TEST ITEM BIAS STEVEN J. OSTERLIND Oakland , California , Unified School District 1. INTRODUCTION What This Monograph Is About The subject of this monograph is test item bias ; it is a discussion of appropriate statistical procedures to ...
Author: Steven J. Osterlind
Category: Social Science
A unique, practical manual for identifying and analyzing item bias in standardized tests. Osterlind discusses five strategies for detecting bias: analysis of variance, transformed item difficulties, chi square, item characteristic curve, and distractor response. He covers specific hypotheses under test for each technique, as well as the capabilities and limitations of each strategy.
As one can easily imagine, a vast and growing body of literature is devoted to this important topic. ITEM BIAS Item bias is a particularly significant topic in reviewing test items for quality because it is used by those who argue that ...
Author: Steven J. Osterlind
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Constructing test items for standardized tests of achievement, ability, and aptitude is a task of enormous importance. The interpretability of a test's scores flows directly from the quality of its items and exercises. Concomitant with score interpretability is the notion that including only carefully crafted items on a test is the primary method by which the skilled test developer reduces unwanted error variance, or errors of measurement, and thereby increases a test score's reliability. The aim of this entire book is to increase the test constructor's awareness of this source of measurement error, and then to describe methods for identifying and minimizing it during item construction and later review. Persons involved in assessment are keenly aware of the increased attention given to alternative formats for test items in recent years. Yet, in many writers' zeal to be `curriculum-relevant' or `authentic' or `realistic', the items are often developed seemingly without conscious thought to the interpretations that may be garnered from them. This book argues that the format for such alternative items and exercises also requires rigor in their construction and even offers some solutions, as one chapter is devoted to these alternative formats. This book addresses major issues in constructing test items by focusing on four ideas. First, it describes the characteristics and functions of test items. A second feature of this book is the presentation of editorial guidelines for writing test items in all of the commonly used item formats, including constructed-response formats and performance tests. A third aspect of this book is the presentation of methods for determining the quality of test items. Finally, this book presents a compendium of important issues about test items, including procedures for ordering items in a test, ethical and legal concerns over using copyrighted test items, item scoring schemes, computer-generated items and more.
Evidence of bias in an individual test item is usually investigated through an examination of the item's statistical properties in relation to the statistical properties of the other items on the same test . If a test internally behaves ...
Item bias , then , refers to the extent an item measures a set of skills differently across different populations " ( Rudner , Getson , and Knight , 1980 , p . 215 ) . Test item bias assesses bias in the absence of an external criterion ...
techniques for detecting biased items . ( a ) It is conceptually straightforward : It simply tests whether different groups interact with a set of test items in the same way . ( b ) By defining test - item bias in terms of the group x ...
Cognitive tests are biased because they have been developed to mirror middle-class, white values and experiences. ... It is sometimes argued that certain types of test items are biased against particular groups.
Author: George Domino
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book is an introductory text to the field of psychological testing primarily suitable for undergraduate students in psychology, education, business, and related fields. This book will also be of interest to graduate students who have not had a prior exposure to psychological testing and to professionals such as lawyers who need to consult a useful source. Psychological Testing is clearly written, well-organized, comprehensive, and replete with illustrative materials. In addition to the basic topics, the text covers in detail topics that are often neglected by other texts such as cross-cultural testing, the issue of faking tests, the impact of computers and the use of tests to assess positive behaviors such as creativity.
Moreover, in a modeling sense, no causative reasons for the observed simultaneous bias are explored by item bias studies. This article studies a form of test bias relative to an internal criterion; this kind of test bias considers the ...
Author: Paul W. Holland
Test fairness is a moral imperative for both the makers and the users of tests. This book focuses on methods for detecting test items that function differently for different groups of examinees and on using this information to improve tests. Of interest to all testing and measurement specialists, it examines modern techniques used routinely to insure test fairness. Three of these relevant to the book's contents are: * detailed reviews of test items by subject matter experts and members of the major subgroups in society (gender, ethnic, and linguistic) that will be represented in the examinee population * comparisons of the predictive validity of the test done separately for each one of the major subgroups of examinees * extensive statistical analyses of the relative performance of major subgroups of examinees on individual test items.
Items are biased “when they elicit differential meaning of their content across groups” (Byrne, 2015, p. 56). Item bias contributes to dissimilarities in the ways in which the items function in the original and the adapted test.
Author: Dragoş Iliescu
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
This book explores test adaptation, a scientific and professional activity now spanning all of the social and behavioural sciences. Adapting tests to various linguistic and cultural contexts is a critical process in today's globalized world, and requires a combination of knowledge and skills from psychometrics, cross-cultural psychology and others. This volume provides a step-by-step approach to cross-cultural test adaptation, emphatically presented as a mlange between science and practice. The volume is driven by the first-hand practical experience of the author in a large number of test adaptation projects in various cultures, and is supported by the consistent scientific body of knowledge accumulated over the last several decades on the topic. It is the first of its kind: an in-depth treatise and guide on why and how to adapt a test to a new culture in such a way as to preserve its psychometric value.
The person(s) who asserts this definition of fairness has the belief that if a test does not display item or predictive bias, then it is a fair test. Item Bias As stated above both predictive bias and item bias are aspects of ...
Author: Keena Arbuthnot
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
This book provides a refined definition of standardized educational test fairness that can be utilized in multiple contexts to better understand the experiences and perspectives of diverse groups of test takers.
Author: Educational Resources Information Center (U.S.)Publish On: 2001
TESL Test Construction JUL . 1966 Guessing ( Tests ) Test Items USE English ( Second Language ) Postings : 8,843 GC : 820 Item Bias Test Norms SN Planning , assembling , writing , editing , Item Response Theory Test Results or otherwise ...
Author: Educational Resources Information Center (U.S.)
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
The first print edition in more than 5 years contains a total of 10,773 vocabulary terms with 206 descriptors and 210 "use" references that are new to this thesaurus for locating precise terms from the controlled vocabulary used to index the ERIC database.