First published in 1975, this edition includes an introduction that contextualizes his book in light of developing philosophical trends.
Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Historical records show that there was no real concept of probability in Europe before the mid-seventeenth century, although the use of dice and other randomizing objects was commonplace. First published in 1975, this edition includes an introduction that contextualizes his book in light of developing philosophical trends.
As Foucault once identified a politics that centers on the body and another that classifies and organizes the human population, Hacking has now provided a masterful description of the politics of memory: the scientizing of the soul and the wounds it can receive.
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Philosophy - Philosophy of the 20th century, grade: 1.0, University of Vienna (Institut für Philosophie), course: Seminar Pluralismus und Wissenschaftsphilosophie, language: English, abstract ...
Author: Karl-Heinz Mayer
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Seminar paper from the year 2013 in the subject Philosophy - Philosophy of the Present, grade: 1.0, University of Vienna (Institut für Philosophie), course: Seminar Pluralismus und Wissenschaftsphilosophie, language: English, abstract: In his recent book, Is Water H2O?, Hasok Chang presents a detailed analysis of scientific realism and enunciates a new concept of it, which he names “active scientific realism”. It is a view of scientific realism that accentuates experimental activity for learning about reality rather than armchair philosophy in the search for utmost metaphysical truth. Chang puts it in a nutshell as follows: “If the buzzword for standard realism is truth, it is progress for active realism.” (Chang 2012, 223) This term paper attempts to critically look at this new concept, put it in the perspective of other realist concepts and find answers to questions like the following: • How does Chang’s concept fit into the existing landscape of scientific realism? • What are the roots of the concept? • What is new and attractive in it? • What are the weaknesses of the concept? First I’ll try to define scientific realism as a metaphysical and epistemological position as opposed to anti-realism. In the next chapter I’ll present the main arguments for and against scientific realism, the “no miracle” argument and the “pessimistic meta induction”, and also look at them from Hasok Chang’s angle of view. Then a brief overview of common realist positions in philosophy of science will be given, including Hasok Chang’s new conception. In the following chapter I’ll try to look critically at some aspects of Chang’s “Active Scientific Realism” and balance the strengths and weaknesses of the concept.
This is a practical and informative introduction to a major component of the undergraduate philosophy curriculum, as well as being a support to ongoing study.
Author: Steven French
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
The philosophical questions raised by the history and practice of science are among the most complex and stimulating. Science: Key Concepts in Philosophy is the ideal first stop for any student wishing to get to grips with this challenging subject. Written with the specific needs of students new to the discipline in mind, it covers the work of key thinkers and outlines clearly the central questions, problems and arguments encountered in studying the philosophy of science. This is a practical and informative introduction to a major component of the undergraduate philosophy curriculum. Key Concepts in Philosophy is a series of concise, accessible and engaging introductions to the core ideas and subjects encountered in the study of philosophy. Specially written to meet the needs of students and those with an interest in, but little prior knowledge of, philosophy, these books open up fascinating, yet sometimes difficult ideas. The series builds to give a solid grounding in philosophy and each book is also ideal as a companion to further study.
How do they use these theories to explain phenomena? How do they draw conclusions from them about how the world might be? Now updated, this second edition of Philosophy of Science: Key Concepts looks at each of these questions and more.
Author: Steven French
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Science has made a huge impact on human society over hundred years, but how does it work? How do scientists do the things they do? How do they come up with the theories? How do they test them? How do they use these theories to explain phenomena? How do they draw conclusions from them about how the world might be? Now updated, this second edition of Philosophy of Science: Key Concepts looks at each of these questions and more. Taking in turn the fundamental theories, processes and views lying at the heart of the philosophy of science, this engaging introduction illuminates the scientific practice and provides a better appreciation of how science actually works. It features: - Chapters on discovery, evidence, verification and falsification, realism and objectivity - Accessible overviews of work of key thinkers such as Galileo, Einstein and Mullis - A new chapter on explanation - An extended range of easy-to-follow and contemporary examples to help explain more technical ideas - Study exercises, an annotated bibliography and suggestions of Where to Go Next Succinct and approachable, Philosophy of Science: Key Concepts outlines some of the most central and important scientific questions, problems and arguments without assuming prior knowledge of philosophy. This enjoyable introduction is the perfect starting point for anyone looking to understand how and why science has shaped and changed our view of the world.
This is an introductory textbook on probability and induction written by one of the world's foremost philosophers of science.
Author: Ian Hacking
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This is an introductory textbook on probability and induction written by one of the world's foremost philosophers of science. The book has been designed to offer maximal accessibility to the widest range of students (not only those majoring in philosophy) and assumes no formal training in elementary symbolic logic. It offers a comprehensive course covering all basic definitions of induction and probability, and considers such topics as decision theory, Bayesianism, frequency ideas, and the philosophical problem of induction. The key features of the book are: * A lively and vigorous prose style* Lucid and systematic organization and presentation of the ideas* Many practical applications* A rich supply of exercises drawing on examples from such fields as psychology, ecology, economics, bioethics, engineering, and political science* Numerous brief historical accounts of how fundamental ideas of probability and induction developed.* A full bibliography of further reading Although designed primarily for courses in philosophy, the book could certainly be read and enjoyed by those in the social sciences (particularly psychology, economics, political science and sociology) or medical sciences such as epidemiology seeking a reader-friendly account of the basic ideas of probability and induction. Ian Hacking is University Professor, University of Toronto. He is Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada, Fellow of the British Academy, and Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. he is author of many books including five previous books with Cambridge (The Logic of Statistical Inference, Why Does Language Matter to Philosophy?, The Emergence of Probability, Representing and Intervening, and The Taming of Chance).
Dimitri Ginev. out something else ” ( 24 ) . Accordingly , the mind , which designs
practices , is not the place of representing what is going on in the world , but a
source of constant intervening by means of which what is out there gets provoked
Author: Dimitri Ginev
In The Tenets of Cognitive Existentialism, Dimitri Ginev draws on devel-opments in hermeneutic phenomenology and other programs in hermeneutic philosophy to inform an interpretative approach to scientific practices. At stake is the question of whether it is possible to integrate forms of reflection upon the ontological difference in the cognitive structure of scientific research. A positive answer would have implied a proof that (pace Heidegger) “science is able to think.” This book is an extended version of such a proof. Against those who claim that modern science is doomed to be exclusively committed to the nexus of objectivism and instrumental rationality, the interpretative theory of scientific practices reveals science’s potentiality of hermeneutic self-reflection. Scientific research that takes into consideration the ontological difference has resources to enter into a dialogue with Nature. Ginev offers a critique of postmodern tendencies in the philosophy of science, and sets out arguments for a feminist hermeneutics of scientific research.
The use of the terms “ representing and intervening ” is not novel . These are the
foci of analysis of lan Hacking ' s 1983 book in which he proposes that we
redirect our priorities from studying theory construction to focusing on
This edited volume presents an in-depth examination of these issues from philosophical, historical, social, and cultural perspectives.
Author: Alfred Nordmann
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
"Advancements in computing, instrumentation, robotics, digital imaging, and simulation modeling are changing science into a technology-driven institution. The pragmatic interests of government, industry, and society increasingly exert their influence over science, raising questions of values and objectivity. These and other profound changes in the world of science have led many to speculate that we are in the midst of an epochal break in scientific history. This edited volume presents an in-depth examination of these issues from philosophical, historical, social, and cultural perspectives. It presents arguments both for and against the epochal break thesis in light of historical antecedents, offering an important occasion for philosophical analysis of the epistemic, institutional and moral questions affecting current and future scientific pursuits. "--P. 4 of cover.
New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science deals with a classic topic that is seen from new angles.
Author: Wenceslao J. González
Observation and experimentation are central topics of philosophy and methodology of science. The empirical sciences have commonly been associated to observational and experimental processes, because they have been considered crucial for testing the contents of these. Thus, observation and experimentation have received attention from different angles, and they have been historically relevant in the advancement of science. Their philosophical-methodological analysis includes some key aspects those related to axiological, epistemological and methodological issues. New Methodological Perspectives on Observation and Experimentation in Science deals with a classic topic that is seen from new angles. Its nine chapters seek “non-traditional” aspects, trying to extend the boundaries of this philosophical-methodological theme. They are presented in five sections: 1) A Philosophical-Methodological Context; 2) Experience and Scientific Observations; 3) Empirical Support and Experiments in Science; 4) Changes in the Framework on Observation and Experimentation; and 5) Enlarging the Philosophical Scope: Law and Ecology. Wenceslao J. Gonzalez is Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science (University of A Coruña). He is a Full Member of the International Academy for Philosophy of Sciences (AIPS), Visiting fellow at the Center for Philosophy of Science (University of Pittsburgh) and a Team Leader of the European Science Foundation program entitled “The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective.” He has been named a Distinguished Researcher by the Main National University of San Marcos in Lima (Peru). He has been a visiting researcher at the Universities of St. Andrews, Münster and London (LSE). He has given lectures at the Universities of Pittsburgh, Stanford, Quebec and Helsinki. The conferences in which he has participated include those organized by the Universities of Uppsala, New South Wales, Bologna, Canterbury (NZ), and Beijing. He has edited 26 volumes on philosophy and methodology of science.
Author: Frank A. CoutelierisPublish On: 2018-02-20
This book delivers a methodological approach on the experimentation and/or simulation processes from the disclaiming hypothesis on a physical phenomenon to the validation of the results.
Author: Frank A. Coutelieris
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book delivers a methodological approach on the experimentation and/or simulation processes from the disclaiming hypothesis on a physical phenomenon to the validation of the results. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses all the topics related to experimentation and validation of the outcome including state-of-the-art applications and presents important theoretical, mathematical and experimental developments, providing a self-contained major reference that is appealing to both the scientists and the engineers. At the same time, these topics are encountered in a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. As a first step, it presents the theoretical and practical implications on the formation of a hypothesis, considering the existing knowledge collection, classification and validation of the particular areas of experimenting interest. Afterwards, the transition from the knowledge classes to the experimentation parameters according to the phenomena evolution contributors and the systemic properties of the descriptors are discussed. The major experimenting requirements focus on the conditions to satisfy a potential disclaim of the initial hypothesis as conditions. Furthermore, the experimentation outcome, as derived via the previous experimentation process set-up, would be validate for the similarities among the existing knowledge and derived new one. The whole methodology offers a powerful tool towards the minimization of research effort wastes, as far as it can identify the lacks of knowledge, thus the areas of interest where the current research has to work on. The special features of this book are (a) the use of state-of-the-art techniques for the classification of knowledge, (b) the consideration of a realistic systemic world of engineering approached phenomena, (c) the application of advanced mathematical techniques for identifying, describing and testing the similarities in the research results and conclusions, and (d) the experimental investigation of relevant phenomena.
Finally, following Hacking, Representing and Intervening, my main concern in chapters 1 through 4 has been to describe the modes of representing the world, ...
Author: Martin H. Krieger
Publisher: Indiana University Press
This book is a cultural phenomenology of doing physics. It describes the ways physicists actually do their work--their motives, and their ways of making sense of the world--so that outsiders can understand it. Martin H. Krieger explains that physicists employ a small number of everyday notions to get at the world experimentally and conceptually. Krieger's stories focus on five of these models: the division of labor among particles, fields, and spacetime in the ""factory"" of Nature; the analysis of the world as a clockworks of comparatively dumb parts whose composition is often surprisingly complex and rich; the play of freedom and necessity given by a set of kinship rules that govern the families of particles; the setting of a simple stage, a vacuum, on which something arises out of nothing; and a mode of grasping the world with the handles, probes, and tools that make up a physicist's tool kit. In each case, Krieger shows that the deepest principles of physics are embodied in the physicist's craft and conventions.
34 In fact, scientists have never just “represented,” but also “intervened,” helping to create the very ... Hacking, Representing and Intervening, 230.
Author: Sanjay Seth
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Political Science
The knowledge disseminated by universities and mobilized by states to govern populations has been globally dominant for more than a century. It first emerged in the early modern period in Europe and subsequently became globalized through colonialism. Despite the historical and cultural specificity of its origins, modern Western knowledge was thought to have transcended its particularities such that, unlike pre-modern and non-Western knowledges, it was "universal," or true for all times and places. In this bold and ambitious book, Sanjay Seth argues that modern knowledge and the social sciences are a product of Western modernity claiming a spurious universality: that what we treat as the "truths" discovered by social scientific reason are instead a parochial knowledge. Drawing upon and deriving its critical energies principally from postcolonial theory, Beyond Reason traverses many disciplines, including science studies, social history, art and music history, political science, and anthropology, and engages with a range of contemporary thinkers including Butler, Habermas, Chakrabarty, Chatterjee, and Rawls. It demonstrates that while global in their impact, the social sciences do not and cannot transcend the Western historical and cultural circumstances in which they emerged. If the social sciences are not explained and validated simply by the fact that they are "true," it becomes possible to ask what purpose they serve, what it is that they "do." A defining feature of modern knowledge is that it is divided into disciplines, each with its own object of inquiry and corresponding protocols, and thus asking what such knowledge "does" requires asking what purpose disciplines serve. It also requires asking what ways of understanding the world they facilitate and what they disallow. Beyond Reason proceeds to anatomize the disciplines of history and political science to ask what representations and relations with the past and with politics these academic disciplines enable, and what ways of understanding and engaging the world they foreclose.
Schwarz uses ecological and environmental case studies to show how scientific experiments can transcend the laboratory.
Author: Astrid Schwarz
Traditionally experimentation has been understood as an activity performed within the laboratory, but in the twenty-first century this view is being challenged. Schwarz uses ecological and environmental case studies to show how scientific experiments can transcend the laboratory.
During this century, there emerged from the philosophical analysis of scientific theories two results invested with broad epistemological significance.In the second chapter we studied two different and at the same time interrelated issues ...
Author: Ramin Seyedi
Publisher: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
During this century, there emerged from the philosophical analysis of scientific theories two results invested with broad epistemological significance.In the second chapter we studied two different and at the same time interrelated issues.First, we studied ontological status of molecular structure and then we studied its epistemological status. In the third part a contemporary biologist reading this might well conclude that essentialists had no scientifically respectable way of understanding the existence of variation in nature.At the forth chapter representing and Intervening concluded with an experimental argument for scientific realism about entities that cannot in any literal sense be observed. It was based on the fact that we regularly use such entities to investigate other parts of nature, and that we reliably build apparatus to take advantage of some of the causal properties of such entities.In the end chapter It was based on the fact that we regularly use such entities to investigate other parts of nature.and that we reliably build appar-atus to take advantage of some of the causal prop-erties of such entities."
... were framed by specific ways of representing both the reformable and the reformers, as well as intervening in processes of social reproduction.
Author: Engin Fahri Isin
Publisher: University of Toronto Press
Category: Political Science
Engin F. Isin and the volume's contributors explore the social sites that have become objects of government, and considers how these subjects are sites of contestation, resistance, differentiation and identification.