Selected Topics in Group IV and II VI Semiconductors

Selected Topics in Group IV and II VI Semiconductors

as its ELSEVIER mutunol CRYSTAL GROWTH Journal of Crystal Growth 157 (1995) 242—247 Some critical issues on growth of high quality Si and SiGe films using a solid-source molecular beam epitaxy system W.~X. Ni " , W.M. Chen, ...

Author: E.H.C. Parker

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 9780444596437

Category: Science

Page: 465

View: 779

This book contains the proceedings of two symposia which brought together crystal growers, chemists and physicists from across the world. The first part is concerned with silicon molecular beam epitaxy and presents an overview of the most research being done in the field. Part two discusses the problems dealing with purification, doping and defects of II-VI materials, mainly of the important semiconductors CdTe and ZnSe. The focus is on materials science issues which are the key for a better understanding of these materials and for any industrial application.
Categories: Science

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Selected topics on crystal growth – the 14th International Summer School on crystal growth in Dalian, China. Melville (New York): AIP Conf. Proc. No. 1270; 2010. p. 107. Steinegger T, Naumann M, Jurisch M, Donecker J. Precipitate ...

Author: Peter Rudolph

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444633064

Category: Science

Page: 1418

View: 580

Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries
Categories: Science

Crystal Growth

Crystal Growth

P. Wohlfarth Ed. North Holland, Amsterdam Brice, J. C., 1973, "Growth of crystals from liquids, Vol. 12, 'Selected Topics in Solid State Physics, P. Wohlfarth, Ed., North Holland, Amsterdam Brice, J. C., 1986, 'Crystal growth processes' ...

Author: A.W. Vere

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781475798975

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 862

This book is the second in a series of scientific textbooks designed to cover advances in selected research fields from a basic and general viewpoint, so that only limited knowledge is required to understand the significance of recent developments. Further assistance for the non-specialist is provided by the summary of abstracts in Part 2, which includes many of the major papers published in the research field. Crystal Growth of Semiconductor Materials has been the subject of numerous books and reviews and the fundamental principles are now well-established. We are concerned chiefly with the deposition of atoms onto a suitable surface - crystal growth - and the generation of faults in the atomic structure during growth and subsequent cooling to room temperature - crystal defect structure. In this book I have attempted to show that whilst the fundamentals of these processes are relatively simple, the complexities of the interactions involved and the individuality of different materials systems and growth processes have ensured that experimentally verifiable predictions from scientific principles have met with only limited success - good crystal growth remains an art. However, recent advances, which include the reduction of growth temperatures, the reduction or elimination of reactant transport variables and the use of better-controlled energy sources to promote specific reactions, are leading to simplified growth systems.
Categories: Science

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Selected topics on crystal growth–14th international summer school on crystal growth. AIP conference proceedings, vol. 1270. Melville; 2010. p. 247–54. Plapp M. In: Mauri R, editor. Multiphase microfluidics: the diffuse interface model.

Author: Tatau Nishinaga

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444593764

Category: Science

Page: 1214

View: 172

Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space
Categories: Science

Science and Technology of Crystal Growth

Science and Technology of Crystal Growth

Therefore, here, we restrict ourselves to selected topics in growth kinetics from the melt (Sec. 2) and solution (Sec. 3), as it can be seen by crystal growers. 2. Kinetics of Normal Growth In the classical approach, ...

Author: J.P. van der Eerden

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789401101370

Category: Science

Page: 391

View: 616

1. The ninth International Summer School on Crystal Growth. ISSCG IX A complete theory of crystal growth establishes the full dependence of crystal size, shape and structure on external parameters like temperature, pressure, composition, purity, growth rate and stirring of the mother phase, implicitly establishing how the corresponding fields vary in space and time. Such a theory does not exist, however. Therefore equipment to grow crystals is developed on the basis of partial knowledge. Skill, experience and creativity still are of central importance for the success o~ a crystal growth system. In this book we collected contributions from the teachers of the ninth International Summer School on Crystal Growth ISSCG IX, held 11-16 june 1995 at Papendal, the national sports centre of the Netherlands. These contributions were used during the lectures. The authors have tried to present their work in such a way that only basic physical knowledge is required to understand the papers. The book can be used as an introduction to various important sub disciplines of the science and technology of crystal growth. Since, however the information content considerably exceeds a lecture note level and touches the present limits of understanding, it is an up to date handbook as well.
Categories: Science

Crystal Growth Technology

Crystal Growth Technology

This contribution concentrates on selected topics of classical thermodynamics that appear to be of primary relevance to crystal growth. Besides other topics, phase diagrams and the Gibbs' phase rule are almost completely omitted because ...

Author: Hans J. Scheel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9783527623457

Category: Science

Page: 521

View: 162

In this book top experts treat general thermodynamic aspects of crystal fabrication; numerical simulation of industrial growth processes; commercial production of bulk silicon, compound semiconductors, scintillation and oxide crystals; X-ray characterization; and crystal machining. Also, the role of crystal technology for renewable energy and for saving energy is discussed. It will be useful for scientists and engineers involved in crystal and epilayer fabrication as well as for teachers and graduate students in material science, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and micro- and optoelectronics, including nanotechnology.
Categories: Science

Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems

Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems

AIP Conference Proceedings, Selected Topics on Crystal Growth 14th International Summer School on Crystal Growth, Dalian, China, August 1–7, 2010, 45–58 (2010). 9. Martins, P. M., Rocha, F., Damas, A. M., and Rein, P. Unsteady-state ...

Author: Zahid Amjad

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781466568648

Category: Science

Page: 450

View: 134

Soluble and insoluble impurities present in water used for domestic and industrial applications can lead to the deposition of unwanted materials on equipment surfaces. Impurities such as dissolved minerals, natural organic compounds, and suspended particles can impact various processes and systems including boiling and cooling processes, desalination, geothermal power generation, milk pasteurization, oil and gas refining, the pulp and paper industry, and biological systems. Understanding the mechanisms of scale inhibition and dispersion is important in addressing the resulting challenges. Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems presents developments in mineral scale formation and control in a variety of industrial and biological systems, providing in-depth discussions on topics important to academic researchers and industrial technologists. With contributions from experts in their respective fields, this book comprises 22 chapters in 5 parts. It begins by addressing precipitation and inhibition of various scale-forming salts—such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium fluoride, and calcium phosphate—in various industrial systems, including boilers, cooling, and high-pressure and high-temperature applications. Part II describes the precipitation and inhibition of salts encountered in sugar refining and geothermal power generation. Part III describes mineral scales that are important in biological systems. Part IV deals with the control of suspended matter in industrial water systems. Part V examines analytical techniques commonly used to characterize mineral scales and deposits during in-house evaluation of new products and deposit samples received for characterization from industrial installations, as well as product failure analyses. Covering the broad scope of mineral scales, this book both reviews current concepts and presents new information, with detailed discussions on fundamental and mechanistic aspects of mineral scale formation and inhibition.
Categories: Science

Bioinspiration

Bioinspiration

Trau, M., Saville, D.A., Aksay, I.A.: Field-induced layering of colloidal crystals. Science 272, 706–709 (1996). ... Selected Topics on Crystal Growth: 14th International Summer School on Crystal Growth. American Institute of Physics, ...

Author: Xiang Yang Liu

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461453727

Category: Science

Page: 387

View: 691

Methods in bioinspiration and biomimicking have been around for a long time. However, due to current advances in modern physical, biological sciences, and technologies, our understanding of the methods have evolved to a new level. This is due not only to the identification of mysterious and fascinating phenomena but also to the understandings of the correlation between the structural factors and the performance based on the latest theoretical, modeling, and experimental technologies. Bioinspiration: From Nano to Micro Scale provides readers with a broad view of the frontiers of research in the area of bioinspiration from the nano to macroscopic scales, particularly in the areas of biomineralization, antifreeze protein, and antifreeze effect. It also covers such methods as the lotus effect and superhydrophobicity, structural colors in animal kingdom and beyond, as well as behavior in ion channels. A number of international experts in related fields have contributed to this book, which offers a comprehensive and synergistic look into challenging issues such as theoretical modeling, advanced surface probing, and fabrication. The book also provides a link to the engineering of novel advanced materials playing an important role in advancing technologies in various fields.
Categories: Science