Reform Revolution and Crisis in Europe

Reform  Revolution and Crisis in Europe

This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.

Author: Taylor & Francis Group

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1032086351

Category:

Page: 244

View: 636

Today Europe stands at a crossroads unlike any it has faced since 1945. Since the 2008 financial crash, Europe has weathered the Greek debt crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the identity crisis brought about by Brexit in 2016. The future of the European project is in doubt. How will Europe respond? Reform and revolution have been two forms of response to crisis that have shaped Europe's history. To understand Europe's present, we must understand that past. This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.
Categories:

Reform Revolution and Crisis in Europe

Reform  Revolution and Crisis in Europe

This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.

Author: Bronwyn Winter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000726015

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 512

Today Europe stands at a crossroads unlike any it has faced since 1945. Since the 2008 financial crash, Europe has weathered the Greek debt crisis, the 2015 refugee crisis, and the identity crisis brought about by Brexit in 2016. The future of the European project is in doubt. How will Europe respond? Reform and revolution have been two forms of response to crisis that have shaped Europe’s history. To understand Europe’s present, we must understand that past. This interdisciplinary book considers, through the prism of several landmark moments, how the dynamics of reformation and revolution, and the crises they either addressed or created, have shaped European history, memory, and thought.
Categories: History

Crisis in Europe 1560 1660 Routledge Revivals

Crisis in Europe 1560   1660  Routledge Revivals

Together they cover many aspects of crisis and change in most European countries – in society, government, economics, religion and education. The book will be welcomed by all interested in this much debated period.

Author: Trevor Aston

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136505225

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 525

Past and Present began publication in 1952. It has established itself as one of the leading historical journals, publishing in lively and readable form a wide variety of scholarly and original articles. Much important work by English and foreign scholars on the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries first appeared in the form of articles in the journal. Originally published in 1965, this collection brings together a broad selection of these articles which have much common ground in the questions they discuss. Together they cover many aspects of crisis and change in most European countries – in society, government, economics, religion and education. The book will be welcomed by all interested in this much debated period.
Categories: History

Reinterpreting Revolution in Twentieth Century Europe

Reinterpreting Revolution in Twentieth Century Europe

In this volume, leading specialists from a variety of disciplines examine the changing and conflicting meanings of revolution in modern and contemporary Europe.

Author: Moira Donald

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9781137144782

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 411

Until the dramatic fall of Communist regimes in the East placed the possibility of revolution on the agenda once again, sudden and decisive political change had appeared a largely anachronistic phenomenon in Europe. Looking back over the twentieth century, it is plausible to argue that the twentieth, rather than the nineteenth, has been the 'most revolutionary of centuries'. In this volume, leading specialists from a variety of disciplines examine the changing and conflicting meanings of revolution in modern and contemporary Europe. Contributions include both broad essays on the global and historical context of European revolution and specific case studies reinterpreting a variety of revolutionary experiences.
Categories: History

Reform Revolution and French Global Policy 1787 1791

Reform  Revolution and French Global Policy  1787 1791

This work focuses on the policy responses of the National Constituent Assembly to the issues of global competition, especially in the maritime, colonial and economic sphere, and with particular reference to Anglo-French rivalry.

Author: Jeremy J. Whiteman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781351905879

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 108

The period following the American War of Independence was, for the France of Louis XVI, the high water mark of its diplomatic prestige. With France's arch-rival, Britain, humbled by the loss of her main north American colonies and deprived of any significant continental alliances, Louis felt confident that France could at last re-assume its natural role as the economic, political and military leader of Europe. That this did not happen, and if anything France's international prestige sunk even lower, was a bitter pill for its rulers, and one that was to have important ramifications beyond the sphere of foreign policy. Indeed, continued frustration at France's impotence on the world stage became a pressing domestic issue, with radically opposing solutions being put forward to bring about a 'national regeneration'. This work focuses on the policy responses of the National Constituent Assembly to the issues of global competition, especially in the maritime, colonial and economic sphere, and with particular reference to Anglo-French rivalry. These responses are contrasted to the policies of the 'reforming' royal government of the Pre-Revolution of 1787-1789. From this analysis of the Old and New Regimes' respective global policies, it is shown how French responses to the demands of international competition played a role in both fostering and shaping the Revolution of 1789. Moreover, Whiteman argues that in spite of profound ideological differences, in material terms there was a significant degree of continuity between the policies of the Constituent deputies and the Old Regime royal government.
Categories: History

Revolution of Russia and the climate

Revolution of Russia and the climate

Cyclical climate crises shape the biological life on Earth, including the development and decline of subsequent human civilizations.

Author: Bogdan Góralski

Publisher: Bogdan Góralski

ISBN:

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 58

View: 494

Cyclical climate crises shape the biological life on Earth, including the development and decline of subsequent human civilizations. Favorable climatic conditions cause a population increase within every civilization. Then comes the deterioration of climatic conditions and the internal crisis of civilization that sets the leader. Then comes the conquest of external countries and the development of the empire until its fall, which shape a new empire. The development and fall of subsequent civilizations follow the rhythm of the movements of the earth's coating, what I described in my works. Chinggis Khan's empire was born during the climate crisis in Asia. At that time, favorable climatic conditions prevailed in Europe, and it was in the direction of Europe that the Mongol expansion was directed. In the meantime, between the Mughal empire and Napoleon's empire, a powerful Ottoman Empire emerged, whose development indicates the shift of favorable climate zones from East Asia to the west towards Turkey. The empire developed and fell before the summit of the Little Ice Age that was destroying Europe. Russian Empire developed in almost the same time as the Ottoman Empire, and it collapsed in the internal crisis of the Russian revolution during the east European climatic crisis-see in my work below entitled "Russian revolution and the climate." The Little Ice Age caused an internal crisis in Europe, the expansion of Europeans to other continents, and the rise of Napoleon's empire. At that time, favorable climatic conditions prevailed in Asia. Another climate crisis in Asia is approaching, and I am sure that only the global opening of borders and the free migration of peoples can save the world from the Third World War. The analysis of past revolutions leads to the conclusion that two factors are needed for the revolution to take place: the dissatisfied people and the frustrated intelligentsia driving the revolution. 2 The dissatisfaction of the people comes from not fulfilling basic life needs, and the frustration of intelligence is a consequence of the lack of life prospects in the old social order. The environmental factors (natural and social ) determine the emergence of the revolutionary situation. Natural factors would include, above all, climatic factors - atmospheric precipitation and air temperature, which in the case of Russia, are very variable. They determine the basic social parameters - the size and sexual composition of the population developing in favorable climatic conditions for a given territory. For the revolution to take place, a decades-long period of good climatic conditions conducive to population growth and its masculinization would be needed, followed by a deterioration of this climatic situation and the social situation that was linked to it. In the decades before the Russian Revolution, there were better conditions in Russia (rising atmospheric precipitation) and social conditions (reform of education for Alexander I, release from serfdom and other reforms). The later deterioration of the social situation due to overpopulation and hunger of the land was followed by erroneous actions by the authorities that do not take into account the impact of the climatic factor and destroying the rural communities - сообщество. In the run-up to the revolution, climatic conditions gradually improved, and the apogee of the climate crisis took place just before the revolution. The crisis in Europe and the position of European powers pushing for world war caused deterioration of the internal situation in Russia and consequently accelerated the revolution. To the deterioration contributed the coolings of the climate of 1901-1905 and 1914-1918. (See fig. 24). The European elites, mostly landowners, were bankrupted by the constantly going down prices of grain (from 1830 supplied by steamers from the USA (about 15% of Europe's grain needs)) and only war left to escape from it. Probably it was one of the main causes of the First World War, apart from the masculinization of the European population. The social factor decisive for the revolution is the size of the population able to survive in a given territory. When the population rises to the border value for a given territory, it becomes sensitive to any deterioration of living conditions because the environmental resources available to individual units decrease, and also, due to the population density, social distances are reduced, which increases the level of aggression. Such a deterioration in the life situation of the Russian people uprooted Russian nobility, intelligentsia, and the Jewish community occurred in the period preceding the revolution, ie, from 1861 to 1917. The climate crisis and the lack of knowledge about the real problems of Russian society determined the outbreak of the revolution. Another reason was to stop by the state terror of progressive and positive evolution of the patriotically minded Russian intelligentsia. The victory of the Bolshevik Revolution was also decided by anti-Semitism, controlled by tsarism (?). In the further course of my work, I will try to show that the above factors determined the existence of a specific social situation and the outbreak of the Russian Revolution.
Categories: Body, Mind & Spirit

The Road to 1789

The Road to 1789

The subject of the origins of the French Revolution is one of the most important and controversial themes in European history.

Author: Nora Temple

Publisher:

ISBN: UOM:39015028472598

Category: History

Page: 122

View: 285

The subject of the origins of the French Revolution is one of the most important and controversial themes in European history. This fresh critical appraisal begins with a masterly exposition and assessment of recent scholarly debate on the subject, followed by a lucid analysis, supported by documentary evidence, of the multiple stresses which undermined the Old Regime. The author concludes that a revolution was unavoidable because the Old Regime was incapable of reforming fundamental defects in its political structures, but it was the contingent circumstances of 1788-9 that made the Revolution unexpectedly radical.
Categories: History

Cycles of Conflict Centuries of Change

Cycles of Conflict  Centuries of Change

This important collection explores how Mexico’s tumultuous past informs its uncertain present and future. Cycles of crisis and reform, of conflict and change, have marked Mexico’s modern history.

Author: Elisa Servín

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822389934

Category: History

Page: 422

View: 127

This important collection explores how Mexico’s tumultuous past informs its uncertain present and future. Cycles of crisis and reform, of conflict and change, have marked Mexico’s modern history. The final decades of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries each brought efforts to integrate Mexico into globalizing economies, pressures on the country’s diverse peoples, and attempts at reform. The crises of the late eighteenth century and the late nineteenth led to revolutionary mobilizations and violent regime changes. The wars for independence that began in 1810 triggered conflicts that endured for decades; the national revolution that began in 1910 shaped Mexico for most of the twentieth century. In 2000, the PRI, which had ruled for more than seventy years, was defeated in an election some hailed as “revolution by ballot.” Mexico now struggles with the legacies of a late-twentieth-century crisis defined by accelerating globalization and the breakdown of an authoritarian regime that was increasingly unresponsive to historic mandates and popular demands. Leading Mexicanists—historians and social scientists from Mexico, the United States, and Europe—examine the three fin-de-siècle eras of crisis. They focus on the role of the country’s communities in advocating change from the eighteenth century to the present. They compare Mexico’s revolutions of 1810 and 1910 and consider whether there might be a twenty-first-century recurrence or whether a globalizing, urbanizing, and democratizing world has so changed Mexico that revolution is improbable. Reflecting on the political changes and social challenges of the late twentieth century, the contributors ask if a democratic transition is possible and, if so, whether it is sufficient to address twenty-first-century demands for participation and justice. Contributors. Antonio Annino, Guillermo de la Peña, François-Xavier Guerra, Friedrich Katz, Alan Knight, Lorenzo Meyer, Leticia Reina, Enrique Semo, Elisa Servín, John Tutino, Eric Van Young
Categories: History

Early Modern Europe

Early Modern Europe

Fifty years after the beginning of the debate about the "general crisis of the seventeenth century," and thirty years after theodore K. Rabb's reformulation of it as the "European struggle for stability." this volume returns to the ...

Author: Philip Benedict

Publisher: University of Delaware Press

ISBN: 0874139066

Category: History

Page: 318

View: 910

Fifty years after the beginning of the debate about the "general crisis of the seventeenth century," and thirty years after theodore K. Rabb's reformulation of it as the "European struggle for stability." this volume returns to the fundamental questions raised by the long-running discussion: What continent-wide patterns of change can be discerned in European history across the centuries from the Renaissance to the French Revolution? What were the causes of the revolts that rocked so many countries between 1640 and 1660? Did fundamental changes occur in the relationship between politics and religion? Politics and military technology? Politics and the structures of intellectual authority?
Categories: History

A History of Eastern Europe

A History of Eastern Europe

This welcome second edition of A History of Eastern Europe provides a thematic historical survey of the formative processes of political, social and economic change which have played paramount roles in shaping the evolution and development ...

Author: Robert Bideleux

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134213191

Category: History

Page: 720

View: 849

This welcome second edition of A History of Eastern Europe provides a thematic historical survey of the formative processes of political, social and economic change which have played paramount roles in shaping the evolution and development of the region. Subjects covered include: Eastern Europe in ancient, medieval and early modern times the legacies of Byzantium, the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire the impact of the region's powerful Russian and Germanic neighbours rival concepts of 'Central' and 'Eastern' Europe the experience and consequences of the two World Wars varieties of fascism in Eastern Europe the impact of Communism from the 1940s to the 1980s post-Communist democratization and marketization the eastward enlargement of the EU. A History of Eastern Europe now includes two new chronologies – one for the Balkans and one for East-Central Europe – and a glossary of key terms and concepts, providing comprehensive coverage of a complex past, from antiquity to the present day.
Categories: History

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe

Thus, all compromise must be compatible with fundamental principles; reform can be workable and justifiable only as radical reform. Revolution, on the other ...

Author: Ferenc Féhér

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412820677

Category: History

Page: 531

View: 489

Communism in Eastern Europe is in crisis. Its dimensions are social and economic; its manifestation is political. This volume, a collection of essays by leading authorities, describes the symptoms of the crisis, diagnoses the causes of the malady, and offers alternative scenarios for therapy. A unique dimension of this collection is its avoidance of one-dimensional explanations. The contributors approach the subject from very different angles, and start from very distinct sociopolitical premises. The volume includes original accounts of unexplored aspects of East European communism as well as classic interpretations of the economic crisis and social stagnation that characterize the area. Contributions not only examine the sociopolitical behavior of the ruling apparatus, but also analyze its strategies, political culture, and the opposition. Both the professional and the general reader seeking more information about Eastern Europe will find this volume an extensive, in-depth portrait of the current situation in what many observers predict may develop into the major area of tension in post-World War II Europe. Ferenc Feher, a collaborator and friend of George Lukacs, was a leading member of the "Budapest School." Forced into exile in 1977, he was taught in Australia and is now in New York at the New School for Social Research. He has published widely, in several languages, on the philosophy of art, political theory, and history.
Categories: History

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe

Crisis and Reform in Eastern Europe

Thus, all compromise must be compatible with fundamental principles; reform can be workable and justifiable only as radical reform. Revolution, on the other ...

Author: Ferenc Feher

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781000675276

Category: Political Science

Page: 540

View: 823

Communism in Eastern Europe is in crisis. Its dimensions are social and economic; its manifestation is political. This volume, a collection of essays by leading authorities, describes the symptoms of the crisis, diagnoses the causes of the malady, and offers alternative scenarios for therapy. A unique dimension of this collection is its avoidance of one-dimensional explanations. The contributors approach the subject from very different angles, and start from very distinct sociopolitical premises. The volume includes original accounts of unexplored aspects of East European communism as well as classic interpretations of the economic crisis and social stagnation that characterize the area. Contributions not only examine the sociopolitical behavior of the ruling apparatus, but also analyze its strategies, political culture, and the opposition. Both the professional and the general reader seeking more information about Eastern Europe will find this volume an extensive, in-depth portrait of the current situation in what many observers predict may develop into the major area of tension in post-World War II Europe.
Categories: Political Science

Crisis Absolutism Revolution

Crisis  Absolutism  Revolution

This is the third edition, revised and expanded, of Crisis, Absolutism, Revolution: Europe 1648-1789, and new to it is an examination of European contact with Africa, the Americas, and South and East Asia.

Author: Raymond Birn

Publisher: Broadview Press

ISBN: 1551115611

Category: History

Page: 594

View: 994

Birn's exceptionally well-written narrative covers the century and a half that preceded the French Revolution. The first section, "An Age of Crisis and Discovery (1648-1715)," treats the period between the Peace of Westphalia and the death of Louis XIV as a time of political experimentation, colonial exploitation, hardening social lines, economic regression, and scientific advance. The second section covers the period known retrospectively as the "Ancien Régime" (1715-1789). Eighteenth-century politics are viewed as replete with confrontation and conflict; and a broadened view of the Enlightenment emphasizes the significance of print culture, while also introducing the reader to sites of sociability such as academies, salons, Masonic lodges, and coffeehouses. This is the third edition, revised and expanded, of Crisis, Absolutism, Revolution: Europe 1648-1789, and new to it is an examination of European contact with Africa, the Americas, and South and East Asia. More attention is also paid to the slave trade, women, family life, religion, exploration, and the emergence of a civil society. It contains an index, 17 maps, and 20 illustrations.
Categories: History

Democracy in Europe

Democracy in Europe

This history traces the development of democracy in Europe from its origins in ancient Greece up to the present day. Considers all the major watersheds in the development of democracy in modern Europe.

Author: Luciano Canfora

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781405154598

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 873

This history traces the development of democracy in Europe from its origins in ancient Greece up to the present day. Considers all the major watersheds in the development of democracy in modern Europe. Describes the rediscovery of Ancient Greek political ideals by intellectuals at the end of the eighteenth century. Examines the twenty-year crisis from 1789 to 1815, when the repercussions of revolution in France were felt across the European continent. Explains how events in France led to the explosion of democratic movements between 1830 and 1848. Compares the different manifestations of democracy within Eastern and Western Europe during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Considers fascism and its consequences for democracy in Europe during the twentieth century. Demonstrates how in the recent past democracy itself has become the object of ideological battles.
Categories: History

The Crisis of Socialism in Europe

The Crisis of Socialism in Europe

Is the decline inevitable or can socialism be revitalized? This volume draws together historians and political scientists of Eastern and Western European politics to address these questions.

Author: Christiane Lemke

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822311976

Category: Political Science

Page: 253

View: 402

The revolutions in Eastern Europe and the recasting of socialism in Western Europe since 1989 have given rise to intense debate over the origins, character, and implications of the "crisis" of socialism. Is socialism in ideological, electoral, or organizational decline? Is the decline inevitable or can socialism be revitalized? This volume draws together historians and political scientists of Eastern and Western European politics to address these questions. The collection begins with an historical overview of socialism in Western Europe and moves toward the suggestion of a framework for a post-socialist discourse. Among the topics covered are: the birth and death of communism and a regime type in Eastern Europe; how different forms of national communism were smothered by Sovietization in the postwar period; the origins of revolutions in Eastern Europe; the potential for social democracy in Hungary; the role of the Left in a reunified German; and directions for the Left in general. Contributors. Geoff Eley, Konrad Jarausch, Herbert Kitschelt, Christiane Lemke, Andrei Markovits, Gary Marks, Wolfgang Merkel, Norman Naimark, Iván and Szonja Szelénya, Sharon Wolchik
Categories: Political Science

Decades of Crisis

Decades of Crisis

This volume leads the reader through the maze of social, cultural, economic and political changes in 12 Central and Eastern European countries, showing how every path ended in dictatorship and despotism by the start of World War II.

Author: Ivan T. Berend

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520229013

Category: History

Page: 437

View: 376

This volume leads the reader through the maze of social, cultural, economic and political changes in 12 Central and Eastern European countries, showing how every path ended in dictatorship and despotism by the start of World War II.
Categories: History

Preconditions of Revolution in Early Modern Europe

Preconditions of Revolution in Early Modern Europe

"This book grew out of a colloquium ... given by the editors during the academic year 1968-69 in the Department of History at the Johns Hopkins University." Includes bibliographical references.

Author: Robert Forster

Publisher: Baltimore : Johns Hopkins Press

ISBN: UOM:39015013120491

Category: Europe

Page: 214

View: 359

"This book grew out of a colloquium ... given by the editors during the academic year 1968-69 in the Department of History at the Johns Hopkins University." Includes bibliographical references.
Categories: Europe