Regulatory Mechanisms of Striated Muscle Contraction

Regulatory Mechanisms of Striated Muscle Contraction

This volume covers the entire spectrum of research on troponin and related muscle proteins, including pathophysiological and clinical aspects.

Author: Setsuro Ebashi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9784431384533

Category: Medical

Page: 407

View: 766

This volume covers the entire spectrum of research on troponin and related muscle proteins, including pathophysiological and clinical aspects. It details recent advances in work on the genetic disorders of cardiac troponin and ryanodine receptor proteins. Many color figures illustrate the three-dimensional structures of the proteins involved in the muscle functions. The book will help readers understand characteristic features of the regulatory mechanisms of striated muscle contraction and their disorders at the molecular level.
Categories: Medical

Molecular Control Mechanisms in Striated Muscle Contraction

Molecular Control Mechanisms in Striated Muscle Contraction

For the expert, this volume presents detailed pictures of current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the CA2+ regulation of contraction in heart and skeletal muscles and discusses important directions for future investigation.

Author: R.J. Solaro

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401599269

Category: Medical

Page: 468

View: 789

Molecular Control Mechanisms in Striated Muscle Contraction addresses the molecular mechanisms by which contraction of heart and skeletal muscles is regulated, as well as the modulation of these mechanisms by important (patho)physiological variables such as ionic composition of the myoplasm and phosphorylations of contractile and regulatory proteins. For the novice, this volume includes chapters that summarize current understanding of excitation-contraction coupling in striated muscles, as well as the compositions and structures myofibrillar thick and thin filaments. For the expert, this volume presents detailed pictures of current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the CA2+ regulation of contraction in heart and skeletal muscles and discusses important directions for future investigation.
Categories: Medical

Muscle Contraction

Muscle Contraction

Author: Setsuro Ebashi

Publisher: Springer Verlag

ISBN: UOM:39015004432244

Category: Muscle contraction

Page: 576

View: 764

Categories: Muscle contraction

The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction

The Sliding Filament Theory of Muscle Contraction

The book reviews the evolution of models for actin-based regulation, culminating in a model motivated by cryo-EM studies where tropomyosin protomers are linked to form a continuous flexible chain.

Author: David Aitchison Smith

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030035266

Category: Medical

Page: 426

View: 847

Understanding the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction started with the discovery that striated muscle is composed of interdigitating filaments which slide against each other. Sliding filaments and the working-stroke mechanism provide the framework for individual myosin motors to act in parallel, generating tension and loaded shortening with an efficient use of chemical energy. Our knowledge of this exquisitely structured molecular machine has exploded in the last four decades, thanks to a bewildering array of techniques for studying intact muscle, muscle fibres, myofibrils and single myosin molecules. After reviewing the mechanical and biochemical background, this monograph shows how old and new experimental discoveries can be modelled, interpreted and incorporated into a coherent mathematical theory of contractility at the molecular level. The theory is applied to steady-state and transient phenomena in muscle fibres, wing-beat oscillations in insect flight muscle, motility assays and single-molecule experiments with optical trapping. Such a synthesis addresses major issues, most notably whether a single myosin motor is driven by a working stroke or a ratchet mechanism, how the working stroke is coupled to phosphate release, and whether one cycle of attachment is driven by the hydrolysis of one molecule of ATP. Ways in which the theory can be extended are explored in appendices. A separate theory is required for the cooperative regulation of muscle by calcium via tropomyosin and troponin on actin filaments. The book reviews the evolution of models for actin-based regulation, culminating in a model motivated by cryo-EM studies where tropomyosin protomers are linked to form a continuous flexible chain. It also explores muscle behaviour as a function of calcium level, including emergent phenomena such as spontaneous oscillatory contractions and direct myosin regulation by its regulatory light chains. Contraction models can be extended to all levels of calcium-activation by embedding them in a cooperative theory of thin-filament regulation, and a method for achieving this grand synthesis is proposed. Dr. David Aitchison Smith is a theoretical physicist with thirty years of research experience in modelling muscle contractility, in collaboration with experimental groups in different laboratories.
Categories: Medical

Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction

MOLLUSCAN TROPONIN It has been established that the troponin-tropomyosin system is the sole and ubiquitous Ca”-regulatory mechanism of contraction in vertebrate striated muscle. In invertebrate striated muscle, however, there are two ...

Author: Haruo Sugi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387249902

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 733

Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction: Fifty Years of Research covers the history of the sliding filament mechanism in muscle contraction from its discovery in 1954 by H.E. Huxley through and including modern day research. Chapters include topics in dynamic X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, muscle mechanisms, in-vitro motility assay, cardiac versus smooth muscle, motile systems, and much more.
Categories: Medical

Molecular Mechanisms in Striated Muscle

Molecular Mechanisms in Striated Muscle

Striated muscle is the most common muscle type in the vertebrate body. This book describes in molecular terms the components and intracellular events responsible for the contraction and relaxation of striated muscle.

Author: S. V. Perry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521579163

Category: Medical

Page: 168

View: 986

Striated muscle is the most common muscle type in the vertebrate body. This book describes in molecular terms the components and intracellular events responsible for the contraction and relaxation of striated muscle. The topic is introduced with a discussion of motile systems occurring throughout the biological world and their relation to the highly specialised contractile system of muscle. Professor Perry then goes on to discuss the mechanochemical process and the regulatory roles of calcium, I filament proteins and phosphorylation. The book ends with an examination of the role of dystrophin and its implications in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the most common form of muscle disease. Molecular Mechanisms in Striated Muscle will provide an important source of information and current theory for researchers and postgraduate students in muscle physiology, biochemistry and medicine.
Categories: Medical

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Muscle Contraction

Molecular and Cellular Aspects of Muscle Contraction

At the same time, troponin was also isolated from scallop striated muscles and its biochemical properties were ... The essential processes of the regulatory mechanism of the contraction of vertebrate striated muscle by troponin are the ...

Author: Haruo Sugi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441990297

Category: Science

Page: 701

View: 848

This volume presents the proceedings of a muscle symposium, which was supported by the grant from the Fujihara Foundation of Science to be held as the Fourth Fujihara Seminar on October 28 -November 1, 2002, at Hakone, Japan. The Fujihara Seminar covers all fields of natural science, while only one proposal is granted every year. It is therefore a great honor for me to be able to organize this meeting. Before this symposium, I have organized muscle symposia five times, and published the proceedings: " Cross-bridge Mechanism in Muscle Contraction (University of Tokyo Press, 1978), "Contractile Mechanisms in Muscle" (plenum, 1984); "Molecular Mechanisms of Muscle Contraction" (plenum, 1988); "Mechanism of MyofIlament Sliding in Muscle contraction" (plenum, 1993); "Mechanisms of Work Production and Work Absorption in Muscle" (plenum, 1998). As with these proceedings, this volume contains records of discussions made not only after each presentation but also during the periods of General Discussion, in order that general readers may properly evaluate each presentation and the up-to-date situation of this research field. It was my great pleasure to have Dr. Hugh Huxley, a principal discoverer of the sliding fIlament mechanism in muscle contraction, in this meeting. On my request, Dr. Huxley kindly gave a special lecture on his monumental discovery of myofIlament-lattice structure by X-ray diffraction of living skeletal muscle. I hope general readers to learn how a breakthrough in a specific research field can be achieved.
Categories: Science

Identifying Mechanisms of Thin Filament Activation in Cardiac Muscle Contraction

Identifying Mechanisms of Thin Filament Activation in Cardiac Muscle Contraction

ABSTRACT: Myocardial contractions are generated by the binding of myosin motor proteins to cardiac actin in the thin filament.

Author: John L. Williams

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:859534021

Category: Biophysics

Page:

View: 569

ABSTRACT: Myocardial contractions are generated by the binding of myosin motor proteins to cardiac actin in the thin filament. This process is regulated by the binding of calcium ions to troponin C. When Ca2+ binds to site II of troponin C, the troponin complex undergoes a conformational change which displaces tropomyosin and uncovers the myosin-binding sites on actin. This allows myosin to bind, and in the presence of ATP, allows for cross-bridges to cycle in order to generate force. While calcium binding to troponin is considered to be the key regulating mechanism for striated muscle contraction, myosin cross-bridges are also thought to play a role in cooperatively activating the thin filament. This cross-bridge contribution to thin filament activation appears to be more important in cardiac muscle systems than it is in skeletal muscle. However, many of these experiments examined the effects of cross-bridges under non-physiological conditions, leading to questions about the importance of actively cycling cross-bridges. Furthermore, there are questions as to the contribution of cross-bridge activation under conditions of low cross-bridge number, such as during filament sliding, primarily due to the inability to effectively change the number of cross-bridges that bind within a system in a controlled manner. In order to examine this possibility, I developed a porcine cardiac heavy meromyosin fragment that could be used to effectively vary the amount of myosin cross-bridges present in the in vitro motility assay. Additionally, I utilized this fragment at varying concentrations to determine several key characteristics of the cooperative mechanisms that govern thin filament activation. As a result, it was determined that cardiac myosin is sensitive to temperature when being proteolytically cleaved to form pcHMM, and subsequently, the protocol for making pcHMM requires decreasing the reaction temperature and increasing the protease concentration in order to yield a functional fragment. Secondly, it was determined that cardiac myosin cross-bridges number plays a minimal role in enhancing the activation of the thin filament by Ca2+ during unloaded filament sliding, and that this contribution in cardiac systems will be seen in the presence of a high density of actively cycling motors. Lastly, it is suggested that the enhancement that is seen due to increased numbers of cycling cardiac motors may be due to the regulatory proteins modulating the speed of myosin cycling, which is consistent with previously published literature. These findings help to advance our understanding of the contractile process and increase our understanding of the molecular complexities that govern thin filament activation by Ca2+.
Categories: Biophysics

Muscle Contraction

Muscle Contraction

This series of books is designed to satisfy this need. The authors have been asked to produce a brief outline of their subject assuming that their readers will have read and remembered much of a standard introductory textbook of biology.

Author: Clive R. Bagshaw

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401095396

Category: Science

Page: 79

View: 352

The student of biolo,gical science in his final years as an undergraduate and his first years as a graduate is expected to gain some familiarity with current research at the frontiers of his discipline. New research work is published in a perplexing diversity of publications and is inevitably concerned with the minutiae of the subject. The sheer number of research journals and papers also causes confusion and difficulties of assimilation. Review articles usually presuppose a background knowledge of the field and are inevitably rather restricted in scope. There is thus a need for short but authoritative introductions to those areas of modern biological research which are either not dealt with in standard introductory textbooks or are not dealt with in sufficient detail to enable the student to go on from them to read scholarly reviews with profit. This series of books is designed to satisfy this need. The authors have been asked to produce a brief outline of their subject assuming that their readers will have read and remembered much of a standard introductory textbook of biology. This outline then sets out to provide by building on this basis, the conceptual framework within which modern research work is progressing and aims to give the reader an indication of the problems, both conceptual and practical, which must be overcome if progress is to be maintained.
Categories: Science