The Deacons for Defense

The Deacons for Defense

In 1964 a small group of African American men in Jonesboro, Louisiana, defied the nonviolence policy of the mainstream civil rights movement and formed an armed self-defense organization--the Deacons for Defense and Justice--to protect ...

Author: Lance Hill

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807857025

Category: Political Science

Page: 363

View: 868

In 1964 a small group of African American men in Jonesboro, Louisiana, defied the nonviolence policy of the mainstream civil rights movement and formed an armed self-defense organization--the Deacons for Defense and Justice--to protect movement workers fr
Categories: Political Science

The Deacons for Defense

The Deacons for Defense

Author: Lance Edward Hill

Publisher:

ISBN: OCLC:1086610199

Category: African Americans

Page:

View: 220

Categories: African Americans

Civil Rights History from the Ground Up

Civil Rights History from the Ground Up

Lance Hill, The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 258-59. 11. Akinyele O. Umoja, "Eye for an Eye: The Role of Armed Resistance in the Mississippi ...

Author: Emilye Crosby

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 9780820338651

Category: History

Page: 508

View: 653

After decades of scholarship on the civil rights movement at the local level, the insights of bottom-up movement history remain essentially invisible in the accepted narrative of the movement and peripheral to debates on how to research, document, and teach about the movement. This collection of original works refocuses attention on this bottom-up history and compels a rethinking of what and who we think is central to the movement. The essays examine such locales as Sunflower County, Mississippi; Memphis, Tennessee; and Wilson, North Carolina; and engage such issues as nonviolence and self-defense, the implications of focusing on women in the movement, and struggles for freedom beyond voting rights and school desegregation. Events and incidents discussed range from the movement's heyday to the present and include the Poor People's Campaign mule train to Washington, D.C., the popular response to the deaths of Rosa Parks and Coretta Scott King, and political cartoons addressing Barack Obama's presidential campaign. The kinds of scholarship represented here--which draw on oral history and activist insights (along with traditional sources) and which bring the specificity of time and place into dialogue with broad themes and a national context--are crucial as we continue to foster scholarly debates, evaluate newer conceptual frameworks, and replace the superficial narrative that persists in the popular imagination.
Categories: History

The Deacons for Defense

The Deacons for Defense

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hill, Lance E. (Lance Edward), 1950– The Deacons for Defense : armed resistance and the civil rights movement/Lance Hill. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. isbn ...

Author: Lance Hill

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807863602

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 511

In 1964 a small group of African American men in Jonesboro, Louisiana, defied the nonviolence policy of the mainstream civil rights movement and formed an armed self-defense organization--the Deacons for Defense and Justice--to protect movement workers from vigilante and police violence. With their largest and most famous chapter at the center of a bloody campaign in the Ku Klux Klan stronghold of Bogalusa, Louisiana, the Deacons became a popular symbol of the growing frustration with Martin Luther King Jr.'s nonviolent strategy and a rallying point for a militant working-class movement in the South. Lance Hill offers the first detailed history of the Deacons for Defense and Justice, who grew to several hundred members and twenty-one chapters in the Deep South and led some of the most successful local campaigns in the civil rights movement. In his analysis of this important yet long-overlooked organization, Hill challenges what he calls "the myth of nonviolence--the idea that a united civil rights movement achieved its goals through nonviolent direct action led by middle-class and religious leaders. In contrast, Hill constructs a compelling historical narrative of a working-class armed self-defense movement that defied the entrenched nonviolent leadership and played a crucial role in compelling the federal government to neutralize the Klan and uphold civil rights and liberties.
Categories: Political Science

Rethinking the Black Freedom Movement

Rethinking the Black Freedom Movement

Ruth Feldstein, How It Feels to Be Free: Black Women Entertainers and the Civil Rights Movement (New York: Oxford ... 4 (2007): 320–32; Lance Edward Hill, The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement (Chapel ...

Author: Yohuru Williams

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781135980610

Category: History

Page: 142

View: 274

The African American struggle for civil rights in the twentieth century is one of the most important stories in American history. With all the information available, however, it is easy for even the most enthusiastic reader to be overwhelmed. In Rethinking the Black Freedom Movement, Yohuru Williams has synthesized the complex history of this period into a clear and compelling narrative. Considering both the Civil Rights and Black Power movements as distinct but overlapping elements of the Black Freedom struggle, Williams looks at the impact of the struggle for Black civil rights on housing, transportation, education, labor, voting rights, culture, and more, and places the activism of the 1950s and 60s within the context of a much longer tradition reaching from Reconstruction to the present day. Exploring the different strands within the movement, key figures and leaders, and its ongoing legacy, Rethinking the Black Freedom Movement is the perfect introduction for anyone seeking to understand the struggle for Black civil rights in America.
Categories: History

We Will Shoot Back

We Will Shoot Back

In We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement, Akinyele Omowale Umoja argues that armed resistance was critical to the efficacy of the southern freedom struggle and the dismantling of segregation and Black ...

Author: Akinyele Omowale Umoja

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9781479886036

Category: History

Page: 351

View: 232

"The notion that the civil rights movement in the southern United States was a nonviolent movement remains a dominant theme of civil rights memory and representation in popular culture. Yet in dozens of southern communities, Black people picked up arms to defend their leaders, communities, and lives. In particular, Black people relied on armed self-defense in communities where federal government officials failed to safeguard activists and supporters from the violence of racists and segregationists, who were often supported by local law enforcement. In We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance in the Mississippi Freedom Movement, Akinyele Omowale Umoja argues that armed resistance was critical to the efficacy of the southern freedom struggle and the dismantling of segregation and Black disenfranchisement. Intimidation and fear were central to the system of oppression in Mississippi and most of the Deep South. To overcome the system of segregation, Black people had to overcome fear to present a significant challenge to White domination. Armed self-defense was a major tool of survival in allowing some Black southern communities to maintain their integrity and existence in the face of White supremacist terror. By 1965, armed resistance, particularly self-defense, was a significant factor in the challenge of the descendants of enslaved Africans to overturning fear and intimidation and developing different political and social relationships between Black and White Mississippians. This riveting historical narrative relies upon oral history, archival material, and scholarly literature to reconstruct the use of armed resistance by Black activists and supporters in Mississippi to challenge racist terrorism, segregation, and fight for human rights and political empowerment from the early 1950s through the late 1970s."--Publisher's website.
Categories: History

The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi

The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi

The Deacons for Defense was distinguished from previous armed resistance networks in the Mississippi civil rights movement because of its paramilitary organization. Paramilitary organizations have a specific chain of command and are ...

Author: Ted Ownby

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 9781496800985

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 156

Contributions by Chris Myers Asch, Emilye Crosby, David Cunningham, Jelani Favors, Françoise N. Hamlin, Wesley Hogan, Robert Luckett, Carter Dalton Lyon, Byron D'Andra Orey, Ted Ownby, Joseph T. Reiff, Akinyele Umoja, and Michael Vinson Williams Based on new research and combining multiple scholarly approaches, these twelve essays tell new stories about the civil rights movement in the state most resistant to change. Wesley Hogan, Françoise N. Hamlin, and Michael Vinson Williams raise questions about how civil rights organizing took place. Three pairs of essays address African Americans' and whites' stories on education, religion, and the issues of violence. Jelani Favors and Robert Luckett analyze civil rights issues on the campuses of Jackson State University and the University of Mississippi. Carter Dalton Lyon and Joseph T. Reiff study people who confronted the question of how their religion related to their possible involvement in civil rights activism. By studying the Ku Klux Klan and the Deacons for Defense in Mississippi, David Cunningham and Akinyele Umoja ask who chose to use violence or to raise its possibility. The final three chapters describe some of the consequences and continuing questions raised by the civil rights movement. Byron D'Andra Orey analyzes the degree to which voting rights translated into political power for African American legislators. Chris Myers Asch studies a Freedom School that started in recent years in the Mississippi Delta. Emilye Crosby details the conflicting memories of Claiborne County residents and the parts of the civil rights movement they recall or ignore. As a group, the essays introduce numerous new characters and conundrums into civil rights scholarship, advance efforts to study African Americans and whites as interactive agents in the complex stories, and encourage historians to pull civil rights scholarship closer toward the present.
Categories: History

Black Veterans Politics and Civil Rights in Twentieth Century America

Black Veterans  Politics  and Civil Rights in Twentieth Century America

Historians have given the Deacons and the Bogalusa Voters League limited attention. Right now there is one work on the overall Deacons movement: Lance Edward Hill's The Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement ...

Author: Robert F. Jefferson, Jr.

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781498586320

Category: History

Page: 170

View: 593

This collection examines the lives of African American soldiers and the sociopolitical world they constructed upon returning to the United States. The experiences analyzed in this volume provide a useful backdrop for understanding the complex relationship between race, war, and politics in the United States throughout the twentieth century.
Categories: History

The Black Power Movement

The Black Power Movement

symbiotic relationship between protest and protection in the southern civil rights struggle, the demise of ... Thoroughly researched and well written, his Deacons for Defense: Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement makes a major ...

Author: Peniel E. Joseph

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781136773471

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 342

The Black Power Movement remains an enigma. Often misunderstood and ill-defined, this radical movement is now beginning to receive sustained and serious scholarly attention. Peniel Joseph has collected the freshest and most impressive list of contributors around to write original essays on the Black Power Movement. Taken together they provide a critical and much needed historical overview of the Black Power era. Offering important examples of undocumented histories of black liberation, this volume offers both powerful and poignant examples of 'Black Power Studies' scholarship.
Categories: History

The Young Crusaders

The Young Crusaders

Lance Hill , The Deacons for Defense : Armed Resistance and the Civil Rights Movement ( Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press , 2004 ) , quote on 65 . See also Bettye Collier - Thomas and V. P. Franklin , My Soul Is a Witness ...

Author: V. P. Franklin

Publisher: Beacon Press

ISBN: 9780807040096

Category: Social Science

Page: 328

View: 135

An authoritative history of the overlooked youth activists that spearheaded the largest protests of the Civil Rights Movement and set the blueprint for future generations of activists to follow. Some of the most iconic images of the Civil Rights Movement are those of young people engaged in social activism, such as children and teenagers in 1963 being attacked by police in Birmingham with dogs and water hoses. But their contributions have not been well documented or prioritized. The Young Crusaders is the first book dedicated to telling the story of the hundreds of thousands of children and teenagers who engaged in sit-ins, school strikes, boycotts, marches, and demonstrations in which Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. and other national civil rights leaders played little or no part. It was these young activists who joined in the largest civil rights demonstration in US history: the system-wide school boycott in New York City on February 3, 1964, where over 360,000 elementary and secondary school students went on strike and thousands attended freedom schools. Later that month, tens of thousands of children and teenagers participated in the “Freedom Day” boycotts in Boston and Chicago, also demanding “quality integrated education.” Distinguished historian V. P. Franklin illustrates how their ingenuity made these and numerous other campaigns across the country successful in bringing about the end to legalized racial discrimination. It was these unheralded young people who set the blueprint for today’s youth activists and their campaigns to address poverty, joblessness, educational inequality, and racialized violence and discrimination. Understanding the role of children and teenagers transforms how we understand the Civil Rights Movement and the broader part young people have played in shepherding social and educational progress, and it serves as a model for the youth-led “reparatory justice” campaigns seen today mounted by Black Lives Matter, March for Our Lives, and the Sunrise Movement. Highlighting the voices of the young people themselves, Franklin offers a redefining narrative, complemented by arresting archival images. The Young Crusaders reveals a radical history that both challenges and expands our understanding of the Civil Rights Movement.
Categories: Social Science