Social Variation and the Latin Language

Social Variation and the Latin Language

This book is a history of many of the developments undergone by the Latin language as it changed into Romance, demonstrating the varying social levels at which change was initiated.

Author: J. N. Adams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107354692

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page:

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Languages show variations according to the social class of speakers and Latin was no exception, as readers of Petronius are aware. The Romance languages have traditionally been regarded as developing out of a 'language of the common people' (Vulgar Latin), but studies of modern languages demonstrate that linguistic change does not merely come, in the social sense, 'from below'. There is change from above, as prestige usages work their way down the social scale, and change may also occur across the social classes. This book is a history of many of the developments undergone by the Latin language as it changed into Romance, demonstrating the varying social levels at which change was initiated. About thirty topics are dealt with, many of them more systematically than ever before. Discussions often start in the early Republic with Plautus, and the book is as much about the literary language as about informal varieties.
Categories: Foreign Language Study

Language and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds

Language and Society in the Greek and Roman Worlds

Representing language variation in literary texts: Rome, comedy and the novel
We are fortunate to have a much ... to find conclusive markers of social variation.
12 A more rewarding literary account of social variation in the Latin language is ...

Author: James Clackson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316297803

Category: History

Page:

View: 664

Texts written in Latin, Greek and other languages provide ancient historians with their primary evidence, but the role of language as a source for understanding the ancient world is often overlooked. Language played a key role in state-formation and the spread of Christianity, the construction of ethnicity, and negotiating positions of social status and group membership. Language could reinforce social norms and shed light on taboos. This book presents an accessible account of ways in which linguistic evidence can illuminate topics such as imperialism, ethnicity, social mobility, religion, gender and sexuality in the ancient world, without assuming the reader has any knowledge of Greek or Latin, or of linguistic jargon. It describes the rise of Greek and Latin at the expense of other languages spoken around the Mediterranean and details the social meanings of different styles, and the attitudes of ancient speakers towards linguistic differences.
Categories: History

A Companion to the Latin Language

A Companion to the Latin Language

A Companion to the Latin Language presents a collection of original essays from international scholars that track the development and use of the Latin language from its origins to its modern day usage.

Author: James Clackson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444343373

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 664

View: 894

A Companion to the Latin Language presents a collection of original essays from international scholars that track the development and use of the Latin language from its origins to its modern day usage. Brings together contributions from internationally renowned classicists, linguists and Latin language specialists Offers, in a single volume, a detailed account of different literary registers of the Latin language Explores the social and political contexts of Latin Includes new accounts of the Latin language in light of modern linguistic theory Supplemented with illustrations covering the development of the Latin alphabet
Categories: Literary Criticism

Social and Stylistic Variation in Spoken French

Social and Stylistic Variation in Spoken French

This volume is the first examination and exploration of variation in French that studies in a unified way the levels of phonology, grammar and lexis using quantitative methods.

Author: Nigel Armstrong

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9027218390

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 277

View: 763

Many of the assumptions of Labovian sociolinguistics are based on results drawn from US and UK English, Latin American Spanish and Canadian French. Sociolinguistic variation in the French of France has been rather little studied compared to these languages. This volume is the first examination and exploration of variation in French that studies in a unified way the levels of phonology, grammar and lexis using quantitative methods. One of its aims is to establish whether the patterns of variation that have been reported in French conform to those reported in other languages. A second important theme of this volume is the study of variation across speech styles in French, through a comparison with some of the best-known English results. The book is therefore also the first to examine current theories of social-stylistic variation by using fresh quantitative data. These data throw new light on the influence of methodology on results, on why certain linguistic variables have more stylistic value, and on how the strong normative tradition in France moulds interactions between social and stylistic variation.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Development of Latin Clause Structure

The Development of Latin Clause Structure

The Morphosyntax of Transitions: A Case Study in Latin and Other Languages.
Oxford: Oxford ... 'A Typological Approach to Latin Word Order', Indogermanische
Forschungen 81: 70–100. Adams ... Social Variation and the Latin Language.

Author: Lieven Danckaert

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780191077418

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 352

View: 133

This book examines Latin word order, and in particular the relative ordering of i) lexical verbs and direct objects (OV vs VO) and ii) auxiliaries and non-finite verbs (VAux vs AuxV). In Latin these elements can freely be ordered with respect to each other, whereas the present-day Romance languages only allow for the head-initial orders VO and AuxV. Lieven Danckaert offers a detailed, corpus-based description of these two word order alternations, focusing on their diachronic development in the period from c. 200 BC until 600 AD. The corpus data reveal that some received wisdom needs to be reconsidered: there is in fact no evidence for any major increase in productivity of the order VO during the eight centuries under investigation, and the order AuxV only becomes more frequent in clauses with a modal verb and an infinitive, not in clauses with a BE-auxiliary and a past participle. The book also explores a more fundamental question about Latin syntax, namely whether or not the language is configurational, in the sense that a phrase structure grammar (with 'higher-order constituents' such as verb phrases) is needed to describe and analyse Latin word order patterns. Four pieces of evidence are presented that suggest that Latin is indeed a fully configurational language, despite its high degree of word order flexibility. Specifically, it is shown that there is ample evidence for the existence of a verb phrase constituent. The book thus contributes to the ongoing debate regarding the status of configurationality as a language universal.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

An Anthology of Informal Latin 200 BC AD 900

An Anthology of Informal Latin  200 BC   AD 900

It is not intended as an elementary reader (though suitable for university courses)
, but as an illustrative history of Latin ... Diversification of Latin 200 BC – AD 600 (
Cambridge 2007) and Social Variation and the Latin Language (Cambridge ...

Author: J. N. Adams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316673256

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page:

View: 811

This book contains over fifty passages of Latin from 200 BC to AD 900, each with translation and linguistic commentary. It is not intended as an elementary reader (though suitable for university courses), but as an illustrative history of Latin covering more than a millennium, with almost every century represented. Conventional histories cite constructions out of context, whereas this work gives a sense of the period, genre, stylistic aims and idiosyncrasies of specific passages. 'Informal' texts, particularly if they portray talk, reflect linguistic variety and change better than texts adhering to classicising norms. Some of the texts are recent discoveries or little known. Writing tablets are well represented, as are literary and technical texts down to the early medieval period, when striking changes appear. The commentaries identify innovations, discontinuities and phenomena of long duration. Readers will learn much about the diversity and development of Latin.
Categories: Foreign Language Study

Iberian Imperialism and Language Evolution in Latin America

Iberian Imperialism and Language Evolution in Latin America

More remarkable still is the regional and social variation that characterizes Latin
American Spanish today; some of the differences among Latin American Spanish
dialects are reflected in dialect divisions in contemporary Spain, while others ...

Author: Salikoko S. Mufwene

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226125671

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 368

View: 223

As rich as the development of the Spanish and Portuguese languages has been in Latin America, no single book has attempted to chart their complex history. Gathering essays by sociohistorical linguists working across the region, Salikoko S. Mufwene does just that in this book. Exploring the many different contact points between Iberian colonialism and indigenous cultures, the contributors identify the crucial parameters of language evolution that have led to today’s state of linguistic diversity in Latin America. The essays approach language development through an ecological lens, exploring the effects of politics, economics, cultural contact, and natural resources on the indigenization of Spanish and Portuguese in a variety of local settings. They show how languages adapt to new environments, peoples, and practices, and the ramifications of this for the spread of colonial languages, the loss or survival of indigenous ones, and the way hybrid vernaculars get situated in larger political and cultural forces. The result is a sophisticated look at language as a natural phenomenon, one that meets a host of influences with remarkable plasticity.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Asyndeton and its Interpretation in Latin Literature

Asyndeton and its Interpretation in Latin Literature

This book provides the most comprehensive treatment of asyndeton in Latin ever attempted, and it also contains material from Greek and Umbrian.

Author: J. N. Adams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108837859

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 500

View: 815

Asyndetic coordination (omission of coordinators such as but, or, and) is ancient in Indo-European languages. Most commentaries on Greek and Latin texts index 'asyndeton', but comprehensive treatments of asyndeton across a variety of literary and non-literary genres are largely lacking, and comments are often impressionistic. This book provides the most comprehensive treatment of asyndeton in Latin ever attempted, and it also contains material from Greek and Umbrian. It analyses asyndeta in diverse genres from early Latin to the early Empire, including prayers and laws, and aims to identify types, determinants, generic variations and chronological changes. Since coordinators are easily left out or added by scribes, criteria are discussed that might be used by editors in deciding between asyndeton and coordination. External influences on Latin, such as Greek and Italic, are also considered. The book will be essential for all scholars of Latin language and literature as well as historical linguistics.
Categories: Foreign Language Study

Variation and Change in Spanish

Variation and Change in Spanish

This book studies worldwide variation in Spanish, and the origins and history of this variation.

Author: Ralph Penny

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521604508

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 284

View: 511

This book studies worldwide variation in Spanish, and the origins and history of this variation.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Handbook of Hispanic Sociolinguistics

The Handbook of Hispanic Sociolinguistics

This Handbook provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of theoretical and descriptive research in contemporary Hispanic sociolinguistics.

Author: Manuel Diaz-Campos

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119108917

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 816

View: 689

This Handbook provides a comprehensive, state-of-the-art overview of theoretical and descriptive research in contemporary Hispanic sociolinguistics. Offers the first authoritative collection exploring research strands in the emerging and fast-moving field of Spanish sociolinguistics Highlights the contributions that Spanish Sociolinguistics has offered to general linguistic theory Brings together a team of the top researchers in the field to present the very latest perspectives and discussions of key issues Covers a wealth of topics including: variationist approaches, Spanish and its importance in the U.S., language planning, and other topics focused on the social aspects of Spanish Includes several varieties of Spanish, reflecting the rich diversity of dialects spoken in the Americas and Spain
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Handbook of Language Variation and Change

The Handbook of Language Variation and Change

Kent, Roland G. (1938) Varro on the Latin Language with an English Translation,
vol. 2. London: William ... Reid, Euan (1978) Social and stylistic variation in the
speech of children: some evidence from Edinburgh. In Peter Trudgill (ed.) ...

Author: J. K. Chambers

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118335512

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 616

View: 255

Reflecting a multitude of developments in the study of language change and variation over the last ten years, this extensively updated second edition features a number of new chapters and remains the authoritative reference volume on a core research area in linguistics. A fully revised and expanded edition of this acclaimed reference work, which has established its reputation based on its unrivalled scope and depth of analysis in this interdisciplinary field Includes seven new chapters, while the remainder have undergone thorough revision and updating to incorporate the latest research and reflect numerous developments in the field Accessibly structured by theme, covering topics including data collection and evaluation, linguistic structure, language and time, language contact, language domains, and social differentiation Brings together an experienced, international editorial and contributor team to provides an unrivalled learning, teaching and reference tool for researchers and students in sociolinguistics
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Latin American Spanish

Latin American Spanish

The first part of the book presents a linguistic analysis of Latin American Spanish and places it in a broad historical context.

Author: John M. Lipski

Publisher: Addison-Wesley

ISBN: UTEXAS:059173020444158

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 426

View: 643

The first part of the book presents a linguistic analysis of Latin American Spanish and places it in a broad historical context. The author examines the phonology and morphology of the language, its syntactic and lexical variation and social differentiation, its past and present contacts with other languages and also explores the sociohistorical factors which have shaped the various Latin American Spanish dialects. He provides the reader with a detailed account of the influence of African and Native American languages and populations, and assesses the contribution made by Peninsular Spanish. This includes the geographical and social origins of the original Spanish settlers, the effects of dialect levelling and nautical language and subsequent migratory patterns. There are also in-depth evaluations of dialect classification schemes.
Categories: Foreign Language Study

Colloquial and Literary Latin

Colloquial and Literary Latin

language. Rolando Ferri and Philomen Probert 1 introduction Linguistic register
has been characterised as the result of a ... groupsofspeakers, sincesuch
distinctions reveal concepts of geographical or social variation rather than of
register.

Author: Eleanor Dickey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139488525

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page:

View: 356

What is colloquial Latin? What can we learn about it from Roman literature, and how does an understanding of colloquial Latin enhance our appreciation of literature? This book sets out to answer such questions, beginning with examinations of how the term 'colloquial' has been used by linguists and by classicists (and how its Latin equivalents were used by the Romans) and continuing with exciting new research on colloquial language in a wide range of Latin authors. Each chapter is written by a leading expert in the relevant area, and the material presented includes new editions of several texts. The Introduction presents the first account in English of developments in the study of colloquial Latin over the last century, and throughout the book findings are presented in clear, lucid, and jargon-free language, making a major scholarly debate accessible to a broad range of students and non-specialists.
Categories: Foreign Language Study

The Study of Language

The Study of Language

Although AAEspeakerscontinue to experiencethe effectsof discrimination, their
social dialect often has covert prestige among younger ... first to describe local
European languages (low prestige) in contrast to Latin (high prestige), then to
characterize any non-standard ... the double negative construction, as in He don't
know nothin or Language and social variation 261 CCCXXXVI CCCXXXVII
CCCXXXVIII.

Author: George Yule

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139486767

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page:

View: 873

This best-selling textbook provides an engaging and user-friendly introduction to the study of language. Assuming no prior knowledge in the subject, Yule presents information in short, bite-sized sections, introducing the major concepts in language study – from how children learn language to why men and women speak differently, through all the key elements of language. This fourth edition has been revised and updated with twenty new sections, covering new accounts of language origins, the key properties of language, text messaging, kinship terms and more than twenty new word etymologies. To increase student engagement with the text, Yule has also included more than fifty new tasks, including thirty involving data analysis, enabling students to apply what they have learned. The online study guide offers students further resources when working on the tasks, while encouraging lively and proactive learning. This is the most fundamental and easy-to-use introduction to the study of language.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Cambridge History of the English Language

The Cambridge History of the English Language

This volume spans Middle English, Early Modern English and the early stages of modern language.

Author: Richard M. Hogg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521264766

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 796

View: 425

This volume spans Middle English, Early Modern English and the early stages of modern language.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

The Handbook of Language Contact

The Handbook of Language Contact

More remarkable still is the regional and social variation which characterizes
modern Spanish, particularly in Latin America; some of the differences among
Spanish dialects around the world are reflected in dialect divisions in
contemporary ...

Author: Raymond Hickey

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118448694

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 888

View: 839

The Handbook of Language Contact offers systematic coverageof the major issues in this field – ranging from the value ofcontact explanations in linguistics, to the impact of immigration,to dialectology – combining new research from a team ofglobally renowned scholars, with case studies of numerouslanguages. An authoritative reference work exploring the major issues inthe field of language contact: the study of how language changeswhen speakers of distinct speech varieties interact Brings together 40 specially-commissioned essays by aninternational team of scholars Examines language contact in societies which have significantimmigration populations, and includes a fascinating cross-sectionof case studies drawing on languages across the world Accessibly structured into sections exploring the place ofcontact studies within linguistics as a whole; the value of contactstudies for research into language change; and language contact inthe context of work on language and society Explores a broad range of topics, making it an excellentresource for both faculty and students across a variety of fieldswithin linguistics
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

An Introduction to Linguistics

An Introduction to Linguistics

This lively and wide-ranging textbook provides an invaluable guide to the very nature of language.

Author: Stuart C. Poole

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 9781349273461

Category: Language and languages

Page: 224

View: 786

Categories: Language and languages

The Foundations of Latin

The Foundations of Latin

The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks, as well as studies that provide new insights by approaching language from an interdisciplinary perspective.

Author: Philip Baldi

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 9783110807110

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 561

View: 936

TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS is a series of books that open new perspectives in our understanding of language. The series publishes state-of-the-art work on core areas of linguistics across theoretical frameworks as well as studies that provide new insights by building bridges to neighbouring fields such as neuroscience and cognitive science. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS considers itself a forum for cutting-edge research based on solid empirical data on language in its various manifestations, including sign languages. It regards linguistic variation in its synchronic and diachronic dimensions as well as in its social contexts as important sources of insight for a better understanding of the design of linguistic systems and the ecology and evolution of language. TRENDS IN LINGUISTICS publishes monographs and outstanding dissertations as well as edited volumes, which provide the opportunity to address controversial topics from different empirical and theoretical viewpoints. High quality standards are ensured through anonymous reviewing.
Categories: Language Arts & Disciplines

Spanish in New York

Spanish in New York

Investigates Pro-drop (the practice of not using redundant subject pronouns with conjugated verbs that imply their presence) in a collection of Spanish speakers from New York city, varying by age, gender, place of birth, etc.

Author: Ricardo Otheguy

Publisher: OUP USA

ISBN: 9780199737406

Category: Foreign Language Study

Page: 299

View: 807

Spanish in New York is a groundbreaking sociolinguistic analysis of immigrant bilingualism in a U.S. setting. Drawing on one of the largest corpora of spoken Spanish ever assembled for a single city, Otheguy and Zentella demonstrate the extent to which the language of Latinos in New York City represents a continuation of structural variation as it is found in Latin America, as well as the extent to which Spanish has evolved in New York City. Their study, which focuses on language contact, dialectal leveling, and structural continuity, carefully distinguishes between the influence of English and the mutual influences of forms of Spanish with roots in different parts of Latin America. Taking variationist sociolinguistics as its guiding paradigm, the book compares the Spanish of New Yorkers born in Latin America with that of those born in New York City. Findings are grounded in a comparative analysis of 140 sociolinguistic interviews of speakers with origins in Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Mexico and Puerto Rico. Quantitative analysis (correlations, anovas, variable hierarchies, constraint hierarchies) reveals the effect on the use of subject personal pronouns of the speaker's gender, immigrant generation, years spent in New York, and amount of exposure to English and to varieties of Spanish. In addition to these speaker factors, structural and communicative variables, including the person and tense of the verb and its referential status, have a significant impact on pronominal usage in New York City.
Categories: Foreign Language Study