forces on 1968, international reactions, the Soviet intervention, and the experiment's collapse, concluding with his reasons for regarding the events of the Prague spring as a movement of revolutionary proportions. Originally published in 1976. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.
Categories: History

Revolution Idealism and Human Freedom Schelling H lderlin and Hegel and the Crisis of Early German Idealism

Revolution  Idealism and Human Freedom  Schelling H  lderlin and Hegel and the Crisis of Early German Idealism

Schelling, Hölderlin and Hegel and the Crisis of Early German Idealism Franz
Gabriel Nauen ... his own society, realized that the success of reform in France
and Europe would not occur through an easy victory of obvious principles but
would ...

Author: Franz Gabriel Nauen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401030335

Category: History

Page: 106

View: 125

In this study I will present the intellectual development of Schelling, Holderlin and Hegel during their formative years. Because of their similar social origins, the early thought of these young Swabians, during the 1790's, should be treated as a unit. Their experience as roommates at the Stift in Tiibingen and their close intellectual fellowship throughout the nineties made each extremely responsive to the others ideas. As mem bers of the political elite in Wiirttemberg, their intellectual assumptions were profoundly affected by the crisis of Wiirttemberg and German political society and by the events of the French Revolution in a way ex plicable only in the light of their Swabian heritage. So, for example, seen in the context of HOlderlin's and Schelling's thinking, the genesis of Hegel's earliest mature philosophical assumptions appears to be not so much an event in the history of philosophy as a specific solution to the problems raised by the crisis of his society. The crucial role of Holderlin in the history of German Idealism should also become apparent as a result of this study. For reasons developed in the following, Holderlin's thinking bridged the gap not only between Kantianism and the new philosophy, which was to come to fruition in Hegel's mature thought, but also between the republican and the natio nalist phase in the history of German political thought.
Categories: History

Europe in 1848

Europe in 1848

Revolution and Reform Dieter Dowe, Heinz-Gerhard Haupt, Dieter
Langewiesche, Jonathan Sperber ... Geographically in Europe but not of it,
Britain managed to escape such continental horrors as revolution, as alien forces
stopped short at the English Channel. ... Having endured its worst trough during
the cyclical crisis of 1839/42, the economy, boosted by a number of growth
factors, was carried ...

Author: Dieter Dowe

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 9781571811646

Category: History

Page: 994

View: 198

The events of 1989/90 in Europe demonstrated the renewed relevance of the mid-nineteenth century uprisings: both by showing, once again, how a revolutionary initiative could quickly spread through different European countries, but also by calling into question the nature of revolution and the criteria for a revolution's success and failure. To commemorate the 1848 revolution in a spirit of renewed critical inquiry, an international team of prominent historians have come together to produce what must be the most comprehensive work on this topic to date and to offer a synthesis that sums up the current state of scholarly research, emphasizing the many new interpretations that have developed over several decades.
Categories: History

Themes in Modern European History Since 1945

Themes in Modern European History Since 1945

European. Revolution,. 1989–2000. Ivan T.Berend “Yugoslav Communism,
separating itself from Moscow,” stated the legendary Yugoslav dissident, Milovan
Djilas, “initiated the crisis of Soviet imperialism. ... This chapter will discuss the
evolution of communism in Eastern Europe, the revolts that provoked its collapse,
and the efforts to “return to Europe” as a framework for modernization and reform
after ...

Author: Rosemary Wakeman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134601066

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 886

This collection explores the most important transformations & upheavals of post-1945 Europe in the light of recent scholarship. It examines the post-war economic boom & the political realignment of eastern European states in the 1990s, amongst other topics.
Categories: Business & Economics

From Economic Crisis to Reform

From Economic Crisis to Reform

... Romania (as in much of Eastern Europe) as a central promoter and arbiter of
market reforms, I considered the rise and fall of the Romanian neoliberal “
revolution” to be primarily a domestic story, and as such paid little attention to the
Fund.

Author: Grigore Pop-Eleches

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400835542

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 368

View: 967

The wave of neoliberal economic reforms in the developing world since the 1980s has been regarded as the result of both severe economic crises and policy pressures from global financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Using comparative evidence from the initiation and implementation of IMF programs in Latin America and Eastern Europe, From Economic Crisis to Reform shows that economic crises do not necessarily persuade governments to adopt IMF-style economic policies. Instead, ideology, interests, and institutions, at both the international and domestic levels, mediate responses to such crises. Grigore Pop-Eleches explains that the IMF's response to economic crises reflects the changing priorities of large IMF member countries. He argues that the IMF gives greater attention and favorable treatment to economic crises when they occur in economically or politically important countries. The book also shows how during the neoliberal consensus of the 1990s, economic crises triggered IMF-style reforms from governments across the ideological spectrum and how these reforms were broadly compatible with democratic politics. By contrast, during the Latin American debt crisis, the contentious politics of IMF programs reflected the ideological rivalries of the Cold War. Economic crises triggered ideologically divergent domestic policy responses and democracy was often at odds with economic adjustment. The author demonstrates that an economic crisis triggers neoliberal economic reforms only when the government and the IMF agree about the roots and severity of the crisis.
Categories: Business & Economics

Revolution and Reform in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

Revolution and Reform in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union

The crisis of the 1870s involved default on about 54 per cent of the entire amount
of foreign governmental obligations listed in London , then the financial capital of
the world , while that of the 1930s involved 26 countries , at a time when the ...

Author: United Nations. Economic and Social Council. Committee for Development Planning

Publisher: United Nations Publications

ISBN: UOM:39015033103238

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 65

View: 450

Categories: Business & Economics

Reform and Revolution in France

Reform and Revolution in France

A. Sorel , Europe and the French Revolution : The Political Traditions of the Old
Regime , trans . and ed . A. Cobban and J. W. ... B. Stone , The French
Parlements and the Crisis of the Old Regime ( Chapel Hill and London , 1986 ) ,
p . 169 . 10.

Author: Peter M. Jones

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521459427

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 275

View: 361

A new social and political interpretation of the origins of the French Revolution.
Categories: Business & Economics

History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Volume 2 Reform Revolution and Republic The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808 1975

History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey  Volume 2  Reform  Revolution  and Republic  The Rise of Modern Turkey 1808 1975

2 The Era of Modern Reform : The Tanzimat , 1839–1876 The Tanzimat - 1
Hayriye , or " Auspicious Reorderings , " was a period ... Mustafa Reşit , leader of
the more liberal elements of the Ruling Class , was in Europe , helpless to do
anything about this situation . ... Resolution of the Eastern Crisis At the beginning
of the 55.

Author: Stanford J. Shaw

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521291666

Category: History

Page: 548

View: 199

This is the second book of the two-volume History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey.
Categories: History

Decades of Crisis

Decades of Crisis

The flames of revolution, however, soon reached the crisis-ridden Central and
Eastern European nations. ... Radical electorial reform, the guarantee of human
rights and freedoms, and the institution of fundamental social reforms would ...

Author: Ivan T. Berend

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 052092701X

Category: History

Page: 485

View: 501

Only by understanding Central and Eastern Europe's turbulent history during the first half of the twentieth century can we hope to make sense of the conflicts and crises that have followed World War II and, after that, the collapse of Soviet-controlled state socialism. Ivan Berend looks closely at the fateful decades preceding World War II and at twelve countries whose absence from the roster of major players was enough in itself, he says, to precipitate much of the turmoil. As waves of modernization swept over Europe, the less developed countries on the periphery tried with little or no success to imitate Western capitalism and liberalism. Instead they remained, as Berend shows, rural, agrarian societies notable for the tenacious survival of feudal and aristocratic institutions. In that context of frustration and disappointment, rebellion was inevitable. Berend leads the reader skillfully through the maze of social, cultural, economic, and political changes in Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Austria, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and the Soviet Union, showing how every path ended in dictatorship and despotism by the start of World War II.
Categories: History

Reform Revolution and French Global Policy 1787 1791

Reform  Revolution and French Global Policy  1787 1791

and longer - term context of the European balance of power system . ... For Stone
, the Revolution arose out of “ a gradually developing crisis of governmental
legitimacy in the domestic sphere paralleling and eventually interacting with the ...

Author: Jeremy J. Whiteman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: UOM:39015056827341

Category: History

Page: 269

View: 748

This study into France's attitude to the question of her place in the world system of the late eighteenth century focuses on the policies of the French government during the period when absolutism gradually gave way to radical republican rule. From this a
Categories: History

Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe

Empire and Military Revolution in Eastern Europe

... imushchestvennoe polozhenie ofitserov reguliarnoi russkoi armii v kontse
Severnoi voiny,” in Rossiia v period reform Petra I, ed. N. I. Pavlenko (Moscow:
Nauka, 1973), pp. 133–71. Ransel, David, “The Government Crisis of 1730,” in
Reform ...

Author: Brian Davies

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781441162380

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 900

In terms of resource mobilization and devastation the wars between Russia, the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire were some of the largest of the 18th century, and had enormous consequences for the balance of power in Eastern Europe. Brian Davies examines how these conflicts characterized the course of Russian military development in response to Ottoman and Crimean Tatar threats and to determine under what circumstances and in what ways Russian military power experienced a "revolution" awarding it clear preponderance over the Ottoman-Crimean system. A central part of Davies' argument is that identifying and explaining a Military Revolution must involve examining the role of factors not purely military. One must look not only at new military technology, new force and command structure, new tactical thinking, and new recruitment and military finance practices but also consider the impact of larger demographic, economic, and sociopolitical changes.
Categories: History

Central and Eastern Europe 1944 1993

Central and Eastern Europe  1944 1993

3 Reforms , revolutions , and the loosening bloc , the 1950s and 1960s Stalinist
Central and Eastern European socialism , in a few years after its introduction ,
declined into a deep crisis . The reasons for this were an overly expensive
military ...

Author: Ivan Berend

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521663520

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 414

View: 755

An ambitious, comparative analysis of 'Eastern Bloc' economies during a period of revolutionary change.
Categories: Business & Economics

Revolution Reform and Regionalism in Southeast Asia

Revolution  Reform and Regionalism in Southeast Asia

much more peaceful political climate, but at a time when ASEAN was exposed to
financial crisis, which brought about a ... With both the European Union and the
United Nations urging ASEAN to push Myanmar to make democratic reforms, the
 ...

Author: Ronald Bruce St John

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134003464

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 936

Based on research carried out over the three decades, this book compares the post-war political economies of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam in the context of their individual and collective impact on contemporary efforts at regional integration. The author highlights the different paths to reform taken by the three neighbours and the effect this has had on regional plans for economic development through the ASEAN and the Greater Mekong Subregion. Through its comparative analysis of the reforms implemented by Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam over the last thirty years, the book draws attention to parallel themes of continuity and change. The author discusses how the three states have demonstrated related characteristics whilst at the same time making different modifications in order to exploit the unique strengths of their individual cultures. Contributing to the contemporary debate over the role of democratic reform in promoting economic development, the book provides a detailed account of the political economies of three states at the heart of Southeast Asia.
Categories: Political Science

The Popes and European Revolution

The Popes and European Revolution

... Counter-Reformation Popes were also in the habit of publishing a special
jubilee for prayers on their accession; and just occasionally in times of terrible
crisis, as by Clement XI in his political agony of 1709. PART II Reform and
Revolution 5 ...

Author: Owen Chadwick

Publisher: Clarendon Press

ISBN: 9780191520549

Category: Religion

Page: 656

View: 811

Owen Chadwick describes the effects of the European Revolution of 1789 to 1815 on the Papacy, and compares Catholic Church of the ancient régime to that of the early nineteenth century. The book shows how strongly the Counter-Reformation still worked in Italy during the eighteenth century; how it was the constitutional development of states, rather than the incoming of new ideas, which forced change; how traditional was the Catholic world even in the age of the Enlightenment. It shows reform at work, and the fierce pressure on the Papacy marked first in the forced suppression of the Jesuits and afterwards in the kidnapping of two successive Popes by French governments. It shows how revolution in Italy affected church structures and brought on peasant war, yet encouraged, in a radical form, some improvements of church life towards which the earlier reformers had striven. Finally, it shows the political swing of the Restoration after the fall of Napoleon, the way in which the Church was already associated with the political right, the great difficulties of restoring church life after the evolutionary years, and the persistence, half unnoticed, of the earlier reforming ideas among Catholics.
Categories: Religion