Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution

Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution

InChapter 4 I outlined a test of the somatic selection hypothesis, at the levelof the whole animal, using “natural” stimulation methods. The somatic selection hypothesis (and itsfurther ramifications as outlined inthe Appendix )canalso ...

Author: E.J. Steele

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461597933

Category: Science

Page: 92

View: 849

The origins of the idea to write this book are impossible to trace. What I can say with some certainty, is that the book would not have emerged without the pleasing interplay of two contingent pleasures which occurred in the summer of 1978. The first was the penetrating sense of awe experienced when I finished reading Koestler's recent book' Janus A Summing Up', 1978. His philosophy provided that necessary inspiration to tackle, in a rational way, a long held dissatisfaction with the . conven tional Darwinian explanation of evolution. The second was the more subliminal pleasure of camping and exploring that beautiful panorama of the lake district of Northern Ontario. The book, written in an argumentative style, reviews the case for the inheritance of acquired characteristics and proposes a simple, feasible mechanism to drive this process. It is written from the narrow perspective of an experimental Immunologist with an interest in the evolution of multicellular organisms. Much attention is given to current ideas in Immunology, and at times we dive deeply into its heartland to grasp those threads relevant to a general theory of evolution. In these excursions, I take pains not to lose the general reader (although I run the risk of annoying some Immunologists), I do this so that the argument is understood by Biologists as a whole. This narrow approach path, however, eliminates areas of interest to some Biologists, e. g.
Categories: Science

Adaptive Oncogenesis

Adaptive Oncogenesis

Popular understanding holds that genetic changes create cancer. James DeGregori uses evolutionary principles to propose a new way of thinking about cancerÕs occurrence.

Author: James DeGregori

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674545397

Category: Science

Page: 271

View: 308

Popular understanding holds that genetic changes create cancer. James DeGregori uses evolutionary principles to propose a new way of thinking about cancerÕs occurrence. Cancer is as much a disease of evolution as it is of mutation, one in which mutated cells outcompete healthy cells in the ecosystem of the bodyÕs tissues. His theory ties cancerÕs progression, or lack thereof, to evolved strategies to maximize reproductive success. Through natural selection, humans evolved genetic programs to maintain bodily health for as long as necessary to increase the odds of passing on our genesÑbut not much longer. These mechanisms engender a tissue environment that favors normal stem cells over precancerous ones. Healthy tissues thwart cancer cellsÕ ability to outcompete their precancerous rivals. But as our tissues age or accumulate damage from exposures such as smoking, normal stem cells find themselves less optimized to their ecosystem. Cancer-causing mutations can now help cells adapt to these altered tissue environments, and thus outcompete normal cells. Just as changes in a speciesÕ habitat favor the evolution of new species, changes in tissue environments favor the growth of cancerous cells. DeGregoriÕs perspective goes far in explaining who gets cancer, when it appears, and why. While we cannot avoid mutations, it may be possible to sustain our tissuesÕ natural and effective system of defense, even in the face of aging or harmful exposures. For those interested in learning how cancers arise within the human body, the insights in Adaptive Oncogenesis offer a compelling perspective.
Categories: Science

Somatic Hypermutation in V Regions

Somatic Hypermutation in V Regions

Steele , E. J. , Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution ; on the Inheritance of Acquired Characters , 2nd ed . , University of Chicago Press , Chicago , 1981 . 14. Steele , E. J. , Gorczynski , R. M. , and Pollard , J. W. , The ...

Author: E. J. Steele

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0849353483

Category: Medical

Page: 200

View: 213

This book provides critical reviews regarding the process of somatic hypermutation in antibody V genes. Topics covered include the in vivo kinetics of antigen-driven somatic hypermutation in a number of well-studied systems in mice; the instability of lg genes in cultured cells; the key role played in vivo by germinal centers in providing the appropriate "mutational" microenvironment; the types of nucleotide sequence errors generated; the process of hypermutation in pre-arranged V regions expressed in transgenic mice; and a critical evaluation of the status of molecular models proposed to explain hypermutation. Other topics include a detailed review of data from hypervariable retroviral systems, as well as precise studies on the mutagenic potential of various DNA polymerases in vitro. The book will provide indispensable information for immunologists, geneticists, molecular biologists, biochemists, and cell biologists.
Categories: Medical

Controversy Catastrophism and Evolution

Controversy Catastrophism and Evolution

E. J. Steele, Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution, Croom Helm, London (1979). R. M. Gorczynski and E.J. Steele, Simultaneous yet independent inheritance of somatically acquired tolerance to two distinct H-2 antigenic haplotype ...

Author: Trevor Palmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461549017

Category: Science

Page: 452

View: 230

In Controversy, Trevor Palmer fully documents how traditional gradualistic views of biological and geographic evolution are giving way to a catastrophism that credits cataclysmic events, such as meteorite impacts, for the rapid bursts and abrupt transitions observed in the fossil record. According to the catastrophists, new species do not evolve gradually; they proliferate following sudden mass extinctions. Placing this major change of perspective within the context of a range of ancient debates, Palmer discusses such topics as the history of the solar system, present-day extraterrestrial threats to earth, hominid evolution, and the fossil record.
Categories: Science

Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution

Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution

An examination of adaptive reversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Genetics , 132 , 9–21 . Steele , E.J. ( 1979 ) . Somatic selection and adaptive evolution : on the inheritance of acquired characters . Williams - Wallace , Toronto .

Author: Eva Jablonka

Publisher:

ISBN: 0198540620

Category: Science

Page: 346

View: 280

Does the inheritance of acquired characteristics play a significant role in evolution? In this book, Eva Jablonka and Marion J. Lamb attempt to answer that question with an original, provocative exploration of the nature and origin of hereditary variations. Starting with a historical account of Lamarck's ideas and the reasons they have fallen in disrepute, the authors go on to challenge the prevailing assumption that all heritable variation is random and the result of variation in DNA base sequences. They also detail recent breakthroughs in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying inheritance--including several pathways not envisioned by classical population genetics--and argue that these advances need to be more fully incorporated into mainstream evolutionary theory. Throughout, the book offers a new look at the evidence for and against the hereditability of environmentally induced changes, and addresses timely questions about the importance of non-Mendelian inheritance. A glossary and extensive list of references round out the book. Urging a reconsideration of the present DNA-centric view prevalent in the field, Epigentic Inheritance and Evolution will make fascinating and important reading for students and researchers in evolution, genetics, ecology, molecular biology, developmental biology, and the history and philosophy of science.
Categories: Science

Evolutionary Principles

Evolutionary Principles

On this basis, E. J. Steele in his Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution (Croom Helm, 1980) has recently revisited Lamarckism. Chance mutations are known to turn up in the somatic cells. Useful ones, i.e. which benefit the cell ...

Author: Peter Calow

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781468415186

Category: Science

Page: 108

View: 264

The last few years have seen a number of new books on evolutionary biology. However most of these are either large or specialized. This is an attempt to produce a thin, general version for undergraduate use. Thinness, of course, demands selectivity, and the aim has been to concentrate on the principles of the subject rather than on the details-principles, that is, of both theory and practice. Thinness also sometimes means that a certain level of knowledge is assumed in the readership, but I hope that this is not the case here, and my intention has certainly been to produce something that is as intelligible to the uninitiated as it is to the well-informed. As for the bibliography, I refer, where possible, to reviews rather than primary sources, so a citation should not be taken to imply any sort of precedence. In developing the theme, I have adopted a loosely historical approach, not only because I believe that this makes for more interesting reading but also because the subject, like the subject it addresses, has evolved under the critical eye of a selective process. Problems have been perceived, hypotheses have been formulated to explain them, facts have been amassed to test the hypotheses, more problems have been perceived, more hypotheses formu lated, and so on.
Categories: Science

God Gametes 4 and the Darwinian Fallacy

God Gametes 4 and the Darwinian Fallacy

somatic cells (cells subject to phenotypic change) and germline cells passed on to future generations. ... In 1979, Professor Ted Steele proposed his Somatic Selection hypothesis in his Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution.

Author: Robert Jameson

Publisher: Lulu Press, Inc

ISBN: 9781326298654

Category: Religion

Page:

View: 152

The God Gametes theory argues that life on earth is part of the reproductive system of a parent species from a higher level of a multiverse. We contend a single female member of the parent species colonised earth for the purpose of reproduction. She drove the complexity of life on earth until one species, homo sapiens, evolved a large brain and the ability to host a consciousness reproductive cell of a male parent species. Charles Darwin called his book On the Origin of Species but natural selection is not about the ‘origin’ of anything. His theory was not about the ‘origin’ of species, nor about the ‘origin’ of life. Natural selection argues the case for how one ‘living’ species might gradually evolve into another ‘living’ species. It has nothing to do with how anything originated. Supporters of this concept foster the myth that with enough throws of the dice, with enough random coin flips, then blind probability can design complexity. It cannot.
Categories: Religion

Faces

Faces

Edward J. Steele , Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution , 2nd ed . ( Chicago : The University of Chicago Press , 1981 ) , 15-57 . 33. Steele et al . , Lamarck's Signature , 26 . 34. Ibid . , 197 . 35. Steele , Somatic Selection and ...

Author: Milton E. Brener

Publisher: University Press of America

ISBN: 0761818138

Category: Art

Page: 372

View: 701

Scientists have emphasized the innate, genetically based nature of our fascination with the human face and its almost limitless expressive capacity, all of which is represented in the art of the last six centuries. But little attention has been paid to the anomoly of the vacuous expressions of earlier facial representations. Brener attributes this change to a change in the functioning of the human brain, as well as the role of cultural factors. It is the evolution of both genes and culture that has resulted in a marked increase in the human ability to create and interpret facial expressions. The result of this has impacted human behavior.
Categories: Art

Evolution in the Antipodes Charles Darwin and Australia

Evolution in the Antipodes  Charles Darwin and Australia

The following year Steele released Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution. His 'Somatic Selection Hypothesis' was influenced by the Darwinian explanations used in Macfarlane Burnet's 'Clonal SelectionTheory' ofacquired immunity and ...

Author: Tom Frame

Publisher: UNSW Press

ISBN: 9781742240398

Category: Australia

Page:

View: 267

Categories: Australia

Evolution Development and Complexity

Evolution  Development and Complexity

Multiscale Evolutionary Models of Complex Adaptive Systems Georgi Yordanov Georgiev, John M. Smart, ... Steele, Edward J. (1981) Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution: On the Inheritance of Acquired Characters, 2nd Ed., U. of Chicago ...

Author: Georgi Yordanov Georgiev

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030000752

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 100

This book explores the universe and its subsystems from the three lenses of evolutionary (contingent), developmental (predictable), and complex (adaptive) processes at all scales. It draws from prolific experts within the academic disciplines of complexity science, physical science, information and computer science, theoretical and evo-devo biology, cosmology, astrobiology, evolutionary theory, developmental theory, and philosophy. The chapters come from a Satellite Meeting, "Evolution, Development and Complexity" (EDC) hosted at the Conference on Complex Systems, in Cancun, 2017. The contributions have been peer-reviewed and contributors from outside the conference were invited to submit chapters to ensure full coverage of the topics. This book explores many issues within the field of EDC such as the interaction of evolutionary stochasticity and developmental determinism in biological systems and what they might teach us about these twin processes in other complex systems. This text will appeal to students and researchers within the complex systems and EDC fields.
Categories: Science