Semantics with Assignment Variables

Semantics with Assignment Variables

Compositional semantic values are treated systematically in terms of sets of assignments, conceived as representations of ... On the assignment-variable-based account developed here, world-binding arises from the complementizer, ...

Author: Alex Silk

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108875172

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page:

View: 934

This pioneering study combines insights from philosophy and linguistics to develop a novel framework for theorizing about linguistic meaning and the role of context in interpretation. A key innovation is to introduce explicit representations of context - assignment variables - in the syntax and semantics of natural language. The proposed theory systematizes a spectrum of 'shifting' phenomena in which the context relevant for interpreting certain expressions depends on features of the linguistic environment. Central applications include local and non-local contextual dependencies with quantifiers, attitude ascriptions, conditionals, questions, and relativization. The result is an innovative philosophically informed compositional semantics compatible with the truth-conditional paradigm. At the forefront of contemporary interdisciplinary research into meaning and communication, Semantics with Assignment Variables is essential reading for researchers and students in a diverse range of fields.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Semantic Relationism

Semantic Relationism

between assignments and formulas. To fix our ideas, let us suppose that the variables of our language are x1, x2, . . . and that the domain of discourse is D. We may take an assignment to be a function taking each variable of the ...

Author: Kit Fine

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781405196697

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 154

View: 403

Written by a respected philosopher, this text argues for a fundamentally new approach to the study of representation in language and thought.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Formal Semantics and Pragmatics for Natural Languages

Formal Semantics and Pragmatics for Natural Languages

Although the assignment function to the variables is important in obtaining the semantic value of an expression without free variables, it turns out that the value of such an expression is invariant under different assignments to the ...

Author: Franz Guenthner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400997752

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 379

View: 276

The essays in this collection are the outgrowth of a workshop, held in June 1976, on formal approaches to the semantics and pragmatics of natural languages. They document in an astoundingly uniform way the develop ments in the formal analysis of natural languages since the late sixties. The avowed aim of the' workshop was in fact to assess the progress made in the application of formal methods to semantics, to confront different approaches to essentially the same problems on the one hand, and, on the other, to show the way in relating semantic and pragmatic explanations of linguistic phenomena. Several of these papers can in fact be regarded as attempts to close the 'semiotic circle' by bringing together the syntactic, semantic and pragmatic properties of certain constructions in an explanatory framework thereby making it more than obvious that these three components of an integrated linguistic theory cannot be as neatly separated as one would have liked to believe. In other words, not only can we not elaborate a syntactic description of (a fragment of) a language and then proceed to the semantics (as Montague pointed out already forcefully in 1968), we cannot hope to achieve an adequate integrated syntax and semantics without paying heed to the pragmatic aspects of the constructions involved. The behavior of polarity items, 'quantifiers' like any, conditionals or even logical particles like and and or in non-indicative sentences is clear-cut evidence for the need to let each component of the grammar inform the other.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Runtime Verification

Runtime Verification

5.2 Semantics Assignments of values to variables are at the core of this semantics . An assignment over a set of variables W CV maps each variable x E W to a value from its associated domain domain ( x ) .

Author: Jyotirmoy Deshmukh

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030605087

Category: Computers

Page: 538

View: 983

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Runtime Verification, RV 2020, held in Los Angeles, CA, USA, in October 2020. The conference was held virtually due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The 14 regular papers and 2 short papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions. Also included are an invited paper, 5 tutorial papers, 6 tool papers, and a benchmark paper. The RV conference is concerned with all aspects of monitoring and analysis of hardware, software and more general system executions. The papers are organized in the following topical sections: runtime verification for autonomy; runtime verification for software; runtime verification with temporal logic specifications; stream-based monitoring; and runtime verification for cyber-physical systems.
Categories: Computers

Routledge Library Editions Semantics and Semiology

Routledge Library Editions  Semantics and Semiology

( 9 ) [ p ] [ v ] ( 10 ) Where g is a variable assignment that assigns values only to the variables that are free in p and v , || N [ p ] [ v ] || M , 8 is true iff for N - many assignments g'≈p 8 such that || p || M , 8 ' is true ...

Author: Various Authors

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781315520285

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 3362

View: 857

Semantics and semiology are two of the most important branches of linguistics and have proven to be fecund areas for research. They examine language structures and how they are dictated by both the meanings and forms of communication employed — semantics by focusing on the denotation of words and fixed word combinations, and semiology by studying sign and sign processes. As numerous interrelated fields connect to and sub-disciplines branch off from these major spheres, they are essential to a thorough grounding in linguistics and crucial for further study. ‘Routledge Library Editions: Semantics and Semiology’ collects together wide-ranging works of scholarship that together provide a comprehensive overview of the preceding theoretical landscape, and expand and extend it in numerous directions. A number of interrelated disciplines are also discussed in conjunction with semantics and semiology such as anaphora, pragmatics, syntax, discourse analysis and the philosophy of language. This set reissues 14 books originally published between 1960 to 2000 and will be of interest to students of linguistics and the philosophy of language.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Grammar of Q

The Grammar of Q

Recall that Q-particles are variables over choice functions. Therefore, relative to an arbitrary variable entity assignment g , the semantic value of '[QP [ XP ... wh τ ... ] Q ]' will be some y is τ also .. A of the normal-semantic .

Author: Seth Cable

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195392265

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 249

View: 879

'The Grammar of Q' puts forth a novel syntactic and semantic analysis of wh-questions, based on an in-depth study of the Tlingit language, an endangered and under-documented Native American tongue. A major conclusion is that the phenomenon classically dubbed 'pied-piping' does not actually exist.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

On the Semantics of Wh Clauses

On the Semantics of Wh Clauses

Let g be an individual variable assignment, i.e., a function from individual variables to individuals (primed gs are also assignments); let g' g mean that g' = g except possibly on the values assigned to the variables free in ...

Author: Stephen Berman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781134998920

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 178

View: 183

First published in 1994, this book is concerned with certain kinds of wh-clauses, whose interpretations are easily and, the author argues, plausibly rendered by a logicosemantic analysis on which wh-phrases translate as open sentences, that is, as expressions of the semantically interpreted representation which contain free variables. After a review of influential contemporary analyses of the semantics of questions, concentrating on issues related to the truthconditional interpretation of these constructions, the author goes on to analyse logicosemantic similarities between wh-phrases and indefinite NPs. This analysis is extended in chapter V to account for asymmetries between wh-phrases and indefinites, but is preceded by the engagement and refutation of some of the challenges to it. The appendices discuss some peripheral points relating to the central points made by the author which are in need of further study.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Routledge Handbook of Semantics

The Routledge Handbook of Semantics

This function is a variable assignment. Within the language, some expressions, such as pronouns, are singled out as variables. These variables are introduced into the language bearing a natural number as an index.

Author: Nick Riemer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317412458

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 550

View: 343

The Routledge Handbook of Semantics provides a broad and state-of-the-art survey of this field, covering semantic research at both word and sentence level. It presents a synoptic view of the most important areas of semantic investigation, including contemporary methodologies and debates, and indicating possible future directions in the field. Written by experts from around the world, the 29 chapters cover key issues and approaches within the following areas: meaning and conceptualisation; meaning and context; lexical semantics; semantics of specific phenomena; development, change and variation. The Routledge Handbook of Semantics is essential reading for researchers and postgraduate students working in this area.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Formal Techniques for Networked and Distributed Systems FORTE 2002

Formal Techniques for Networked and Distributed Systems   FORTE 2002

Thus, assignments to auxiliary variables should be allowed before evaluating the condition. For instance, if the condition is ... In a small-step semantics, each variable assignment creates a transition in the underlying graph model.

Author: Doron A. Peled

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540361350

Category: Computers

Page: 374

View: 334

The IFIP TC6 WG 6.1 Joint International Conference on Formal Techniques for Networked and Distributed Systems, FORTE 2002, was held this year at Rice University, Houston, Texas, on November 11–14. This annual conference provides a forum for researchers and practitioners from universities and industry to meet and advance technologies in areas of speci?cation, testing, and veri?cation of distributed systems and communication protocols. The main topics are: – FDT-based system and protocol engineering. – Semantical foundations. – Extensions of FDTs. – Formal approaches to concurrent/distributed object-oriented systems. – Real-time and probability aspects. – Performance modeling and analysis. – Quality of service modeling and analysis. – Veri?cation and validation. – Relations between informal and formal speci?cation. – FDT-based protocol implementation. – Software tools and support environments. – FDT application to distributed systems. – Protocol testing, including conformance testing, interoperability testing, and performance testing. – Test generation, selection, and coverage. – Practical experience and case studies. – Corporate strategic and ?nancial consequences of using formal methods. A total of 61 papers were submitted to FORTE 2002, and reviewed by m- bers of the program committee and additional reviewers. The program committee selected 22 regular papers, two tool papers, and two posters for presentation at the conference. The program also included three tutorials and ?ve invited talks.
Categories: Computers

Reasoning Web Semantic Technologies for Information Systems

Reasoning Web  Semantic Technologies for Information Systems

Since the expressions of Core XPath 2.0 can contain variables, the semantic interpretation is relative to an assignment, i.e., a function mapping variables to nodes. For g an assignment, $i a variable, and x a node, g[$i → x] denotes ...

Author: Sergio Tessaris

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642037535

Category: Computers

Page: 357

View: 400

This book contains a collection of revised tutorial papers based on lectures given by researchers at the 5th International Summer School on the Reasoning Web. It introduces semantic web methods and research issues with a particular emphasis on reasoning.
Categories: Computers