In the first book-length study of the South Sudan civil war, John Young draws on his close but critical relationship with the rebel SPLM-IO leadership to reveal the true dynamics of the conflict, and exposes how the South Sudanese state was ...
Author: John Young
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
Category: Political Science
A mere two years after achieving independence, South Sudan in 2013 descended into violent civil war, refuting US government claims that the country’s succession was a major foreign policy success and would end endemic conflict. Worse was to follow when the international community declared famine in 2017. In the first book-length study of the South Sudan civil war, John Young draws on his close but critical relationship with the rebel SPLM-IO leadership to reveal the true dynamics of the conflict, and exposes how the South Sudanese state was in crisis long before the outbreak of war. With insider knowledge of the histories and motivations of the rebellion’s chief protagonists, Young argues considerable responsibility for the present state of South Sudan must be laid at the door of the US-led peace process. Linking the role of the international community with the country’s opposition politics, South Sudan’s Civil War is an essential guide to the causes and consequences of the violence that has engulfed one of Africa’s most troubled nations.
Thanks to generous funding from TOME, the ebook editions of this book are available as Open Access volumes from Cornell Open (cornellopen.org) and other repositories.
Author: Clémence Pinaud
Publisher: Cornell University Press
Category: Political Science
Using more than a decade's worth of fieldwork in South Sudan, Clémence Pinaud here explores the relationship between predatory wealth accumulation, state formation, and a form of racism—extreme ethnic group entitlement—that has the potential to result in genocide. War and Genocide in South Sudan traces the rise of a predatory state during civil war in southern Sudan and its transformation into a violent Dinka ethnocracy after the region's formal independence. That new state, Pinaud argues, waged genocide against non-Dinka civilians in 2013-2017. During a civil war that wrecked the region between 1983 and 2005, the predominantly Dinka Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) practiced ethnically exclusive and predatory wealth accumulation. Its actions fostered extreme group entitlement and profoundly shaped the rebel state. Ethnic group entitlement eventually grew into an ideology of ethnic supremacy. After that war ended, the semi-autonomous state turned into a violent and predatory ethnocracy—a process accelerated by independence in 2011. The rise of exclusionary nationalism, a new security landscape, and inter-ethnic political competition contributed to the start of a new round of civil war in 2013, in which the recently founded state unleashed violence against nearly all non-Dinka ethnic groups. Pinaud investigates three campaigns waged by the South Sudan government in 2013–2017 and concludes they were genocidal—they sought to destroy non-Dinka target groups. She demonstrates how the perpetrators' sense of group entitlement culminated in land-grabs that amounted to a genocidal conquest echoing the imperialist origins of modern genocides. Thanks to generous funding from TOME, the ebook editions of this book are available as Open Access volumes from Cornell Open (cornellopen.org) and other repositories.
Fast-paced and poignant, Collapse of a Country gives an insider’s glimpse into the chaos, violence, and ethnic conflicts that emerged out of a civil war that has been largely ignored by the West.
Author: Nicholas Coghlan
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
Category: Political Science
The first Canadian diplomat to be posted to war-torn Sudan, Nicholas Coghlan was a natural choice to lead Canada’s representation in the new Republic of South Sudan soon after the country was founded in 2011. In late 2013, Coghlan and his wife Jenny were in the capital, Juba, when it erupted in gunfire and civil war pitted one half of the army against the other, Vice-President Machar against President Kiir, and the Nuer tribe against the Dinka. This action-focused narrative, grounded by accounts of meetings with key leaders and travels throughout the dangerous, impoverished hinterland of South Sudan, explains what happened in December 2013 and why. In harrowing terms, Collapse of a Country describes the ebb and flow of the war and the humanitarian tragedy that followed, the Coghlans’ scramble to evacuate South-Sudanese Canadians from Juba, and the well-meant but often ill-conceived attempts of the international community to mitigate the misery and bring peace back to a land that has rarely known it. Coghlan’s stark narrative serves as a lesson to politicians, diplomats, aid workers, and practitioners on the breakdown of governance and relationships between ethnic groups, and the often decisive role of international development representatives. Fast-paced and poignant, Collapse of a Country gives an insider’s glimpse into the chaos, violence, and ethnic conflicts that emerged out of a civil war that has been largely ignored by the West.
In this book, she provides an unparalleled insider's account of South Sudan's descent from the ecstatic celebrations of July 2011 to the outbreak of the disastrous conflict in December 2013 and the early, bloody phase of the fighting.
Author: Hilde F. Johnson
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
In July 2011, South Sudan was granted independence and became the world's newest country. Yet just two-and-a-half years after this momentous decision, the country was in the grips of renewed civil war and political strife. Hilde F. Johnson served as Special Representative of the Secretary-General and Head of the United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan from July 2011 until July 2014 and, as such, she was witness to the many challenges which the country faced as it struggled to adjust to its new autonomous state. In this book, she provides an unparalleled insider's account of South Sudan's descent from the ecstatic celebrations of July 2011 to the outbreak of the disastrous conflict in December 2013 and the early, bloody phase of the fighting. Johnson's frequent personal and private contacts at the highest levels of government, accompanied by her deep knowledge of the country and its history, make this a unique eyewitness account of the turbulent first three years of the world's newest – and yet most fragile – country.
A story of transformation and of victory against the odds, this book reviews South Sudan's modern history as a contested region and assesses the political, social and security dynamics that will shape its immediate future as Africa's newest ...
Author: Matthew Arnold
Publisher: Oxford University Press
In July 2011 the Republic of South Sudan achieved independence, concluding what had been Africa's longest running civil war. The process leading to independence was driven by the Sudan Peoples' Liberation Movement, a primarily Southern rebel force and political movement intent on bringing about the reformed unity of the whole Sudan. Through the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005, a six year peace process unfolded in the form of an interim period premised upon 'making unity attractive' for the Sudan. A failed exercise, it culminated in an almost unanimous vote for independence by Southerners in a referendum held in January 2011. Violence has continued since, and a daunting possibility for South Sudan has arisen - to have won independence only to descend into its own civil war, with the regime in Khartoum aiding and abetting factionalism to keep the new state weak and vulnerable. Achieving a durable peace will be a massive challenge, and resolving the issues that so inflamed Southerners historically - unsupportive governance, broad feelings of exploitation and marginalisation and fragile ethnic politics - will determine South Sudan's success or failure at statehood. A story of transformation and of victory against the odds, this book reviews South Sudan's modern history as a contested region and assesses the political, social and security dynamics that will shape its immediate future as Africa's newest independent state.
Author: Øystein H. RolandsenPublish On: 2016-07-04
This book provides a general history of the new country, from the arrival of Turco-Egyptian explorers in Upper Nile, the turbulence of the Mahdist revolutionary period, the chaos of the 'Scramble for Africa', during which the South was prey ...
Author: Øystein H. Rolandsen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
South Sudan is the world's youngest independent country. Established in 2011 after two wars, South Sudan has since reverted to a state of devastating civil strife. This book provides a general history of the new country, from the arrival of Turco-Egyptian explorers in Upper Nile, the turbulence of the Mahdist revolutionary period, the chaos of the 'Scramble for Africa', during which the South was prey to European and African adventurers and empire builders, to the Anglo-Egyptian colonial era. Special attention is paid to the period since Sudanese independence in 1956, when Southern disaffection grew into outright war, from the 1960s to 1972, and from 1983 until the Comprehensive Peace of 2005, and to the transition to South Sudan's independence. The book concludes with coverage of events since then, which since December 2013 have assumed the character of civil war, and with insights into what the future might hold.
The book describes nation as a group of people with strong cultural ties and political identity that is both self-defined and acknowledged by others; a group of people that have exercised political and traditional control over their destinies in the fast and still see such control as possible future strategies. It explains and studies the Nuer as a Nation, not as a tribe; their roles in both Sudans. The Nuer people are known for being independent and proud people who are arguably Africa most proficient warriors. Based on kinship relations their state is characterized by a strong commitment to the dignity and freedom of the individual in the context of a society founded on strong communitarian values. From their first encounters with hostile foreign forces the Nuer have been universally known as fierce fighters who have uncompromisingly insisted on the territorial integrity of their land and the right to the unfettered expression and determination of their culture and language. It is this spirit that animated and enabled the Nuer to be the first people to argue for the implementation of federalism in Sudan in late 1940s, secession of the Southern peoples from Sudan as far back as 1980s and early 1990s for independent of the Republic of South Sudan. From those years to the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the Nuer people have consistently maintained the cause of an independence South Sudan. Thus, South Sudan in no small way owes its existence to the tenacity and sacrifice of the Nuer people. The 2013 Juba genocide on Nuer has, however, reveal that the Dinka government in South Sudan has been pursuing a policy of Dinka socio-economic domination of South Sudanese society. While Dinka ambitions in this regard were known to the Nuer even in the midst of the struggle for independence. The level of reckless hatred the Dinka displayed against the Nuer people has solidified the unspoken conviction held by the majority of Nuer that South Sudan should be divided into independent nation states. In this book the authors present arguments for and against the proposal that the Nuer should separate from South Sudan prompted by civil war and hatred bickering to form a distinctly Nuer homeland. A central to the argument in this book is a reorienting of South Sudan not as a nation, but as a region composed of over 64 nations and ethnic groups many of which inhabit clearly defined and well-known, if not, easily demarcated borders. In this important respect the volume compares South Sudan to pre-Westphalian Western Europe and argues that just as Europe was able to achieve peace largely by breaking apart empires into smaller nation-states so should South Sudan ideally be split up into its constituent lands. We maintain that the creation of a Nuer homeland will be good not only for the Nuer but that it will directly help secure the long term peace and development in the region. The proposed borders of the Nuer homeland subsume only the lands that belong to the Nuer tribes, and are, therefore, the national estate of the Nuer people. Hence the volume shows that the Nuer are not to be understood as a tribe, but the Nuer as a nation in the classical sense composed of tribes. The Nuer, therefore, satisfy all the conditions required for consideration as a nation. Having satisfied all conditions for nationhood this book advances the claim that the Nuer people are within their rights to in calling for their own nation state. The book touched the JCE and Kiir''s forces brutality beyond reach; burning the Nuer and other people alive, beheading human, feeding human on human flesh and drunk them with blood of their dead relatives. It views why the world must be ashamed of covering up crimes in South Sudan. And evaluates the effect of Dinka elders'' 200 years'' ''born to rule'' 2015 master plan and their leaders'' rhetoric statements in rejection of peace with non-Dinka provoking wider possible resistance against the Dinka Domination and possible breaks.
Author: Luka Biong Deng KuolPublish On: 2018-11-29
Today the conflict continues unabated and the humanitarian situation grows ever more urgent. This book analyses the crisis and some of its contributing factors.
Author: Luka Biong Deng Kuol
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
South Sudan, the world's youngest country, has experienced a rocky start to its life as an independent nation. Less than three years after gaining independence in 2011 following a violent liberation war, the country slid back into conflict. In the wake of infighting within the ruling Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM), violence erupted in South Sudan's capital, Juba, in December 2013. The conflict pitted President Salva Kiir's predominantly Dinka presidential guard against Nuer fighters loyal to the former Vice President Riek Machar. As fighting spread across the country, it has taken on an increasingly ethnic nature. Ceasefires have been agreed, but there have been repeated violations by all sides. Today the conflict continues unabated and the humanitarian situation grows ever more urgent. This book analyses the crisis and some of its contributing factors. The contributors have worked on South Sudan for a number of years and bring a wealth of knowledge and different perspectives to this discussion. Providing the most comprehensive analysis yet of South Sudan's social and political history, post-independence governance systems and the current challenges for development, this book will be essential reading for all those interested in the continuing struggle for peace in South Sudan.
Author: Jada Pasquale YengkopiongPublish On: 2019-01-24
The Terrorists Within shares an interesting yet frightening look at terrorism while revealing the truths about South Sudan’s tribal politics.
Author: Jada Pasquale Yengkopiong
Publisher: Balboa Press
Most people in the region and of the world do not know of or understand South Sudan’s tribal politics. Worse still, many of them do not realize that terrorism continues to be a major challenge within the borders of this country with a population of just over twelve million and growing. In a fascinating narrative, Jada Pasquale Yengkopiong provides a historical perspective on the genocide occurring at the hands of terrorists in an often-hidden region of the world. Throughout his presentation interspersed with facts and perspectives, Yengkopiong explains the actions of Salva Kiir and his tribal regime in December 2013 and again in July 2016 during brutal tribal wars in Juba and other parts of Sudan; reveals the hidden reasons for signing peace agreements in August 2015 and then dishonoring them in September 2018; and uncovers the intentions of the Dinka tribal regime to dominate every aspect of South Sudan. By documenting the acts of the tribal leadership, Yengkopiong shines a light on a region of suffering that needs attention and care from the rest of the world if it is going to survive. The Terrorists Within shares an interesting yet frightening look at terrorism while revealing the truths about South Sudan’s tribal politics.
"Jonglei state's combustible mix of armed political opposition, violent ethnic militias and dysfunctional political system were part of the tinder that led to the eruption of the civil war in South Sudan in late December 2013.
on 15 December 2013 fighting engulfed capital city of south sudan,the fighting occurred as result to the political misunderstanding between south Sudan president Salva Kiir Miyardit and his former vice president Dr.Riek Machar Dhorgon.More ...
Sudan people liberation army /movement (SPLM/A) is a military and political wing of south sudan. It has experienced many split started from 1983 when it was founded up to arusha agreement.it's split killed thousands of lives, here is root causes of south sudan's civil war
Author: Jada Pasquale YengkopiongPublish On: 2016-05-13
The Golgotha is the most up-to-date book written with the tone of bare truth that most people do not know. The book reveals the intentions and the effects of the SPLA/M Dinka-dominated tribal regime in South Sudan.
Author: Jada Pasquale Yengkopiong
Publisher: Xlibris Corporation
The Golgotha is the most up-to-date book written with the tone of bare truth that most people do not know. The book reveals the intentions and the effects of the SPLA/M Dinka-dominated tribal regime in South Sudan. This tribal leadership is different from all forms of leaderships that are known today. This tribal leadership is completely based on what Salva Kiir Mayardit and his godfathers, the Jieng (Dinka) Council of Elders think is right for South Sudan. In the SPLA/M Dinka-dominated tribal regime, the leader is surrounded by his tribesmen and everything is based on the tribal doctrine. As a result, South Sudan is no longer governed as a country but a tribal village. This tribal leadership caused the 15 December 2013 killing of the Nuer people in Juba and other parts of the country. The book also reveals that the SPLA/M tribal leadership has aided its tribesmen with the necessary machinery to kill people from the other tribes. Most of these tribal killings have headed to rape of women and young girls, torture and looting of innocent people. Because of this tribal leadership, there is no more freedom in South Sudan. Because of this tribal leadership and the need for tribal domination, the people of South Sudan have been driven onto a crossroad of narcissism and tribalism. There is no more liberty or security for everyone but tribal despotism, fear, and mistrust.
The South Sudan Skills Story is an account about manpower and education development in South Sudan, a narrative that includes efforts exerted in attainment of the much-needed workforce for fuelling the countrys economy, now fatally impacted ...
Author: Lawrence M. Tombe
The South Sudan Skills Story is an account about manpower and education development in South Sudan, a narrative that includes efforts exerted in attainment of the much-needed workforce for fuelling the countrys economy, now fatally impacted by the ongoing internal strife. Prior to escalation of the armed conflict that broke out in December 2013, hardly four years after the country gained its sovereignty on July 9, 2011, the new nation was on course in setting up its new education system and basis of sustainable human development, now shattered by the vicious war. The conflict has eroded the countrys human potential through loss of life, skills wastage, and extreme brutalities perpetrated against citizens by the war drivers. The education quandary is compounded by displacement of over 3 million people from their homes and localities, a dire situation that has caused severe food insecurity affecting over 7.5 million people. With over 2 million children forced out of school, particularly in the most conflict-affected regions of South Sudan including over 1.4 million forced out of the country as refugees to neighbouring countries, it means that one in every three children in the country is out of school. The scale and magnitude of the unending human dispersal has severely curtailed South Sudans ability to provide education to all its citizens. The once-adopted slogan of bringing education to all in the country is now a far cry as the new nation heads to total collapse, if the conflict is not halted. The South Sudan Skills Story urges the leaders of South Sudan, who are proponents of the conflict, to rise above self-serving political cleavages to stop the war for peace so that all the citizens are availed the opportunity to realize their fullest potential for development of the country. The narrative concludes that the people of this young nation will remain one of the most undereducated populations in the world as long as the legacy of war, violence and impunity prevails in the country
He John Garang appointed himself as chief prosecutor, he executed many army officers for many years. The 15/12 war in south Sudan last years, I just recalled what we discussed with elders than I have starting writing this book.
Publisher: Balboa Press
Category: Political Science
The dreams has come in the final stage, when I was a little boy in the years of struggling many soldiers, many juniors, senior military offices and politicians approached me to write a book. I wonder why they approached me and there were many kids? The war will take long time, says officers, we would not be alive, and we are going to the war or frontline is a matter of death or life. When we gone, you will write a book, for cost of our lives, our memories and celebrations of lives because we have brought independence of south Sudan through our dear blood. They just told me, you are young boy; you have suffered with us as child soldier you will make it to a better school, you will become professional man and next leader in south Sudan. And many authors didnt articulated how John Garang mistreated some clans, tribe in SPLA/SPLM than he gone far to retained some politicians for longer time and executed military officers. It was voluntary job, you cant exploit soldiers that doing voluntary job, and it is unacceptable in modern era. The John Garang was not elected through democracy channel; he came through coup attempts and starting lock up his bosses. He John Garang appointed himself as chief prosecutor, he executed many army officers for many years. The 15/12 war in south Sudan last years, I just recalled what we discussed with elders than I have starting writing this book. However, John Garang, s wife she a masterminded of all human atrocities in both 1980s and 2013 of fuelling up the war that took lives of innocent civilians in south Sudan.
By foregrounding the relationship between the crises of the state and the politics of ethnicity in South Sudan, the book explores new potentialities in finding an alternative pathway redirect and unleash the creative energies and capacities ...
Author: Amir Idris
Category: Political Science
South Sudan: Post-Independence Dilemmas is an interdisciplinary collection of essays which engages with the failure of the newest African State to transition itself successfully to a state and nation after its independence in July 2011. The contributors explore the prospects for new modes of politics capable of simultaneously healing and reconciling the divided communities while moving the country beyond divisive ethnic identities. As they focus on the political, historical, legal, or cultural challenges presented in the process of state formation, the chapters situate South Sudan’s dilemma in its history of political elitism and gender violence, and the role of international actors in order to examine the effects of these factors and the national mechanisms which have attempted to address them. By foregrounding the relationship between the crises of the state and the politics of ethnicity in South Sudan, the book explores new potentialities in finding an alternative pathway redirect and unleash the creative energies and capacities of the peoples in South Sudan for meaningful social and economic development. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of African Politics and State Building.
Such issues are common in post-conflict states, and the book therefore acts as a case study for better understanding the deeply entrenched causes of instability and identifying the most sustainable paths to peace.
Author: Nyambura Wambugu
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Category: Political Science
Just eight years after the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) and two years after gaining independence, the world's newest nation state descended once more into violence and civil war. Why have policies of liberal peacebuilding failed to bring lasting stability to the region? And what now for South Sudan? Nyambura Wambugu, an academic with more than ten years' practical advisory and policymaking experience, adopts a holistic and multi-thematic approach to answer these crucial questions. Rooting her analysis as deeply as the initial militarisation of Sudan in the 1950s, Wambugu considers the complex and overlapping issues that have afflicted the region since 2005. In the process, Wambugu demonstrates the failure of the billions of dollars spent on liberal peacebuilding and elucidates the possibility of demilitarisation as a lasting and sustainable alternative. Such issues are common in post-conflict states, and the book therefore acts as a case study for better understanding the deeply entrenched causes of instability and identifying the most sustainable paths to peace. This meticulously researched account is essential reading for all students, researchers and policymakers working on post-conflict societies.
Author: Dorina Marlen HellerPublish On: 2020-01-27
Seminar paper from the year 2018 in the subject Orientalism / Sinology - Chinese / China, grade: 1.7, University of Heidelberg (Institut für Sinologie), course: Chinesische Außenpolitik (1918-2018), language: English, abstract: In this ...
Author: Dorina Marlen Heller
Publisher: GRIN Verlag
Category: Foreign Language Study
Seminar paper from the year 2018 in the subject Orientalism / Sinology - Chinese / China, grade: 1.7, University of Heidelberg (Institut für Sinologie), course: Chinesische Außenpolitik (1918-2018), language: English, abstract: In this paper, China’s history of evolving involvement in Sudan and South Sudan and its role as a stakeholder throughout periods of conflict and civil war will be explored. China’s foreign policy actions in South Sudan, its motivations and limitations will also be analysed. In conclusion, it will be attempted to situate the case of South Sudan in China’s wider foreign policy. China’s engagement in Africa is often harshly criticised by Western media and seen as exploitative and neo-colonialist. Undoubtedly the impact of Chinese involvement in Africa has been both positive (investments in infrastructure, new jobs, economic growth) and negative (legitimising autocratic regimes, monopolisation of resources, unequal partnerships). South Sudan is a particularly interesting case study because it has been used as a “testing ground for China’s proactive diplomacy”. South Sudan is simultaneously the world’s youngest and most fragile state. Most Western countries consider Sudan and by extension South Sudan to be – “an aid recipient, an abuser of human rights, and a former colony of Egypt and Great Britain.”. However South Sudan is rich in terms of its oil reserves. This has both been a blessing and a curse for the young nation: On the one hand almost all of the country’s revenues stem from oil production, on the other hand it meant that South Sudan invested disproportionally in the securement of its oil resources, but not in education, public health or infrastructure. This in turn has led to an unparalleled dependence on oil: “There is no oil-exporting country in the world so dependent on this one commodity for its revenue” (Medani 2013:28). Oil is also what originally brought China to Sudan and then South Sudan. The economical dimension can’t be separated from the political here, in South Sudan we find a “striking coexistence of actual political and aspirational economic relations” (Large 2014:41). This interwovenness of political and economic interests has proven to be an increasing challenge for China’s traditional policy of non-interference (bùgānshè zhèngcè不干涉政策). In the last few years “South Sudan has been the site of an evolving, experimental and more proactive Chinese political and security engagement.”.
Get the information you need--fast! This all-embracing guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces what you want to know about Sudan.
Author: Ann Wyatt
Publisher: Emereo Publishing
A fresh Sudan approach. Sudan (Arabic: as-Sudan i/su daen/ either /su d n/;), formally the Republic of the Sudan (Arabic: Jumh r yat as-S d n) and occasionally named North Sudan, is a region in North Africa, bound by Egypt to the North, the Red Sea, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the East, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the sou'-west, Chad to the west and Libya to the nor'-west. Internally, the Nile break splits the region in to eastern and Western halves. The faith of the overpowering major part of the populace this day is Islam. There has never been a Sudan Guide like this. It contains 328 answers, much more than you can imagine; comprehensive answers and extensive details and references, with insights that have never before been offered in print. Get the information you need--fast This all-embracing guide offers a thorough view of key knowledge and detailed insight. This Guide introduces what you want to know about Sudan. A quick look inside of some of the subjects covered: Madhusudan Mistry - Congress Working Committee, 2013 South Sudanese coup d'etat attempt - Background, Ages of consent in Africa - South Sudan, List of environmental degree-granting institutions - Sudan, South Sudan Liberation Movement - 2013 amnesty and activity, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan - Evolution of the condominium, President of Sudan - Titles of the head of state, Sudanic languages - Scope, Education in South Sudan - Vocational schooling, Madhus dana Sarasvat - Quotes on Madhusudana Saraswati, Sudan-SRF conflict - Emigration, History of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, South Sudanese Civil War - Fall of Bor, Sudan Liberation Movement/Army - Other smaller splinter groups, Ethnic violence in South Sudan (2011-present) - June 2011, Pornography by region - Sudan, South Sudan - Developing state capacity, Foreign relations of Iraq - Sudan, Douglas Haig - Sudan War, 1898, Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery - South Sudan, and much more..
Often considered remote and isolated from the rest of Africa, and usually associated with the violence of slavery and civil war, South Sudan has been an arena for a complex mixing of peoples, languages, and beliefs.
Author: Douglas H. Johnson
Publisher: Ohio University Press
Africa’s newest nation has a long history. Often considered remote and isolated from the rest of Africa, and usually associated with the violence of slavery and civil war, South Sudan has been an arena for a complex mixing of peoples, languages, and beliefs. The nation’s diversity is both its strength and a challenge as its people attempt to overcome the legacy of decades of war to build a new economic, political, and national future. Most recent studies of South Sudan’s history have a foreshortened sense of the past, focusing on current political issues, the recently ended civil war, or the ongoing conflicts within the country and along its border with Sudan. This brief but substantial overview of South Sudan’s longue durée, by one of the world’s foremost experts on the region, answers the need for a current, accessible book on this important country. Drawing on recent advances in the archaeology of the Nile Valley, new fieldwork as well as classic ethnography, and local and foreign archives, Johnson recovers South Sudan’s place in African history and challenges the stereotypes imposed on its peoples.
The Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants is a critical aspect of conflict prevention in countries emerging from civil war.
Author: Marial Mach Aduot
Category: Political Science
The Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of ex-combatants is a critical aspect of conflict prevention in countries emerging from civil war. It is often designed and implemented in post-war situations to contribute to broader national recovery efforts through Security Sector Reform (SSR), primarily to support the twin objectives of 'sustainable peace' and 'development'. The justification for the DDR was based on the perception that 'peace requires breaking the command-and-control structures operating over rebel fighters... thus making it more difficult for them to return to organised rebellion' (Spear, 2002, p. 141). Following the ending of the war between the Sudanese's Government and the Southern rebels - the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) in 2005 (Rolandsen, 2011), the security arrangements mandated the implementation of a DDR. According to the peace accord, the main antagonists, the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and the SPLM/A should demobilise a substantial number of their forces. The accord envisaged the DDR in South Sudan as a provisional security measure to facilitate the fundamental challenge of proportional downsizing of force, rationalisation and standardisation of ex-guerrilla forces into a national army. During implementation, the DDR in South Sudan fell short of meeting its envisaged objectives. This failure formed the basis of this project's research question: What are the factors affecting the DDR in South Sudan? The main challenge cited by this project is the conflict's context in Sudan. The war between military Islamists in the North and the radical secessionists in the South created a political situation characterised by conflicting security and political demands, which sought a military strategic balancing and conflict manipulation. In the post-war South/ern Sudan, the effort to conduct the DDR was met with hostile socio-political conditions based on an attempt to maintain the status-quo of a united Sudan versus partitionist demands. This contradiction caused a tense post-war transition, a situation 'best described as a no peace-no war environment (Munive, 2013, p. 586). Despite the importance attributed to DDR in the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the unwillingness by the SPLM/A to downsize its force, and the perils of designing and applying such a complicated process, failed the initial CPA-DDR. The SPLM/A was extremely hesitant or unwilling to downsize its forces 'due to a perception that the CPA was merely a ceasefire with the North' (Munive, 2013, p. 586). In South Sudan, however, the internal outlooks were not supportive of the DDR. The devastating civil war resulted in a humanitarian catastrophe that claimed the lives of millions and drove more away from their homes between 1983-2005. Since then, South Sudan has been undergoing a process of violence and security configurations between the different ethno-political groups. This condition makes it difficult for the Southern Sudanese to maintain the requirements for the DDR, especially the capacity to reintegrate the demobilised ex-combatants. Thus, this thesis identifies various socio-political and economic factors affecting the process of DDR in South Sudan. One of the main issues emphasised is that South Sudan emerged from war too fragile and fragmented along ethno-political lines. In this challenging situation, the DDR confronts debilitating problems. This lack of capacity means the South Sudanese state cannot meet certain functions that require centralised use of force. The main emphasis is that South Sudan emerged from war to peace, from rebellion to government, and from contested territory to statehood, in quick transition. This region has been without government or supreme authority for a long time and hence developed alternative governments. This fragmentation of authorities allowed multiple armed structures to emerge, with intersecting influences on the use of force.