The Background of Ecology

The Background of Ecology

the emergence of ecology are by ecologists as amateur historians ( Coleman 1977 ; Cook 1977 ) . Cook commented on the lack of studies of the history of ecology and suggested a number of significant questions for historical studies which ...

Author: Robert P. McIntosh

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521270871

Category: Nature

Page: 383

View: 357

The Background of Ecology is a critical and up-to-date review of the origins and development of ecology, with emphasis on the major concepts and theories shared in the ecological traditions of plant and animal ecology, limnology, and oceanography. The work traces developments in each of these somewhat isolated areas and identifies, where possible, parallels or convergences among them. Dr McIntosh describes how ecology emerged as a science in the context of nineteenth-century natural history.
Categories: Nature

The Background of Ecology

The Background of Ecology

The work traces developments in each of these somewhat isolated areas and identifies, where possible, parallels or convergences among them.

Author: Robert P. McIntosh

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316583227

Category: Nature

Page:

View: 940

The Background of Ecology is a critical and up-to-date review of the origins and development of ecology, with emphasis on the major concepts and theories shared in the ecological traditions of plant and animal ecology, limnology, and oceanography. The work traces developments in each of these somewhat isolated areas and identifies, where possible, parallels or convergences among them. Dr McIntosh describes how ecology emerged as a science in the context of nineteenth-century natural histor
Categories: Nature

Silwood Circle The A History Of Ecology And The Making Of Scientific Careers In Late Twentieth century Britain

Silwood Circle  The  A History Of Ecology And The Making Of Scientific Careers In Late Twentieth century Britain

My own background in mathematics is limited so it is easy to agree with Stephen Hawking's editor who warned him that every ... But the book is aimed also at others with an interest in the history of ecology, and at those with a general ...

Author: Hannah Gay

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9781848169920

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 628

This is an original and wide-ranging account of the careers of a close-knit group of highly influential ecologists working in Britain from the late 1960s onwards. The book can also be read as a history of some recent developments in ecology. One of the group, Robert May, is a past president of the Royal Society, and the author of what many see as the most important treatise in theoretical ecology of the later twentieth century. That the group flourished was due not only to May's intellectual leadership, but also to the guiding hand of T. R. E. Southwood. Southwood ended his career as Linacre Professor of Zoology at the University of Oxford, where he also served a term as Vice-Chancellor. Earlier, as a professor and director of the Silwood Park campus of Imperial College London, he brought the group together. Since it began to coalesce at Silwood it has been named here the Silwood Circle. Southwood promoted the interests of its members with the larger aim of raising the profile of ecological and environmental science in Britain. Given public anxiety over the environment and the loss of ecosystems, his actions were well-timed.Ecology, which had been on the scientific margins in the first half of the twentieth century, came to be viewed as a science central to modern existence. The book illustrates its importance to many areas. Members of the Silwood Circle have acted as government advisors in the areas of conservation and biodiversity, resource management, pest control, food policy, genetically modified crops, sustainable agriculture, international development, defence against biological weapons, and epidemiology and infectious disease control. In recounting the science they carried out, and how they made their careers, the book reflects also on the role of the group, and the nature of scientific success.
Categories: Science

Spatializing the History of Ecology

Spatializing the History of Ecology

In this book, we will probe these two dimensions with regard to the history of ecology. Spatializing the History of Ecology Given the spatial focus of its themes and concepts, one might expect that historians of ecology have devoted ...

Author: Raf De Bont

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781351750929

Category:

Page:

View: 391

Throughout its history, the discipline of ecology has always been profoundly entangled with the history of space and place. On the one hand, ecology is a field science that has thrived on the study of concrete spatial entities, such as islands, forests or rivers. These spaces are the workplaces in which ecological phenomena are identified, observed and experimented on. They provide both epistemic opportunities and constraints that structure the agenda and the analytical sensibilities of ecological researchers. On the other hand, ecological knowledge and practices have become important resources through which spaces and places are classified, delineated, explained, experienced and managed. The impact of these activities reaches far beyond the realms of the ecological discipline. Many ecological concepts such as "biotopes," "ecosystems" and "the biosphere" have become entities that widely resonate in public life and policy making. This book explores the mutual entanglement between space and knowledge-making in the history of ecology. Its first goal is to explore to which extent a spatial perspective can shed new light on the history of ecological science. Second, it uses ecology as a critical site to gain broader insights into the history of the environment in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Via a series of case studies - discussing topics that range from ecological field stations in the early-twentieth century Caribbean over wisent breeding in Nazi Germany to computer modelling in North American deserts - the book offers a tour through the changing landscapes of modern ecology.
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The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science

This situation encouraged the further refinement and integration of ecological science toward the incorporation of human disturbance and the notion of managed ecosystems. Robert P. Mcintosh, The Background of Ecology (1985).

Author: John L. Heilbron

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195112296

Category: Science

Page: 994

View: 457

Containing 609 encyclopedic articles written by more than 200 prominent scholars, The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science presents an unparalleled history of the field invaluable to anyone with an interest in the technology, ideas, discoveries, and learned institutions that have shaped our world over the past five centuries. Focusing on the period from the Renaissance to the early twenty-first century, the articles cover all disciplines (Biology, Alchemy, Behaviorism), historical periods (the Scientific Revolution, World War II, the Cold War), concepts (Hypothesis, Space and Time, Ether), and methodologies and philosophies (Observation and Experiment, Darwinism). Coverage is international, tracing the spread of science from its traditional centers and explaining how the prevailing knowledge of non-Western societies has modified or contributed to the dominant global science as it is currently understood. Revealing the interplay between science and the wider culture, the Companion includes entries on topics such as minority groups, art, religion, and science's practical applications. One hundred biographies of the most iconic historic figures, chosen for their contributions to science and the interest of their lives, are also included. Above all The Oxford Companion to the History of Modern Science is a companion to world history: modern in coverage, generous in breadth, and cosmopolitan in scope. The volume's utility is enhanced by a thematic outline of the entire contents, a thorough system of cross-referencing, and a detailed index that enables the reader to follow a specific line of inquiry along various threads from multiple starting points. Each essay has numerous suggestions for further reading, all of which favor literature that is accessible to the general reader, and a bibliographical essay provides a general overview of the scholarship in the field. Lastly, as a contribution to the visual appeal of the Companion, over 100 black-and-white illustrations and an eight-page color section capture the eye and spark the imagination.
Categories: Science

The Ecology of Place

The Ecology of Place

Pattern and Process in Macroecology. Blackwell Science, Oxford. Golley, F. B. 1993. A History of the Ecosystem Concept in Ecology: More than the Sum of the Parts. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. Goodstein, J. R. 2007.

Author: Ian Billick

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226050447

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 259

Ecologists can spend a lifetime researching a small patch of the earth, studying the interactions between organisms and the environment, and exploring the roles those interactions play in determining distribution, abundance, and evolutionary change. With so few ecologists and so many systems to study, generalizations are essential. But how do you extrapolate knowledge about a well-studied area and apply it elsewhere? Through a range of original essays written by eminent ecologists and naturalists, The Ecology of Place explores how place-focused research yields exportable general knowledge as well as practical local knowledge, and how society can facilitate ecological understanding by investing in field sites, place-centered databases, interdisciplinary collaborations, and field-oriented education programs that emphasize natural history. This unique patchwork of case-study narratives, philosophical musings, and historical analyses is tied together with commentaries from editors Ian Billick and Mary Price that develop and synthesize common threads. The result is a unique volume rich with all-too-rare insights into how science is actually done, as told by scientists themselves.
Categories: Science

The Theory of Ecological Communities MPB 57

The Theory of Ecological Communities  MPB 57

Life-forms of phytoplankton as survival alternatives in an unstable environment. ... Untangling ecological complexity: The macroscopic perspective. ... The background and some current problems of theoretical ecology.

Author: Mark Vellend

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400883790

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 639

A plethora of different theories, models, and concepts make up the field of community ecology. Amid this vast body of work, is it possible to build one general theory of ecological communities? What other scientific areas might serve as a guiding framework? As it turns out, the core focus of community ecology—understanding patterns of diversity and composition of biological variants across space and time—is shared by evolutionary biology and its very coherent conceptual framework, population genetics theory. The Theory of Ecological Communities takes this as a starting point to pull together community ecology's various perspectives into a more unified whole. Mark Vellend builds a theory of ecological communities based on four overarching processes: selection among species, drift, dispersal, and speciation. These are analogues of the four central processes in population genetics theory—selection within species, drift, gene flow, and mutation—and together they subsume almost all of the many dozens of more specific models built to describe the dynamics of communities of interacting species. The result is a theory that allows the effects of many low-level processes, such as competition, facilitation, predation, disturbance, stress, succession, colonization, and local extinction to be understood as the underpinnings of high-level processes with widely applicable consequences for ecological communities. Reframing the numerous existing ideas in community ecology, The Theory of Ecological Communities provides a new way for thinking about biological composition and diversity.
Categories: Science

The Environment and Science

The Environment and Science

Nature's Economy: A History of Ecological Ideas, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University, 1995). The cases of Yellowstone National Park and the Kaibab deer are detailed in James A. Pritchard's Preserving Yellowstone's Natural ...

Author: Christian C. Young

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9781576079638

Category: Science

Page: 299

View: 839

Describes the relationship between the environmental sciences and society.
Categories: Science

A History of Ecology and Environmentalism in Spanish American Literature

A History of Ecology and Environmentalism in Spanish American Literature

Canon With regard to the corpus of ecological texts that “should” be read, Murphy suggests that the promotion of ... to the history I aim to construct in chapters 1–7 with an eye toward both uncovering the ecology in texts where it may ...

Author: Scott M. DeVries

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781611485165

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 334

View: 264

This book traces the development of ecology and environmentalism in Spanish American literature. It provides a historical and literary context for the recent and expanding interest in reading, analyzing and especially teaching Latin America’s environmental literature.
Categories: Literary Criticism

Plant Ecology

Plant Ecology

Origins, Processes, Consequences Paul A. Keddy. McFalls, T., P.A. Keddy, D. Campbell and G. Shaffer. ... Succession and ecological theory. pp. 10–23. ... The Background of Ecology: Concept and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University ...

Author: Paul A. Keddy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781316727850

Category: Science

Page:

View: 809

Presenting a global and interdisciplinary approach to plant ecology, this much-awaited new edition of the book Plants and Vegetation integrates classical themes with the latest ideas, models, and data. Keddy draws on extensive teaching experience to bring the field to life, guiding students through essential concepts with numerous real-world examples and full-colour illustrations throughout. The chapters begin by presenting the wider picture of the origin of plants and their impact on the Earth, before exploring the search for global patterns in plants and vegetation. Chapters on resources, stress, competition, herbivory, and mutualism explore causation, and a concluding chapter on conservation addresses the concern that one-third of all plant species are at risk of extinction. The scope of this edition is broadened further by a new chapter on population ecology, along with extensive examples including South African deserts, the Guyana Highlands of South America, Himalayan forests and arctic alpine environments.
Categories: Science