This book, the outgrowth of a graduate course the authors taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was designed to fill an urgent need—the training of engineers in the production of synthetic fuels to replace dwindling ...
Author: Ronald F. Probstein
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Category: Technology & Engineering
This book, the outgrowth of a graduate course the authors taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was designed to fill an urgent need—the training of engineers in the production of synthetic fuels to replace dwindling supplies of natural ones. The authors presented synthetic fuels as a unified engineering subject, while recognizing that many of its principles are well-understood aspects of various engineering fields. The presentation begins with a review of chemical and physical fundamentals and conversion fundamentals, and proceeds to coal gasification and gas upgrading. Subsequent chapters examine liquids and clean solids produced from coal, liquids obtained from oil shale and tar sands, biomass conversion, and environmental, economic, and related aspects of synthetic fuel use. The text is directed toward beginning graduate students and advanced undergraduates in chemical and mechanical engineering, but should also appeal to students from other disciplines, including environmental, mining, petroleum, and industrial engineering, as well as chemistry. It also serves as a reference and guide for professionals.
In this book we have endeavored to present the practically available technology that can be incorporated in synthetic fuel plants to minimize water consumption and pollution.
Author: Ronald F. Probstein
Publisher: MIT Press (MA)
Category: Synthetic fuel industry
In a period when easily extractable sources of relatively clean energy are dwindling worldwide and becoming increasingly expensive, the development of new energy sources--compatible with society's existing technology--has become both an urgent national priority and an increasingly competitive commercial venture.One promising source is the manufacture of synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale. A major constraint is that the processes involved require considerable amounts of water--a once-"free" commodity that is itself becoming increasingly scarce and expensive in many areas. "Water in Synthetic Fuel Production" explores both the promise and the constraints that are involved in the large-scale synthesis of such fuels.The authors summarize the problem and the intent of their book as follows: "Plants to manufacture synthetic fuels from coal and oil shale require large quantities of fresh water and produce large quantities of dirty water. In the United States this poses a problem: much of the easily mined coal and almost all of the high-grade oil shale are in the arid West, and local and temporal water shortages sometimes occur where coal supplies are located in the East. In all regions the discharge of contaminated water is constrained by environmental considerations. In this book we have endeavored to present the practically available technology that can be incorporated in synthetic fuel plants to minimize water consumption and pollution. The book is intended to be a guide to understand the role water plays in synthetic fuel production and includes the basic concepts underlying water usage and water treatment in this context...."The book is directed to a wide audience including those responsible for planning energy development, those involved with the engineering and design of synthetic fuel plants, and students and others who desire a background in synthetic fuel production. The book is formally self-contained and all the material--encompassing the disciplines of chemical, mechanical, civil, environmental, and mining engineering--should be accessible to anyone with an undergraduate degree in engineering or the physical sciences."The book describes the various methods of producing synthetic fuels, and the technologies and costs involved in "not" using water. For alternative economic constraints and different levels of water availability, the technologies involved in minimizing the need for water, and in reusing and recycling water, are applied to the manufacture of different synthetic fuels. For a given level of fuel production, the book demonstrates how to calculate the water consumption and the residual solid wastes in various regions of the country.The authors conclude that, applying the criteria of water availability alone, a relatively high level of synthetic fuel production can be supported in the principal coal and shale regions of the United States, excepting only the most arid areas and those where water is already largely allocated.
This work provides a retrospective assessment of past attempts in this century to develop synthetic liquid fuel and applies the findings to produce reliable and pertinent data for the future.
Author: Michael Crow
Publisher: Praeger Pub Text
Direct coal liquefaction, a synthetic liquid fuel process, is one of the major developmental alternatives for meeting the anticipated fuel demands for the twenty-first century. This work provides a retrospective assessment of past attempts in this century to develop synthetic liquid fuel and applies the findings to produce reliable and pertinent data for the future. Retrospective technology assessment, a recent methodological invention, is used by the authors to analyze the past synthetic liquid fuel programs and the reasons for their failures. Bringing to bear four different perspectives--economic, technological, policy, and historical--the authors draw broad conclusions that will help guide the next development effort in the United States.