We represent in order to intervene, and we intervene in the light of representations. Most of today's debate about scientific realism is couched in terms of theory, representation, and truth. The discussions are illuminating but not ...
Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This 1983 book is a lively and clearly written introduction to the philosophy of natural science, organized around the central theme of scientific realism. It has two parts. 'Representing' deals with the different philosophical accounts of scientific objectivity and the reality of scientific entities. The views of Kuhn, Feyerabend, Lakatos, Putnam, van Fraassen, and others, are all considered. 'Intervening' presents the first sustained treatment of experimental science for many years and uses it to give a new direction to debates about realism. Hacking illustrates how experimentation often has a life independent of theory. He argues that although the philosophical problems of scientific realism can not be resolved when put in terms of theory alone, a sound philosophy of experiment provides compelling grounds for a realistic attitude. A great many scientific examples are described in both parts of the book, which also includes lucid expositions of recent high energy physics and a remarkable chapter on the microscope in cell biology.
As Foucault once identified a politics that centers on the body and another that classifies and organizes the human population, Hacking has now provided a masterful description of the politics of memory: the scientizing of the soul and the wounds it can receive.
First published in 1975, this edition includes an introduction that contextualizes his book in light of developing philosophical trends.
Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Historical records show that there was no real concept of probability in Europe before the mid-seventeenth century, although the use of dice and other randomizing objects was commonplace. First published in 1975, this edition includes an introduction that contextualizes his book in light of developing philosophical trends.
How do they use these theories to explain phenomena? How do they draw conclusions from them about how the world might be? Now updated, this second edition of Philosophy of Science: Key Concepts looks at each of these questions and more.
Author: Steven French
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Science has made a huge impact on human society over hundred years, but how does it work? How do scientists do the things they do? How do they come up with the theories? How do they test them? How do they use these theories to explain phenomena? How do they draw conclusions from them about how the world might be? Now updated, this second edition of Philosophy of Science: Key Concepts looks at each of these questions and more. Taking in turn the fundamental theories, processes and views lying at the heart of the philosophy of science, this engaging introduction illuminates the scientific practice and provides a better appreciation of how science actually works. It features: - Chapters on discovery, evidence, verification and falsification, realism and objectivity - Accessible overviews of work of key thinkers such as Galileo, Einstein and Mullis - A new chapter on explanation - An extended range of easy-to-follow and contemporary examples to help explain more technical ideas - Study exercises, an annotated bibliography and suggestions of Where to Go Next Succinct and approachable, Philosophy of Science: Key Concepts outlines some of the most central and important scientific questions, problems and arguments without assuming prior knowledge of philosophy. This enjoyable introduction is the perfect starting point for anyone looking to understand how and why science has shaped and changed our view of the world.
I. Hacking, Representing and Intervening, Cambridge University Press, 1983. A nice account of this 'meshing' of observation and theory, including recording of what the remains of the big bang sounds like, can be found at ...
Author: Steven French
Publisher: A&C Black
A great text for students wishing to examine the questions raised in the philosophy of science. An ideal first guide to this challenging subject.
New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science deals with a classic topic that is seen from new angles.
Author: Wenceslao J. González
Observation and experimentation are central topics of philosophy and methodology of science. The empirical sciences have commonly been associated to observational and experimental processes, because they have been considered crucial for testing the contents of these. Thus, observation and experimentation have received attention from different angles, and they have been historically relevant in the advancement of science. Their philosophical-methodological analysis includes some key aspects those related to axiological, epistemological and methodological issues. New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science deals with a classic topic that is seen from new angles. Its nine chapters seek “non-traditional” aspects, trying to extend the boundaries of this philosophical-methodological theme. They are presented in five sections: 1) A Philosophical-Methodological Context; 2) Experience and Scientific Observations; 3) Empirical Support and Experiments in Science; 4) Changes in the Framework on Observation and Experimentation; and 5) Enlarging the Philosophical Scope: Law and Ecology. Wenceslao J. Gonzalez is Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science (University of A Coruña). He is a Full Member of the International Academy for Philosophy of Sciences (AIPS), Visiting fellow at the Center for Philosophy of Science (University of Pittsburgh) and a Team Leader of the European Science Foundation program entitled “The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective.” He has been named a Distinguished Researcher by the Main National University of San Marcos in Lima (Peru). He has been a visiting researcher at the Universities of St. Andrews, Münster and London (LSE). He has given lectures at the Universities of Pittsburgh, Stanford, Quebec and Helsinki. The conferences in which he has participated include those organized by the Universities of Uppsala, New South Wales, Bologna, Canterbury (NZ), and Beijing. He has edited 26 volumes on philosophy and methodology of science.
34 In fact, scientists have never just “represented,” but also “intervened,” helping to create the very phenomena that they explain; experiments, for instance, “create, produce, ... Hacking, Representing and Intervening, 230.
Author: Sanjay Seth
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
The knowledge disseminated by universities and mobilized by states to govern populations has been globally dominant for more than a century. It first emerged in the early modern period in Europe and subsequently became globalized through colonialism. Despite the historical and cultural specificity of its origins, modern Western knowledge was thought to have transcended its particularities such that, unlike pre-modern and non-Western knowledges, it was "universal," or true for all times and places. In this bold and ambitious book, Sanjay Seth argues that modern knowledge and the social sciences are a product of Western modernity claiming a spurious universality: that what we treat as the "truths" discovered by social scientific reason are instead a parochial knowledge. Drawing upon and deriving its critical energies principally from postcolonial theory, Beyond Reason traverses many disciplines, including science studies, social history, art and music history, political science, and anthropology, and engages with a range of contemporary thinkers including Butler, Habermas, Chakrabarty, Chatterjee, and Rawls. It demonstrates that while global in their impact, the social sciences do not and cannot transcend the Western historical and cultural circumstances in which they emerged. If the social sciences are not explained and validated simply by the fact that they are "true," it becomes possible to ask what purpose they serve, what it is that they "do." A defining feature of modern knowledge is that it is divided into disciplines, each with its own object of inquiry and corresponding protocols, and thus asking what such knowledge "does" requires asking what purpose disciplines serve. It also requires asking what ways of understanding the world they facilitate and what they disallow. Beyond Reason proceeds to anatomize the disciplines of history and political science to ask what representations and relations with the past and with politics these academic disciplines enable, and what ways of understanding and engaging the world they foreclose.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Philosophy - Philosophy of the 20th century, grade: 1.0, University of Vienna (Institut für Philosophie), course: Seminar Pluralismus und Wissenschaftsphilosophie, language: English, abstract ...
Author: Karl-Heinz Mayer
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Philosophy - Philosophy of the Present, grade: 1.0, University of Vienna (Institut für Philosophie), course: Seminar Pluralismus und Wissenschaftsphilosophie, language: English, abstract: In his recent book, Is Water H2O?, Hasok Chang presents a detailed analysis of scientific realism and enunciates a new concept of it, which he names “active scientific realism”. It is a view of scientific realism that accentuates experimental activity for learning about reality rather than armchair philosophy in the search for utmost metaphysical truth. Chang puts it in a nutshell as follows: “If the buzzword for standard realism is truth, it is progress for active realism.” (Chang 2012, 223) This term paper attempts to critically look at this new concept, put it in the perspective of other realist concepts and find answers to questions like the following: • How does Chang’s concept fit into the existing landscape of scientific realism? • What are the roots of the concept? • What is new and attractive in it? • What are the weaknesses of the concept? First I’ll try to define scientific realism as a metaphysical and epistemological position as opposed to anti-realism. In the next chapter I’ll present the main arguments for and against scientific realism, the “no miracle” argument and the “pessimistic meta induction”, and also look at them from Hasok Chang’s angle of view. Then a brief overview of common realist positions in philosophy of science will be given, including Hasok Chang’s new conception. In the following chapter I’ll try to look critically at some aspects of Chang’s “Active Scientific Realism” and balance the strengths and weaknesses of the concept.
This edited volume presents an in-depth examination of these issues from philosophical, historical, social, and cultural perspectives.
Author: Alfred Nordmann
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
"Advancements in computing, instrumentation, robotics, digital imaging, and simulation modeling are changing science into a technology-driven institution. The pragmatic interests of government, industry, and society increasingly exert their influence over science, raising questions of values and objectivity. These and other profound changes in the world of science have led many to speculate that we are in the midst of an epochal break in scientific history. This edited volume presents an in-depth examination of these issues from philosophical, historical, social, and cultural perspectives. It presents arguments both for and against the epochal break thesis in light of historical antecedents, offering an important occasion for philosophical analysis of the epistemic, institutional and moral questions affecting current and future scientific pursuits. "--P. 4 of cover.
Representing and Intervening, 220–23. 32. I have benefited from illuminating discussions of the terms Vorstellung and Darstellung in Hacking, Representing and Intervening (130–34), and Allen Janik and Stephen Toulmin, ...
Author: Daniel Tiffany
Publisher: Univ of California Press
Category: Literary Criticism
"In this bold, speculative, and immensely learned study . . . Tiffany[‘s concept of] lyric substance--the ‘sense’ of materiality supplied to us by poets like Wallace Stevens and Marianne Moore--constitutes a world whose inaccessibility is legitimized by the principles of scientific materialism. Thus lyric, too long on the periphery of materialist discourse, emerges as being squarely in its center."—Marjorie Perloff, Stanford University, author of The Futurist Moment and Wittgenstein’s Ladder "A lyrical inquiry into the circle of ideas: materialism, science, poetics. Winding through the whole is a fascinating exploration of toys--children’s toys, physicists’ toy models, philosophers’ robots, nuclear weaponeers’ toy towns. . . . My hope is that this book will contribute to a growing interest not in cleaving science from the arts but rather in exploring, poetically, the language, images and things that illuminate both." —Peter Galison, Mallinckrodt Professor of the History of Science and Physics, Harvard University "A brilliant achievement, synthesizing the history of science and poetics, technology and the arts, in an iconology of materialism. . . All that is solid melts into air in this book, but just as quickly the airy poems of our climate condense into material, objective forms, weird gadgets, and objects of scientific research. . . A wonderful feast of learning and wit." —W. J. T. Mitchell, University of Chicago, author of Picture Theory and Iconology "In clear-eyed and gorgeous prose, Toy Medium moves the question of Art's encounter with Science to an utterly original point of conflagration: where matter is mostly not matter. . . . Going to the bottom of the Imagination, where it still truly involves images, Tiffany explores how we have learned to see the inscrutable via our imagistic grasp of materiality. . . . This book is daring, brilliant, and deeply clever."—Jorie Graham, Boylston Professor of English, Harvard University, author of Materialism and winner of the Pulitzer Prize
Author: Peter Edwards, Esq. Publish On: 2021-04-01
(C) Intervening Parties. At the time the first matter is submitted to the court seeking to intervene in a proceeding, the attorney representing the intervening party or parties, or the intervening party or parties, if not represented by ...
Author: Peter Edwards, Esq.
Publisher: Peter Edwards, Esq.
This 2021 edition of the Indiana Rules of Trial Procedure provides the practitioner with a convenient copy to bring to court or the office. No part of this edition may be commercially distributed or sold. No copyright is claimed as to government works.
First, “By speculation I shall mean the intellectual representation of something of interest, a playing with and restructuring of ideas to give at least a ... Hacking, Representing and Intervening, 212–13. Then he writes, “Thus Kuhn's ...
Author: Inge Hinterwaldner
Publisher: MIT Press
A new conceptualization of the relationship between the systemic and the iconic in real-time simulations that distinguishes among four levels of forming.
Hacking , Representing and Intervening , 17 , 131 , 23 ( italics in original ) , 274 . 118. Barnes , About Science , 8 , 64 , 65 , 66 . 119. David J. Stump writes : “ There is no metaphysical independence of results from social ...
Author: Dana Phillips
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
Category: Literary Criticism
A wide-ranging appraisal of environmental thought. It explores such topics as the history of ecology, radical science studies and ecology, the need for greater theoretical sophistication in ecocriticism, the dubious legacy of Thoreau, and the contradictions of contemporary nature writing.
A more detailed and more guarded statement of this idea is given in my recent book Representing and Intervening . I put it in a more blatant way here to suggest that there is a case ( of sorts ) for saying that the very objects of ...
Author: Russell B. Goodman
Publisher: Psychology Press
Russell Goodman examines the curious reemergence of pragmatism in a field dominated in the past decades by phenomenology, logic, positivism, and deconstruction. With contributions from major contemporary and classical thinkers such as Cornel West, Richard Rorty, Nancy Fraser, Charles Sanders Peirce, and Ralph Waldo Emerson, Russell has gathered an impressive chorus of philosophical voices that reexamine the origins and complexities of neo-pragmatism. The contributors discuss the relationship of pragmatism and literary theory, phenomenology, existentialism, and the work of Ralph Waldo Emerson. They question the meaning of pragmatics, what it is to be practical, and ask provocative questions such as: what is reading? and whether democracy is a precondition for the functioning of intelligence. This work places this reemergent and interesting neo-development in its proper context and will provide readers with a strong sense of the movement's foundations, history, and subtlities.
Hacking for example explicitly contrasts the mode of intervening with that of representing and suggests that these categories are both exhaustive and exclusive. He famously tells us to “count as real what we can use to intervene in the ...
Author: James Mattingly
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
An ambitious new model of experimentation that will reorient our understanding of the key features of experimental practice. What is experimental knowledge, and how do we get it? While there is general agreement that experiment is a crucial source of scientific knowledge, how experiment generates that knowledge is far more contentious. In this book, philosopher of science James Mattingly explains how experiments function. Specifically, he discusses what it is about experimental practice that transforms observations of what may be very localized, particular, isolated systems into what may be global, general, integrated empirical knowledge. Mattingly argues that the purpose of experimentation is the same as the purpose of any other knowledge-generating enterprise—to change the state of information of the knower. This trivial-seeming point has a non-trivial consequence: to understand a knowledge-generating enterprise, we should follow the flow of information. Therefore, the account of experimental knowledge Mattingly provides is based on understanding how information flows in experiments: what facilitates that flow, what hinders it, and what characteristics allow it to flow from system to system, into the heads of researchers, and finally into our store of scientific knowledge.
These ways of intervening in the name of the social were not simply about helping the marginalized and displaced. As studies of this period repeatedly underline, these activities were framed by specific ways of representing both the ...
Author: Engin Fahri Isin
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Political Science
Engin F. Isin and the volume's contributors explore the social sites that have become objects of government, and considers how these subjects are sites of contestation, resistance, differentiation and identification.
This is an introductory textbook on probability and induction written by one of the world's foremost philosophers of science.
Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This is an introductory textbook on probability and induction written by one of the world's foremost philosophers of science. The book has been designed to offer maximal accessibility to the widest range of students (not only those majoring in philosophy) and assumes no formal training in elementary symbolic logic. It offers a comprehensive course covering all basic definitions of induction and probability, and considers such topics as decision theory, Bayesianism, frequency ideas, and the philosophical problem of induction. The key features of the book are: * A lively and vigorous prose style* Lucid and systematic organization and presentation of the ideas* Many practical applications* A rich supply of exercises drawing on examples from such fields as psychology, ecology, economics, bioethics, engineering, and political science* Numerous brief historical accounts of how fundamental ideas of probability and induction developed.* A full bibliography of further reading Although designed primarily for courses in philosophy, the book could certainly be read and enjoyed by those in the social sciences (particularly psychology, economics, political science and sociology) or medical sciences such as epidemiology seeking a reader-friendly account of the basic ideas of probability and induction. Ian Hacking is University Professor, University of Toronto. He is Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Fellow of the British Academy, and Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. he is author of many books including five previous books with Cambridge (The Logic of Statistical Inference, Why Does Language Matter to Philosophy?, The Emergence of Probability, Representing and Intervening, and The Taming of Chance).